393 Chapters
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Medium 9781622500277


Elliott Quinley Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice


The following items should always be capitalized:

• the first word in a sentence

An X-ray will be required.

• names of persons, places, streets, and organizations

Sandra Day O’Connor Paris, France

Oak Street

The United Nations

• the first word in a direct quotation “We’re hungry!” the children shouted.

• names of languages, specific school courses, documents, and important historical events

Spanish     Advanced Algebra     Emancipation Proclamation     Civil War

A. Rewrite the sentences, adding or deleting capital letters as necessary.

1. during world war II, many Citizens of Europe went hungry.


2. Have You tried the new greek restaurant on Tenth avenue?


3. Martin said, “this school doesn’t offer many History Courses.”


4. The internal Revenue service collects Federal Taxes.

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Medium 9781574411713

4: Conclusion

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF



Given that state governments are likely to experience budget deficits over the next several years while the number of ELLs continues to grow we approach this shift in policy with caution. Unless the schools receive increased resources to serve these additional ELLs, then the funds could end up being spread too thinly among schools to be effective. Thus, we believe that proper implementation of this legislation means that the Congress and the Bush Administration must close the loop by providing states the resources and technical assistance they need to provide ELLs with a quality education. In addition, they must more effectively monitor implementation of the program to ensure that the states are able to meet the ambitious goal.45


The passage of this bill means that after several decades of attacking and undermining this policy the opponents have finally succeeded in repealing bilingual education and in replacing it with an English-only one. The forces of conservatism, assimilation, and ignorance, in other words, have triumphed over pluralism and over enlightened pedagogy. Is this, then, the beginning of the end for bilingualism in the United States or is this only a temporary setback? Nobody really knows at this point. But if history is any guide, we are bound to see the clash between contending groups with competing notions of assimilation, ethnicity, empowerment, social change, and pedagogy continue and probably escalate in the years ahead. Contestation and contradiction have and will continue to shape the content of school language policies in the years to come for they are central to the policy development process. It might be appropriate here to end this history with the words of Josué M. González, one of the most important and influential advocates of bilingual education in the nation. Recently, in reflecting on the demise of federal bilingual education policy and on the federal government’s support for this policy, he noted that this temporary setback will not have a dampening effect on bilingualism or on dual language instruction. In the wake of this demise,

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Medium 9781538101391

Engaging the Materiality of the Archive in the Digital Age

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Engaging the Materiality of the Archive in the Digital Age

Mark Tebeau

Associate Professor, School of History, Philosophy, & Religious Studies, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, Mark.Tebeau@asu.edu

AbstractThis article asks how public audiences are negotiating the material world of archives and artifacts in the digital age. The digital age would seem to have diminished the physical experience of the archive and artifact, creating a world of pure information. However, the binary of virtual and physical obscures more than it explains. In recent years, digital tools have begun to reconnect public audiences to the physical world in sometimes surprising ways. This article draws examples from interpretive projects using mobile devices, crowdsourcing in museum environments, and explorations of digital audio to show how physical experiences of cities, museums, and sound have taken on greater interpretive weight and salience as a result of digital interventions. Finally, it considers the implications of such digital interventions for curatorial practice, asking how digital tools can accentuate the ways that history is both contained in and expressed through material archives and artifacts.

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Medium 9781538106235

Cruising the Library: Perversities in the Organization of Knowledge

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


Museums and Innovations

Edited by Zvjezdana Antos, Annette B. Fromm, and Viv Golding. New Castle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017. 249 pages. ISBN: 9781443812689.

Reviewed by Kirsten Belisle, Collections Manager, Dubois Museum & Wind River Historical Center, 909 W. Rams Horn St., Dubois, WY; kirsten.belisle.a@gmail.com

An aptly titled book, Museums and Innovations brings together 16 essays that unite theories with practical applications for exhibition construction as related to increasing meaning making in a globalized world. These essays discuss how demands placed on the museum field by ever-evolving societies have created the need for a new museology focused on moral activism and deeper community engagement. Each essay stresses the idea that museums must address each group of people in their communities—be they part of the majority, minority, resident, or migrant populations—through exhibitions. In addition, the constant theme of innovation and the critical approach to current museology make up for the occasional paragraph in this book overburdened by colloquial terms and jargon. Still, this book’s strength lies in the extremely detailed case studies included in each essay that provide extensive overviews of problems faced by these institutions and the ultimate solutions they created in their quest to serve their communities.

