Results for: “Language Arts & Disciplines”
|Michael Lempert||Indiana University Press||ePub|
How much of what a candidate or incumbent says and does makes it through the concentric layers of media filtration to reach at least a segment or sector of the public? And in what form do the doings and sayings as they are represented by media reports advance or counter the Message intended by the occasion of those doings and sayings? Here we deal with the circulation of Message—that is, with the chains of reports of reports of reports of … happenings or events the apparent movement of which through social space-time is controlled, in our political public sphere, by the organized political press across a variety of media.
Reporting a prior event, in print journalism or elsewhere, is never merely a report, never a passive, disinterested relay of narrated event in the past to addressees in the present. It is well known that one’s personal or organizationally derived attitude toward how a prior event should or should not become newsworthy colors how we report it, and that this coloring can have consequences—“media effects” as students of communication are wont to say. Less obvious is the fact that our very sense that we can follow the principals of a reportable political event by tracking the circulation of their Message-worthy images in social space-time depends on many such events of reporting. As prior events get reported and re-reported, extended chains of interdiscursivity form, and these chains across events of reporting events that themselves report events … elaborate a network across which we feel the palpable illusion of Message-in-motion. Understanding the crystallization of Message requires that we break up this illusion, especially, as in this extraordinary example, when there are competing Messages sent through the highly reticulated institutional structure of the White House press corps and its sponsoring press organizations.See All Chapters
|Gayle Reaves, Editor||UNT Press||ePub|
|Alf Hornborg||University Press of Colorado||ePub|
Alf Hornborg and Love Eriksen
This chapter will explore the regional context and reproduction of the Panoan ethnolinguistic family in western Amazonia. The argument is a specific case within a more general project1 aiming to build a database for correlating the geography, linguistics, material culture (e.g., ceramic styles, rock-art styles, horticultural systems, etc.), trade routes, and political projects of indigenous Amazonia over time (Eriksen 2011). We believe that correlations thus established can be used to test or at least illuminate various hypotheses on the emergence and history of specific ethnolinguistic groups. The Panoan language family provides an appropriate illustration of this more general perspective. In the area occupied by these groups, archaeological, linguistic, historical, and ethnological data jointly suggest that the sharp ethnic contrast between highland Quechua speakers and lowland Panoans for a very long time has been mediated by Arawakan groups occupying the Andean foothills and western margins of Amazonia. These sub-Andean Arawak speakers, we argue, represent the western reaches of a pan-Amazonian network of long-distance trade that once used a proto-Arawakan language as a lingua franca.2See All Chapters
|Juilee Decker||Rowman & Littlefield Publishers||ePub|
Crossroads and Intersections in the Post-Physical Archival Landscape
A Case Study at Middle Tennessee State University
Susan W. Knowles
Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) Center for Historic Preservation, Murfreesboro, TN, firstname.lastname@example.org
AbstractThis article traces the development of Southern Places, an online digital collection developed by Middle Tennessee State University’s Center for Historic Preservation (CHP) and the James E. Walker Library for the purpose of creating a digital presence for the Center’s work over the past thirty years. After outlining previous digitization projects undertaken by the CHP in partnership with the Walker Library and other institutions, attention is paid to the technical decisions made in terms of the selection of a content management system and Web hosting, metadata protocols, and the place of shared authority in the contemporary, post-physical archival landscape. The article also describes recent digitization and access efforts at Middle Tennessee State University and partnerships with other universities, libraries, and archives across the state.See All Chapters
|Richard E Ferdig||Solution Tree Press||ePub|
Writing is usually perceived as a solitary activity. However, more and more teachers are recognizing that writing is often a collaborative venture that contains significant benefits for students. Kenneth Bruffee (1973, 1984) is credited with developing collaborative writing instruction as a pedagogical practice. From a theoretical perspective, this adheres to a sociocultural view of literacy in which reading and writing are social and cultural practices (Schultz, 1997).
Collaborative writing can encompass a range of formats. Usually, it means students are composing and crafting a piece of writing in pairs or groups. Students work together from the initial brainstorming to submitting a final piece of writing (Kittle & Hicks, 2009). Research finds that collaborative writing can be very beneficial for students (Rish & Caton, 2011; Schultz, 1997). Collaborative peer groups can serve as scaffolds for students when learning specific writing strategies or when providing constructive responses (Graham et al., 2012). The National Council of Teachers of English (2008b) recommends collaboration as a means for students to develop an “understanding of voice in writing” (p. 5).See All Chapters
|Joseph Harris||Utah State University Press||ePub|
The painter’s products stand before us as though they were still alive, but if you question them, they maintain a most majestic silence. It is the same with written words; they seem to talk to you as if they were intelligent, but if you ask them anything about what they say, from a desire to be instructed, they go on telling you just the same thing forever.
The dead, thing-like text has potentials far outdistancing those of the simply spoken word.
