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Medium 9780870819018

11. Usage—Non-affirmative Order

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

As seen in the chapter on verbal inflections (chapter 3), the non-affirmative order is used in negative statements and in questions. But the non-affirmative-order inflections are used in numerous other constructions besides the negative and yes/no interrogative. In this section, we look in detail at the various other uses. In most cases, a specific particle, proclitic, or preverb requires the use of the non-affirmative.

The most common use of the non-affirmative in addition to yes/no interrogation and negation is in wh- question constructions. Wh- questions are constructed using roots meaning ‘why?’, ‘how?’, ‘when?’, and so forth, in conjunction with the non-affirmative order. The question roots can occur as preverbs, in which case they occupy the same position as the negative preverb within the verb and take derivational /-i/ as with other preverbs; they can also occur as verb initials (as in examples 6 and 9). Note that the yes/no interrogative marker koo= is not used with these forms.

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Medium 9780253007452

1 Introduction: “Message” Is the Medium

Michael Lempert Indiana University Press ePub

“Message” Is the Medium

If the genius of the Clinton campaign was its disciplined focus on message—“The economy, stupid”—the Clinton transition stumbled slightly out of the gate.

Although it harnessed masterfully the new prestige of the president-elect with Clinton’s symbolic reaching out to common people during his walk on Georgia Avenue last week, it has also endured a torrent of stories about such “off message” matters as homosexuals in the military and the role of Hillary Clinton.

Washington Post, 22 November 1992

In their professional jargon, political insiders call it simply—and to many outsiders, misleadingly—“message.” It is the politician’s publicly imaginable ‘character’ presented to an electorate, with a biography and a moral profile crafted out of issues rendered of interest in the public sphere. In this book we examine the ways in which modern electoral politics in the United States revolves around contests over “message.”

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Medium 9781855755079

13. Drafting and Revising

John K. DiTiberio Karnac Books ePub


A knowledge of your personality type can suggest ways that you might best draft an essay and then revise it. First, however, we need to say something about drafting and revising. Because drafting an essay is usually the most difficult part of writing, we feel that it is important that as you are struggling to get your ideas onto paper, you write in whatever process comes most naturally. This means writing in a way that fits your personality type and draws on the strengths of your preferences.

Once you have finished a rough draft, once you have some basic ideas down on paper, you can begin to revise. Too often, writers view revision as a mechanical process of following some rather general rules—cut excess words, add some examples, check the spelling. Instead, we would like for you to think of revision literally as revisioning, or seeing again what you have already written. A revision might entail an entirely new approach—a new organizational strategy, reworking the style, or changing the central point of what you want to say. We would also like for you to think of revision as the time that you think about adapting what you have written for the specific audience that will be reading it.

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Medium 9781622500253

To the Student

Emily Hutchinson Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF



The Five Ws

The five Ws—who, what, when, where, and why—are important guidelines when you’re writing to inform. Why? These key words remind you to include all the essential facts.

A. Read this bulletin board notice. Then answer the questions that follow.


Prom Committee!

The prom committee will meet in Room 314 on Thursday, March 4, at 3:30 in the afternoon. All those interested in helping us get organized are welcome to attend.

At the first meeting, we will decide on a theme for the dance. We will also establish subcommittees for decorations, entertainment, chaperones, refreshments, and election of the king and queen and their court. Meetings will be held every Thursday at the same time and place until the last week of May.

Please doN’T sign up IF YOU CAN’T SERVE ON the committee until prom night!

1. Who is invited to come to the meeting?


2. What is on the agenda for the first meeting?


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Medium 9781908372307

Chapter 5 – Your turn to Tame your Monkeys

Dee Clayton M-Y Books Ltd ePub

Not all @(O_O)@ are bad but those causing you trouble are the ones that are a little bit wild and need taming. The aim of this process is either to get rid of all the wild monkeys or tame and train them to become supportive and helpful monkeys instead because they can be good and helpful too (you may have some of those already). Good monkeys are often quieter and dont cause trouble so youre often less aware of them as they whisper positive or neutral things in your ears.

The problem with the bad monkeys is that if you believe their disempowering mutterings youve already decided how the presentations going to go before you even start. Havent you? You THINK its going to be a disaster. Youve imagined turning up, falling over the wires, getting muddled, forgetting your words, faces like thunder and just when you think its all over you get asked that very question you know you cant answer. Youve already imagined the whole event before youve even thought about what to say!! Thats why its time to get these cheeky little monkeys under control.

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Medium 9780870819018

6. Derivation—Verb Medials and Concrete Finals

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

In this chapter, we discuss both medials and concrete finals. There are close parallels between these two morpheme classes. Many Arapaho concrete finals contain a lexical element and an abstract element that corresponds to the derivational suffixes described in chapter 5. The TA concrete final /xoh/ contains the element /xo/ ‘to convey s.o.’ and the causative /h/. The element /xo/ appears in other concrete finals such as AI /xotii/ ‘to convey s.t.’. Similarly, medials are lexical forms, which are often followed by abstract finals. Thus, complex Arapaho verb stems prototypically show an overall structure of LEXICAL INITIAL + LEXICAL “MIDDLE” + ABSTRACT FINAL.