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Medium 9781538106228

Telling the Stories of Forgotten Communities

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Telling the Stories of Forgotten Communities

Oral History, Public Memory, and Black Communities in the American South

Marco Robinson

Assistant Professor of History, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, mtrobinson@pvamu.edu

Farrah Gafford Cambrice

Assistant Professor of Sociology, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, fgcambrice@pvamu.edu

Phyllis Earles

University Archivist, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, plearles@pvamu.edu

Abstract Oral histories and ethnographic interviews allow researchers to unearth and recover remarkable stories from our past. Paula Hamilton and Linda Shopes assert, “Oral history is at heart a deeply social practice connecting past and present and, at times, connecting narrative to action.” Likewise, the “authentic” voice of communities and individuals is best accessed through these methods. This article explores oral histories and ethnographic interviews conducted in the “forgotten” Jago community (located in northwestern Mississippi) and the Pontchartrain Park community (located in New Orleans, Louisiana). The analysis of the all-black Jago community, founded during Reconstruction and absorbed by a majority white municipality during the mid-1900s, brings light to historical recovery through utilizing oral history. Additionally, the connections between oral history and public history are explored through examining the local campaign led by historians and community groups to place historical markers in the original section of the Jago community. The exploration of the historically black Pontchartrain Park community recovers the voices of a neighborhood almost wiped from public memory due to Hurricane Katrina and brings light to the ways in which oral interviews help preserve local historical identity and promote public history.

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Medium 9781626567856

2 You Gotta Dream Big

Burke, Fauzia Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Without leaps of imagination, or dreaming, we lose the excitement of possibilities. Dreaming, after all, is a form of planning.
Gloria Steinem

Part of the reason I love my job is because I help authors make their dreams come true, but those dreams don’t manifest instantly. Okay, they do for some—but those are the exceptions. To become a well-known and well-established professional author you have to be ready for the long haul, so adjust your expectations and remember that building an effective brand is a marathon, not a sprint.

This work is important, but it’s not easy or quick. There may be an investment of years before you see the results you want. Or the results may look quite different from the ones you initially set out to achieve.

For now let’s just explore this territory. The next step is to think of your dreams. Have fun with this list and check all that apply:

I sell a zillion copies of my book.

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Medium 9780870819018

1. Phonology

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

Arapaho has twelve consonants, four vowels (with contrastive length), and three diphthongs (also showing contrastive length). Arapaho also has a complex pitch accent system, with a related system of vowel syncope. The pitch accent system involves underlying accent on morphemes, intermorphemic shift in pitch accent at the word level, and grammatical shifts in pitch accent related to inflectional and derivational forms such as plurals, locatives, iteratives, and participles. Finally, Arapaho has two forms of vowel harmony, with non-parallel effects and distribution.The twelve consonants, with their standard Arapaho orthographic correspondents (which will be used in this book), are:The phoneme /b/ has a voiceless allophone /p/ preconsonantally and finally. The phonemes /c/, /k/, and /t/ are normally unaspirated but are aspirated preconsonantally and finally. Aspiration of syllable-initial consonants occurs prior to syllable-final /h/ when the intervening vowel is short, as in the grammatical prefixes cih- and tih-. In this same environment, /b/ is not only aspirated but also sometimes devoiced virtually to /p/, as in héétbih’ínkúútiinoo ‘I will turn out the lights’. (Salzmann 1956a provides more detailed phonetic analyses of the behavior of the consonant phonemes.)