—Walter Ong, “Writing Is a Technology That Restructures Thought”
Academic writing is often described as a kind of conversation. You read a text, you talk about it, you put down some thoughts in response, others respond to your comments, and so on. Or as the poet, novelist, philosopher, and critic Kenneth Burke once put it:
Imagine that you enter a parlor. You come late. When you arrive, others have long preceded you, and they are engaged in a heated discussion, a discussion too heated for them to pause and tell you exactly what it is about. In fact, the discussion has begun long before any of them got there, so that no one present is qualified to retrace for you all the steps that had gone on before. You listen for a while, until you decide that you have caught the tenor of the argument; then you put in your oar. Someone answers; you answer him; another comes to your defense; another aligns himself against you, to either the embarrassment or gratification of your opponent, depending on the quality of your ally’s assistance. The hour grows late, you must depart. And you do depart, with the discussion still vigorously in progress.See All Chapters
|Andrew Cowell||University Press of Colorado||ePub|
Fundamental to correct use of the Arapaho language, and to participation in the Arapaho speech community, are the many social rules governing language use, as well as the paralinguistic, kinesic, and proxemic components of communication in the language. These are not part of the “grammar” of the language narrowly conceived, and there is not space to cover them here. But it should be pointed out, for example, that Arapaho speakers use a number of characteristic gestures shared by all in the speech community. Many of these are likely shared more generally throughout the Plains Indian community, whereas others may be Arapaho specific. Certainly some are derived from Plains Indian Sign Language. Although there are less than a handful of fluent users of this language among the Northern Arapaho today (including one man who learned it because he was raised by a deaf grandfather), many speakers know at least a few signs. A highly salient gesture often commented on by Arapahos themselves is the use of pursed lips, in conjunction with a gesture of the head in the appropriate direction, for pointing; use of fingers for pointing is largely avoided.See All Chapters
|Emily Hutchinson||Saddleback Educational Publishing|
Basic Skills Practice
Proper nouns, which name specific persons, places, or things, must be capitalized.
Common nouns are not capitalized. The number of the noun (singular or plural) used as a subject determines the number of the verb used with it. It also determines the number of any pronoun that refers to it. Here are some examples:
singular noun with singular verb:
plural noun with plural verb:
singular noun (antecedent) with singular pronoun:
plural noun (antecedent) with plural pronoun:
Abigail, California, Brooklyn Bridge woman, state, bridge
Abigail wants to visit New York soon.
The two friends want to visit New York soon.
Jane lost her umbrella.
The boys bought their own tickets.
A. Write nouns or simple sentences as described below.
1. a. proper noun naming a relative: ________________________________________
b. common noun naming a relative: ______________________________________
2. a. proper noun naming a city: ___________________________________________See All Chapters
|Anne Wysocki||Utah State University Press||ePub|
Let me confess: it has been a frustrating last several years for me in my writing courses. The rapid advance of technology has meant a pedagogical dilemma for me: just what do I do in the classroom, what do I teach? Gail Hawisher and Cindy Selfe have written recently about this struggle, noting “the increasing change [in compositional media] and the increasing alienation that scholars are beginning to recognize as an outgrowth of such instability” (190). Is the essay still our central genre? Do our students do Web sites? Do we teach html? Email as a genre? Where do we go?
Well, where I wanted to go, what made the most sense to me personally, was Marcel Duchamp. Specifically, Duchamp’s Green Box (1934), the collection of personal notes (reproduced above) he made to himself while working on his Large Glass.
Here’s the more conventional textual form of the work, as published in Duchamp’s selected writings:
It’s the idea of the prose catalogue.
Text as a collection of interesting, powerful statements.See All Chapters
|Collections||Rowman & Littlefield Publishers||ePub|
Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., 119 West Summit Hill Dr., 2nd Floor, Knoxville, Tennessee 37902; email@example.com
Abstract This article presents a case study in the application of modern digital database and analytic technologies to historic archaeological museum collections and archival documents from excavations in the lower Tennessee Valley during the Great Depression. Differences in the quality and types of data collected during that period, in contrast to more modern work, have led many researchers to view these collections (and others of similar antiquity and provenience) as inadequate for new research, contributing to substantial neglect. However, these materials constitute the primary source of information about the prehistoric occupation of the lower Tennessee Valley, because that region is no longer accessible for field work. The integration of these collections and their associated documentation into modern, accessible formats is critical to enabling future research. This paper describes efforts to transform these archaeological collections and documentation into integrated relational geospatial databases, and the use of those databases to address current research questions.See All Chapters
|Paul V Kroskrity||Indiana University Press||ePub|
Charles L. Briggs
