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Medium 9781936764976

PART VIII Assessment

Richard E Ferdig Solution Tree Press ePub



Teachers know that students need frequent opportunities to write and receive feedback; however, for many teachers, the constant demands of responding to students’ writing can become tedious and time consuming. Teachers can also become discouraged when they do not see their evaluations and assessments contributing to students’ writing development. How do teachers provide feedback and assess students’ writing in ways that lead to positive growth in writing? How do teachers develop criteria for responding to and assessing students’ writing?

Research recommends that teachers focus on specific elements of writing and provide targeted feedback (Graham et al., 2012). Kelly Gallagher’s (2006) work supports this idea. He recommends that teachers should be readers during the writing process and uses the analogy of a coach providing support throughout a game or practice. For writing instruction, this means the teacher provides feedback and suggestions throughout students’ writing process rather than solely at the end, when students submit a final draft. One way to do this is to implement teacher-led conferences at various points of the process, so that students can focus their attention on specific aspects of their writing.

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Medium 9781855755079

5. Knowing What to Say: Sensing and Intuition

John K. DiTiberio Karnac Books ePub


In order to discover how Sensing and Intuition affect your writing, we want you to write a short paragraph on a common topic that people usually find easy to write about. No one except you will have to see this paragraph. Simply put on paper some ideas without worrying about how they’re coming across. Only a few sentences, or no more than a half page, will do.

In whatever way comes most naturally to you, write a short paragraph on the following topic: “A Spring Day.”

You may have felt twinges of anxiety during the writing that reminded you of required assignments in some English composition class. Or you may have had fun with the exercise. Either way, your paragraph can help you see how Sensing and Intuition are used differently to contribute to the process of knowing or finding out what you have to say while writing.

Please note that in this chapter we will not focus so much on what you say while writing as on how you go about discovering or knowing what you want to say. What you say is a part of the finished product. Knowing or finding out what you will say is a part of your writing process.

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Medium 9781538106228

Listening to Scientists’ Stories

Juilee Decker Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Listening to Scientists’ Stories

Using the British Library’s “An Oral History of British Science” Archive

Ruth Wainman

School of History, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom, prw21@kent.ac.uk

Abstract The British Library’s “An Oral History of British Science” (OHBS) was created in 2009 to address the dearth of oral history archives in the United Kingdom dedicated to capturing the personal experiences of British scientists. This article examines the implications of using an oral history archive from the perspective of a historian of science to write about scientists’ identities during their doctoral research. The advantages of using life history interviews to explore scientists’ stories are situated within the longer historiographical trajectories of oral history and the history of science. In addition, this article reflects on the process of using a recent oral history archive that has not only allowed for an almost unprecedented access into the personal and working lives of recent scientists but also afforded a greater insight into the creation and aims of the OHBS itself.

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Medium 9780870819018

17. The Verb Phrase—Subordinate Clauses

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

Relative clauses in Arapaho are complex because they involve the use of quite different constructions, depending on the stem class of the verb involved in the relative clause. When the verb is AI or II, the relative clauses look just like independent clauses morphologically, with the exception that they are often governed by a demonstrative such as hínee, hí’in, or núhu’:

Note that in traditional narratives where independent clauses are expressed with the special narrative past tense /e’ih/ and the non-affirmative order, the distinction between AI and II independent and relative clauses is much clearer, since relative clauses in the past tense occur with /nih/, not /e’ih/:

On the other hand, relative clauses based on TA and TI stems look radically different from regular TA and TI stems, both in the contemporary spoken language and in traditional narratives. These forms are different enough to merit their own special category, and we will designate them as “dependent participles.” Alternately, one might wish to call them “conjunct participles” based on the parallel between their function in Arapaho and the function of the conjunct participle in Proto-Algonquian and many modern Algonquian languages, but the Arapaho dependent participles are not in fact derived from the PA conjunct participle; they derive rather from the PA independent order and are a recent innovation in the language (see Cowell and Moss 2002a).

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Medium 9780874215755

The Database and the Essay: Understanding Composition as Articulation

Anne Wysocki Utah State University Press ePub

Understanding Composition as Articulation

Johndan Johnson-Eilola

Do we think we know what writing is?

James E. Porter, Rhetorical Ethics and Internetworked Writing 9

Almost without our realizing it, writing is changing. Over the last few decades, the fields of literature and rhetoric and composition have more or less agreed that authors are not omnipotent (except as literary devices). We are comfortable with unreliable narrative. We speak of texts as intertextual networks of citation, reference, and theft. We observe how different readers make different meanings from identical texts. We understand reading and writing subjects as ongoing, contingent constructions, never completely stable or whole. In short, we’re at ease with postmodernism.