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Medium 9781622500277

Commonly Misspelled Words/ Final Project: Persuasive Essay

Elliott Quinley Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice

Commonly Misspelled Words

Educated readers are put off by misspelled words. Even a carefully reasoned article or letter lacks credibility if words are misspelled.

It’s better to be safe than sorry! All good writers keep a dictionary at hand to quickly resolve any doubts about spelling.

A. Circle the correctly spelled word in each list. Check a dictionary if you’re not sure.

1. recieve

4. curiosity

7. phisycal







2. goverment

8. label

5. exeed







3. absence

9. vegatible

6. aquire







B. Cross out two misspelled words in each sentence. Rewrite the words correctly on the lines under the sentences.

1. It isn’t neccessary to vaccum the carpet every day.


2. Roger is an excellant interpeter of old Italian manuscripts.



3. The tempature in the lawndry room must have been 100 degrees!

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Medium 9780253019417

4 “The Validity of Navajo Is in Its Sounds”: On Hymes, Navajo Poetry, Punning, and the Recognition of Voice

Edited by Paul V Kroskrity and Anthony Indiana University Press ePub

Anthony K. Webster

If we are to understand a fair part of linguistic change, comprehend the use of language in speech and verbal art, take account of all the varied speech play in which a competent speaker may indulge, and to which he can respond, we must study his real and lively sense of appropriate connection between sound and meaning.

—Dell Hymes (1960, 112)

WHILE DELL HYMESS (1981, 1996b, 1998, 2003) conception of ethnopoetics often seemed overly focused on recognition of structuring patterns of discourse and their hierarchical relations (e.g., lines, verses, stanzas, acts), another recurring theme in Hymes’s (1979; 1981, 65–76; 1984, 174–76; 1996a; 1998, 19–20; 2000, 299–300; 2003) ethnopoetic work was his concern with expressive or presentational features of language. This focus was most masterfully and famously taken up in his essay “How to Talk Like a Bear in Takelma” (Hymes 1979, later revised in Hymes 1981).1 But as the epigraph illustrates, a concern with expressive features was presaged by his earlier work on the “nexus between sound and meaning” in English sonnets (Hymes 1960, 111). Implicit and often explicit in this work was a critique of a linguistics discipline overly enamored with reference that ignored or erased such expressive features in linguistic descriptions (and thus promoted a monotelic view of language—see Hymes 2000, 334 and 1968, 362).

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Medium 9781523094073

10. Being More Interested

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


I chaired a meeting of a group of applicants, all strangers to me, for a volunteer leadership position. Just before the meeting began, people found places to sit around a table. They all sat in silence except for one young woman, Suzanne, who approached me in front of the class and mentioned that her uncle was at Northwestern University at the same time as me.

Well, now! She had done her homework sufficiently to have me see her as an Us. Of course, I was flattered that she took the time to get to know me and to identify a feature that was shared in her family. Now look at this list of social anxiety triggers that Suzanne broached—darn near every one of them, but she did it:

• She initiated a cold introduction (strengthened by the insider knowledge she dug up).

• She placed herself in the center of attention in front of a group of strangers.

• She was rewarded by the immediate happy response of the “authority” (me).

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Medium 9781442276147

Pen to Paper to Pixel

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Pen to Paper to Pixel

Transcribing Handwritten Letters and Diaries from the Archives of American Art

Mary Savig

Curator of Manuscripts, Archives of American Art, savigm@si.edu

Abstract The Smithsonian’s Archives of American Art holds in its collections millions of handwritten documents. Curatorial projects bring focus to the personal and historically significant qualities of these resources. This article provides an overview of two recent projects organized by the Archives of American Art: the publication Pen to Paper: Artists’ Handwritten Letters from the Smithsonian’s Archives of American Art (Princeton Architectural Press, 2016) and the 2014–2015 exhibition A Day in the Life: Artists’ Diaries from the Archives of American Art. With the Transcription Center as an entry point, the Archives expanded its presentations of primary sources to online audiences. The article discusses the primary goals of our transcription projects, specifically, enhanced interaction between people and our collections. The article also considers strategies of online communication and analysis of the projects’ outcomes.