Note, however, that the lexical element involved in a concrete final normally occurs in strict relationship with a single abstract final element—it does not freely combine with other verb finals. Thus, /xoh/ is effectively a single, fixed unit—a TA concrete final—and /xotii/ is similarly an AI concrete final (both are examples of what Valentine 2001:326 calls “binary” concrete finals). In contrast, medials freely combine with a wide range of other abstract finals, as well as with concrete finals, as for example the medial /et/ ‘ear’:

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Medium 9781442271340

Curating Biocultural Collections: A Handbook

Collections Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub
by Jan Salick, Katie Konchar, and Mark Nesbitt, editors. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. 2014. 250 pp. ISBN 978-1-84246-498-4 Reviewed by Rose Kubiatowicz, Museum Consultant & Owner of Have Gloves Will Travel, LLC; rosekubi@earthlink.net In the past I worked with seed collections, ethnographic collections and ethnobio-logical products at the Science Museum of Minnesota where I developed Oh No! Ethnobotany, a program for the safe handling and storage of potentially hazardous ethnobotanical materials. Today, I work with a number of small history museums and private collections that contain ethnographic, ethnobiological products and ethnozoological collections. Thus, with great interest, I read Curating Biocultural Collections: A Handbook. Based upon my experiences, I have concluded that this book would be a valuable addition to any professional’s shelf of resource books. This volume illuminates a world of work, tradition, insight and foresight. It is a “go-to” book for both young professionals, who can turn to Curating Biocultural Collections: A Handbook for lucid, practical advice on the essentials of effective biocultural curation, and for experienced colleagues who will find it a rich compendium to enhance and refresh their knowledge, and rethink their assumptions. See All Chapters
Medium 9781538106228

The Louisiana State Museum Music Collection Oral Histories

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Louisiana State Museum Music Collection Oral Histories

Digitization, Preservation, and Use

David Kunian

Music Curator, Louisiana State Museum, New Orleans, Louisiana, dkunian@crt.la.gov

Abstract The Louisiana State Museum, a statewide network of National Historic Landmarks, architecturally significant structures, and half a million artifacts, has a robust collection of oral histories with New Orleans jazz originators, revival figures, and other New Orleans and Louisiana musicians. This collection of oral histories consists of more than 300 interviews in the following formats: reel-to-reel and cassette tapes, digital audiotape, videotape, CD and DVD, and assorted digital file formats, such as WAV, MP3, and MP4. This article examines the range of the Music Collection, explains its value, and makes the case for digitization and preservation. Finally, the article provides examples of use in on-site exhibitions as well as online dissemination through the New Orleans Jazz Museum.

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Medium 9781622500246

The Writing Process: Developing Ideas/ Final Project: A Memorable Experience

Emily Hutchinson Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice

The Writing Process: Developing Ideas

Do you want to keep your readers interested in your ideas? Of course you do! How can you achieve your goal? First, develop your ideas so clearly that they’re easy to understand. This always involves supplying specific details, examples, or reasons.

Often it also means choosing a method of development that works well with your topic. The box below contains several good methods of development.

4 Time: describing events or steps in the order of their occurrence

4 Space: describing a city, for example, from outskirts to center or a mural from left to right

4 Increasing complexity: beginning with the simple or familiar and going on to the more complex or unfamiliar

4 Comparison and contrast: beginning with a discussion of the features of two ideas and ending by drawing a conclusion about the two

4 Support: beginning with a general statement and going on to support it with specific examples, details, and reasons

4 Climax: beginning with a specific fact or situation and continuing with more facts about the subject, ending with the most exciting moment or result

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Medium 9780253357137

Part 1. The Social Construction of Biotic Extinction

Genese Marie Sodikoff Indiana University Press ePub

Janet Chernela

In recent decades science has reached a critical juncture that calls our attention to its fundamental character and the contradictions within it. The crisis was brought about by the observation, by some scientists, that the Earth is facing a massive sixth extinction, one that may have been provoked by human activity. Reaction to this revelation has been complex; it points to some of the ways in which science is influenced by and inextricably integrated into the social fabric.

The degree to which science, as a pursuit of knowledge, is emancipated from the ideological underpinnings of society is an ongoing debate within the social and philosophical disciplines (Althusser 1971; Eagleton 1991; Giddens 1979). Theoretically, science and ideology represent two kinds of knowing, of which the first is open and the second closed. This profound difference has far-reaching implications, suggesting, among other things, that science reaches toward the unknown, whereas ideology continually reproduces itself. From the viewpoint of its proponents, science is an enterprise that not only is open to questions, but is built upon them.