Or so the story goes.

But while we live in a time of contradictions and contingency, we often fail to recognize these features in the worlds we live in day-to-day, in our classrooms and offices. We tend, despite all of our sophisticated theorizing, to teach writing much as we have long taught it: the creative production of original words in linear streams that some reader receives and understands.

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Medium 9781574416367

Then the Walls Closed In

Gayle Reaves, Editor UNT Press ePub
Medium 9781622500277

Commonly Misspelled Words/ Final Project: Persuasive Essay

Elliott Quinley Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice

Commonly Misspelled Words

Educated readers are put off by misspelled words. Even a carefully reasoned article or letter lacks credibility if words are misspelled.

It’s better to be safe than sorry! All good writers keep a dictionary at hand to quickly resolve any doubts about spelling.

A. Circle the correctly spelled word in each list. Check a dictionary if you’re not sure.

1. recieve

4. curiosity

7. phisycal







2. goverment

8. label

5. exeed







3. absence

9. vegatible

6. aquire







B. Cross out two misspelled words in each sentence. Rewrite the words correctly on the lines under the sentences.

1. It isn’t neccessary to vaccum the carpet every day.


2. Roger is an excellant interpeter of old Italian manuscripts.



3. The tempature in the lawndry room must have been 100 degrees!

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Medium 9780982259269

8 - Which One Doesn't Belong?

Lindsay Carleton Marzano Research ePub

For lower elementary through high school language arts, math, science, and social studies


This game is modeled after the one played on the children's television show Sesame Street, though it is more versatile as described here. It can be played in elementary through high school classes in any of the four major subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies), and can be tailored to students who have very little knowledge of the content terms and phrases, students who are practicing and deepening their knowledge, or students who have a firm grasp of the vocabulary. The idea, as the name implies, is that students look at a group of terms or phrases and pick out the one that does not belong.


You will be splitting the class into pairs or teams, and each team will need a flag (or something to signify when they are ready to provide an answer). You will also need a chalkboard or whiteboard.

Set Up

Prepare the sets of terms or phrases beforehand, with each set consisting of three terms that share some common theme or link, and one term that “does not belong.” For example, if you choose the terms yellow, green, and blue, you would choose a fourth term that is not a color word, such as one or coin. You need between ten and thirty sets, depending on how familiar the students are with the terms and phrases you have chosen and how challenging you want the game to be.

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Medium 9781538101391

Preservation First? Re-Viewing Film Digitization

Juilee Decker Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Preservation First?

Re-Viewing Film Digitization
Lauren TiltonVisiting Assistant Professor of Digital Humanities, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA, LTilton@richmond.eduAbstractThis article addresses the politics of film digitization by arguing that we should reconsider archival and preservation “best practices” that require film restoration. Instead, it advocates for digitizing films “as is,” which, in turn, captures the film’s current materiality (i.e., fading, scratches, and other facets that reveal age, wear, and use). Using the work of Luis Vale, one of the youth filmmakers from New York City’s Lower East Side’s Young Filmmaker Foundation’s Film Club, as a case study, the article points to the importance of archiving and saving these youth films as part of a growing movement to look beyond Hollywood cultural production and preserving national moving image heritage. More broadly, this article highlights how archiving practices determine which histories are remembered and how.

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Medium 9781442265790

Access, Indexes, and Technology

Collections ePub

Erin Roussel

Scanning Manager, The Louisiana Colonial Documents Digitization Project, Louisiana State Museum, 400 Esplanade Ave, New Orleans, LA 70116; eroussel@crt.la.gov

Erin Kinchen

Reading Room Attendant, The Louisiana Historical Center, Louisiana State Museum, 400 Esplanade Ave, New Orleans, LA 70116; ekinchen@crt.la.gov

AbstractThe Louisiana State Museum’s Louisiana Historical Center holds approximately thirty thousand French Superior Council and Spanish Judicial Colonial Documents. These documents contain quotidian details about life in the colonial Atlantic, showcase the judicial and legal structure of the French and Spanish colonies, and place the colonies within the context of developing global political and economic structures. The only existing indexes of the Colonial Documents were created in the first half of the twentieth century and are incomplete. This is in large part a consequence of cultural, social and political constructions that informed the processes of conservators, translators and scholars. However, an ongoing, collaborative initiative entitled The Louisiana Colonial Documents Digitization Project (LCDDP) aims to preserve the hundreds of thousands of individual pages from these records to culminate in an online, newly-indexed, comprehensive database that will be accessible internationally and free of charge. This article demonstrates how the LCDDP, in addition to digitally preserving manuscripts, provides solutions to technical and historiographical issues presented by current indexes as well as physical limitations of the collection. This article also examines the LCDDP for its limitations vis à vis access and conservation as well as its relationship to new research based on current trends and theories in Atlantic World research.