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Medium 9781442265790

“The Most Wonderful Collection of Original Documents in the United States”

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Jenny Marie Forsythe

Graduate Student in the Department of Comparative Literature, University of California, Los Angeles, 450 Humanities Building, Los Angeles, CA 90095; jmforsythe@gmail.com

Susan Tucker

Archivist Emeritus, Newcomb Archives, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118; susannah@tulane.edu

Abstract Heloise Hulse Cruzat (1862–1931) and Laura Louise Porteous (1875– 1952) worked in New Orleans during the first half of the twentieth century to transcribe, translate, and index the Louisiana Historical Society’s (LHS) vast collection of French and Spanish colonial judicial records. This essay places the body of their work for the LHS in national perspective, describes their lives in the context of evolving roles for women in New Orleans cultural institutions, and considers the significance of their work for past and future scholars.1

A cast of men in Louisiana—leaders born and educated in the northeastern U.S. and France as well as influential native residents of the francophone and anglophone sectors of New Orleans—founded the Louisiana Historical Society (LHS) in 1836. Almost immediately, they began collecting colonial records, but it was not until the early twentieth century that they gained sustained intellectual and physical control of the documents.2

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Medium 9781442276147

Making History with Crowdsourcing

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Making History with CrowdsourcingEffie KapsalisHead of Web, New Media, and Outreach, Smithsonian Institution Archives, kapsalise@si.eduAbstract With limited staff resources, the Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) in the early 2000s embarked on a new process to reveal the stories, people, and places embedded in their collections that document the history of the Smithsonian. This article looks at the earliest initiatives of publishing item-level digital collections that set the stage for hidden stories to rise to the surface through the public’s engagement with materials in the Transcription Center. Such forms of engagement have included transcribing the SIA field books, following the SIA on various social media channels, and demonstrating interest in the “Women in Science Wednesday” campaign—all of which have enabled us to carry our message to new audiences and to enrich the information we had about our collections, something that would not have been possible with the SIA’s small staff.

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Medium 9781523094073

6. Just Say Hello, Leo

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


“I look like a serial killer.”

This is what Leo said after seeing our initial interview on video.

He was right. His immobile face, squint, and lack of expressive gesture were matched with the most minimal of verbal responses offered in a flat tone of voice. I glanced to make sure the door was partially open to the hallway.

Leo had experienced a life of social failure. Though highly educated, no one wanted to hire him at his professional level. With an Ivy League PhD, he was working at a cow-town bachelor’s-level job and had bitter stories about painful experiences, rejections, and a general lack of appreciation in the workplace. He was not on speaking terms with any family members. Enemies were plentiful; good friends and girlfriends, not so much.

He was equally frustrated in his living quarters. Indeed, that was what occasioned his appointment with me. His homeowners’ association (HOA) had voted to allow people to exercise their dogs in the grassy area right under his window. The dogs barked, the people talked, and Leo felt put upon and was seething with resentment. He had sent letters to the HOA leadership, but they apparently did nothing.

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Medium 9781935249801

Chapter 1: Releasing Responsibility: A Framework for Teaching and Learning

Nancy Frey Solution Tree Press ePub

Moving from a 20th century goal of student compliance to a 21st century goal of student competence requires an instructional model designed to accomplish this. The thinking behind the gradual release of responsibility model is that teachers must plan to move from providing students extensive support to having them rely on peer support to expecting them to function with no support. Or as Duke and Pearson (2002) suggested, teachers have to move from assuming “all the responsibility for performing a task . . . to a situation in which the students assume all of the responsibility” (p. 211). Unfortunately, in too many classrooms, releasing responsibility is unplanned, it happens too suddenly, and it results in misunderstandings and failure. Consider the classroom in which students hear a lecture and are then expected to pass a test. Or the classroom in which students are told to read texts at home and come to class prepared to discuss them. Or the classroom in which students are assigned a problem set twenty minutes after the teacher has explained how to do the problems. In each of these cases, students are expected to perform independently but are not well prepared for the task.

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