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Medium 9781576754306


Jack Foster Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub
Medium 9780253019417

7 The Poetics of Language Revitalization: Text, Performance, and Change

Paul V Kroskrity Indiana University Press ePub


Gerald L. Carr and Barbra Meek

The term performance has reference to the realization of known traditional material, but the emphasis is on the constitution of a social event, quite likely with emergent properties. . . . Two latter considerations will be essential—the performance as situated in a context [and] the performance as emergent, as unfolding or arising within that context.

—Dell Hymes ([1975] 1981, 81)

COLLECTING TEXTS FROM Native American cultures has been a central part of American anthropology since its Boasian beginnings. The Americanist tradition, as this program has been called by Regna Darnell and others (see Valentine and Darnell 1999), differentiated itself from its British counterpart by emphasizing, among other things, the necessity of creating texts (Malinowski’s [1935] emphasis on collecting texts being a notable exception). This textualizing tradition targeted Native American/First Nation cultures; its adherents were urged on to “salvage ethnography” by the belief that indigenous peoples would soon succumb to the colonizing forces of the US and Canadian governments. Texts—including mythological narratives, life histories, and elicited linguistic paradigms—would provide materials for the documentation of both the culture and the language of the vanishing tribes. But it was not just for archiving the peculiarities of soon-to-be extinct cultures that texts were to be collected. (En)textualizing practices reflect the Americanists’ theoretical focus on studying language and culture together. In the first few decades of the twentieth century, Boas and his students amassed a huge number of texts, many of which would be subjected to new analytical tools by later anthropologists.

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Medium 9781855755079

12. Your Natural Style and Its Consequences

John K. DiTiberio Karnac Books ePub


The idea that individuals have a kind of natural style of communicating, a way that seems related to their personality type, is not new. Over two thousand years ago, Aristotle described how the speaker’s personality enters the speech and how that “character” in the text affects the listener’s willingness to believe or doubt the speaker. Today, writing specialists often encourage people to find their “voice” as they write. This metaphor suggests that the author, when he or she is writing well, breathes life into the text.

In this chapter, we will refer to this distinctive character or voice that enters your text as your natural style. Jung’s type theory can help you recognize how your personality is connected to the strengths of your style.

In order to explore your natural style or voice, we would like you now to write a page or two about a specific set of observations you will make. Take a notebook with you to a local park or other outdoor place, find a comfortable place to sit for ten or fifteen minutes, and take notes on what you observe. Then write a narrative describing what you noticed.

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Medium 9780874216592

Chapter 4 - Learning To Write History

Anne Beaufort Utah State University Press ePub

You get good at taking a situation that’s extremely diffuse and … infinitely variable. With so many variables you would have to write a huge linear equation to describe [it]. It’s not even linear. You get good at saying okay, really casting out what’s not relevant … reduce it to one or two or three variables so you can kind of see what’s going on … if I had to I could always say something cogent about the material … although I flapped a lot, I could always kind of reduce these big things to, you know, something.

—Tim, senior year

This comment, about history writing, was made after Tim had completed the requirements for a major in history and had started his second major in engineering. So in part, it is a reflection of his understanding of writing in history, and in part a reflection of the differences he perceived between writing in history and writing in engineering. The comment was made “off the cuff.” It is glib and cursory. And yet, there is truth to the comment as well: it represents the limited knowledge and skill Tim gained in history writing as an undergraduate and suggests the road to expertise in writing in a discipline is a long one. This chapter will reveal, in part, what the beginnings of such a process were for this writer.

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Chapter 2 - The Dilemmas of Freshman Writing

Anne Beaufort Utah State University Press ePub

Like the playwright who gives stage directions so that the reader can imagine a living, breathing experience, or the composer who begins an opus with a prelude, I begin this chapter with excerpts of field notes and other documents gathered at the site of this case study—an English department at a prestigious private university in the South. These bits and pieces, together, form a backdrop to the discussion that follows.

The heavy wood door to English, in the middle of the quad, is like all the other nondescript doors on the quad—dark brown, with the department name in white lettering. Opening the door, one’s eye is drawn to a wide, thickly-carpeted stairway with curling wrought-iron and wood railing leading to the second floor, where the department chair, his secretary, and the senior faculty have their offices.

In the first floor wood-paneled vestibule is a lighted glass case housing book jackets—those of books faculty have written. Next to the vestibule is a small anteroom that houses the faculty mailboxes, a love seat, and a coffee table. On it is a copy of The New York Times Book Review. On a Wednesday morning, between 10 and 10:30, five men and one woman pick up mail. One catches snippets of conversation: “Did you attend the meeting on language and culture… . The way she situates the relationship of language to consciousness … models for a cultural context of violence and power. ” … Beside the mailboxes is a poster announcing a poetry reading in the afternoon.

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