LIKE FRANZ BOAS and Edward Sapir, Dell Hymes connected linguistic anthropology with social/cultural anthropology. The terms he coined and the perspectives he advanced drew on wider anthropological perspectives, thus bringing linguistic anthropologists into larger conversations and enabling work in linguistic anthropology to gain greater visibility among colleagues with different subdisciplinary allegiances. I would argue that this is precisely the move that has long fostered new spurts of creativity within the subdiscipline and greater visibility for linguistic anthropologists. Work on performance inaugurated in the 1970s by Hymes (1981) and Richard Bauman (1977) energized not only anthropology but also linguistics, communication, and literary studies; the cross-fertilization between linguistic anthropology and folkloristics at this juncture was crucial, as has been true at other points as well. Ideologies of language (Kroskrity 2000; Schieffelin et al. 1998) suddenly transported linguistic anthropology from the relative doldrums of the 1980s to a period when new positions opened up and anthropologists came to see that linguistic anthropologists had a great deal to offer to studies on such topics as colonialism (Hanks 2010; Irvine 2001; Keane 2007), media anthropology (Spitulnik 2002), and more. A crucial feature of these points of intersection is that they did not simply “borrow” from adjacent fields but critically revised concepts in social/cultural anthropology as well as assumptions underpinning linguistic anthropology.See All Chapters
|Dee Clayton||M-Y Books Ltd||ePub|
If you have a fear of public speaking or are nervous giving presentations I want you to know its not your fault... Its the fault of your Public Speaking Monkeys or, in the visual shorthand I often use to refer to them in this book:
These little fellas are a little bit like wild animals running loose inside your mind. Theyre often out of control and therefore cause you problems. Theyre the voices in our heads; the ones responsible for last-minute presentation nerves, acute anxiety and the fear of public speaking. You know the ones dont you? They whisper or perhaps even roar discouraging and often negative remarks; the voices say familiar things like:
More often than not the monkey voices are negative internal voices that put doubt in your mind about your presenting abilities. Perhaps you find the anxiety sometimes stops you even trying to get up to speak so you miss opportunities. The result could be a missed promotion, a lost sale or just that frustrating feeling of not getting your views heard.See All Chapters
Having considered the elements of a word, and words themselves, we now come to combinations of words into a unit of speech, that is, a sentence. Sentences can consist of one word as well as many words, so what distinguishes a sentence from a word? A dictionary definition of sentence is meaningful linguistic unit, i.e. a group of words or a single word that expresses a complete thought, feeling or idea. It has been argued that a sentence must contain a verb, or an implied verb. That is based on the principle that a meaningful linguistic unit must contain an activity, even if that activity is simply being or existing. Every sentence in this book will contain a verb, or an implied verb. Happy Birthday, and Yes are sentences. Even Happy Birthday implies I wish you a Happy Birthday, and Yes implies agreement with what someone has just said.
Bhartrhari argued that the sentence was the indivisible unit of communication, expressing a unity, which individual words did not, and that it alone was real and fit for communication. Before the sentence is spoken it is already a unity, an internal unity, and after expression it is an external unity. Initially, in its conceptual stage, the sentence is called a sphota, a flash of consciousness, which expands in the mind of the speaker and is finally expressed in speech. When it is heard by the hearer there is a corresponding flash of understanding called pratibh, and the meaning is appreciated. In both instances the sentence is whole and indivisible. To explain this indivisible unity he compared a sentence with a portrait. Although it is possible to identify different colours and features in the portrait, their plurality does not affect the unity of the portrait as a whole, and that is what is appreciated by both the speaker/painter and the hearer/viewer. Wittgenstein also regarded the sentence as the basic functional unit of language, not the word. He showed that words can only be understood when they are spoken in a particular sentence in a particular situation.See All Chapters
|Anne Wysocki||Utah State University Press||ePub|
Understanding Composition as Articulation
Do we think we know what writing is?
James E. Porter, Rhetorical Ethics and Internetworked Writing 9
Almost without our realizing it, writing is changing. Over the last few decades, the fields of literature and rhetoric and composition have more or less agreed that authors are not omnipotent (except as literary devices). We are comfortable with unreliable narrative. We speak of texts as intertextual networks of citation, reference, and theft. We observe how different readers make different meanings from identical texts. We understand reading and writing subjects as ongoing, contingent constructions, never completely stable or whole. In short, we’re at ease with postmodernism.
Or so the story goes.
But while we live in a time of contradictions and contingency, we often fail to recognize these features in the worlds we live in day-to-day, in our classrooms and offices. We tend, despite all of our sophisticated theorizing, to teach writing much as we have long taught it: the creative production of original words in linear streams that some reader receives and understands.See All Chapters
|Guadalupe San Miguel Jr.||University of North Texas Press|
INCREASING ATTACKS AGAINST BILINGUAL EDUCATION
The first major strategy raised questions about the goals, effectiveness, and consequences of federal bilingual education. Its emphasis was on challenging the need for sustained native language instruction. The primary attack against bilingual education from the beginning was aimed at questioning its effectiveness. During the late 1970s, opponents began to argue that bilingual education was not effective in teaching limitedEnglish-proficient (LEP) children English or in improving their academic achievement. Opponents also called for the enactment of a new policy that would consider alternatives to primary language instruction, especially English Immersion and English as a Second Language (ESL) approaches.4 This emerging opposition was limited to a few individuals; it was not yet fully organized.
Serious opposition to bilingual education originated in 1981 with the appearance of several reports issued by the Office of Planning, Budget, and Evaluation (OPBE). This office, in response to a request by theSee All Chapters