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Medium 9781855755079


John K. DiTiberio Karnac Books ePub
Medium 9781607321996

INTRODUCTION Individual Intentionality, Social Structure, and Material Agency in Early Writing and Emerging Script Technologies

Joshua Englehardt University Press of Colorado ePub


A search for “agency” and “archaeology” in virtually any academic database will yield a vast number of books, articles, and reviews, written for the most part in the past twenty years. If, however, one adds the search term “text” or “writing,” the number of hits diminishes dramatically, and if references to modern texts and writing are removed, the result is virtually nil. Such searches measure very crudely what we archaeologists already know: agency and text have not to date been archaeological concerns (cf. Yoffee 2005, 113—30). Why should this be? After all, reading and interpreting ancient texts are an important aspect of doing archaeology in many chronological periods in both the New and Old Worlds. Indeed, it could be argued that ancient writing should have increased in prominence with the popularity of agency approaches in archaeology; after all, individual agents are frequently evident in early writing systems in a way that they are not in the archaeological record. Early texts are full of people with names doing specific things in particular places and times. These textually attested actors seem to have agency, if we use the generally accepted definition of agency as the capacity to make a difference through action (Giddens 1984, 14). This is precisely the problem, however—identifying individuals and their actions alone does not constitute the study of agency. The view that social life is the aggregation of the intentional and rational decisions of historical actors is one that agency approaches of nearly every stripe seek to abolish and overcome.

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Medium 9780874216424

5. Revising

Joseph Harris Utah State University Press ePub


FIRST DRAFT OF PAPER INADVERTENTLY BECOMES FINAL DRAFT EUGENE, OR—The first draft of an English 140 paper by University of Oregon sophomore Marty Blain ultimately became the final draft, Blain reported Monday. “I was gonna keep working on it and add a bunch of stuff about how the guy who wrote [The Great Gatsby] was affected by a lot of the stuff going on around him,” she said. “But then I was like, fuck it.” Blair said that she spent the time that would have been devoted to revision watching Friends in her dorm’s TV lounge.

The Onion, September 27, 2000

I’m dying for some action
I’m sick of sitting ’round here trying to
write this book.

—Bruce Springsteen, “Dancing in the Dark”

So far in this book I’ve offered you moves for rewriting—for making the words, ideas, words, and images of others part of your own project as a writer. In this last chapter, I propose some ways of using those moves in revising—that is, in rethinking, refining, and developing—your own work-in-progress as writer. Revising is thus a particular form of what throughout this book I’ve called rewriting; it names the work of returning to a draft of a text you’ve written in order to make your thinking in it more nuanced, precise, suggestive, and interesting.

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Medium 9780982259269

2 - Name It!

Lindsay Carleton Marzano Research ePub

For lower elementary language arts, math, science, and social studies


This game is modeled after the game Peanut Butter and Jelly in Susan L. Kassers (1995) book Inclusive Games: Movement Fun for Everyone! However, the game in that book focuses only on movement while this game focuses on vocabulary as well. It is best played with lower elementary students, and can include general vocabulary terms as well as relevant terms from any of the four main content areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies). Students will need to have been introduced to the relevant terms and phrases and have a working understanding of them.


You will need a chalkboard or whiteboard, a large bucket or basket, and pictures or illustrations of the terms you will be using. For example, if you want to use the term bear, you will need a picture or illustration of a bear. Because this game involves the use of many images, you should feel free to include your students in the process of obtaining them. Students might create illustrations themselves, or they might find them in books at home or in the classroom or on the Internet. Once students find images, they should give them to you for approval and safe keeping until game day.

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Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER TWELVE. Change, Contact, and Ethnogenesis in Northern Quechua: Structural Phylogenetic Approaches to Clause-Embedding Predicates

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Pieter Muysken

This chapter is part of a research program focused on the long-term history and development of the South American languages. It tries to study grammatical properties of these languages as potential indices of genetic relationships. Under current analyses, based on years of research and using the well-established methods of historical linguistics, over 100 language families are postulated, many of them quite small or even unaffiliated or isolated languages, the so-called isolates. This is very surprising since other continents may have only half a dozen families, even though they were settled much earlier in the course of human history. South America is the most recently settled continent. There is widespread consensus that research in the coming years will yield further insights into links among now-recognized families, but I am pursuing the exploration of possible structural relationships because structural features as clusters may be more stable and revelatory of deep-time genetic links.

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