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Medium 9781936764976

PART II The Reading and Writing Connection

Richard E Ferdig Solution Tree Press ePub

PART II

The Reading and Writing Connection

Educators have long noted the complex relationship between reading and writing (Coker & Lewis, 2008; Pearson & Tierney, 1984). Obviously, there are differences: reading requires students to make “mental representations of words produced by others,” while writing necessitates that they “formulate their own thoughts” and “transcribe those mental representations into words” (Coker & Lewis, 2008, p. 233). However, there is an important interplay between the two cognitive processes. Many educators are interested in how deepening this relationship helps students grow as both readers and writers.

Professional writers point to reading as critical to their growth as writers. The importance of reading has been found to be effective for instruction as well. Two research meta-analyses (Graham & Perin, 2007c; Hillocks, 1986) support the idea that through close readings of texts, students can develop effective writing techniques. Studying quality examples allows students to read and analyze what makes a piece of writing “good.” Students can then emulate these elements in their own writing. Well-known practitioners such as Kelly Gallagher (2006) and Penny Kittle (2008) have examined the power of explicitly teaching students to deconstruct text to inform writing. They have noted that this not only teaches students about specific features of writing but allows them to create specific goals for their writing and empowers them to recognize the intentional decisions writers make.

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Medium 9781442267923

From the Editor

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

On June 17, 2014, William Holman Hunt’s Isabella and the Pot of Basil (1868) was sold at Christie’s for $4.25 million. The sales catalogue noted that the proceeds were to “benefit the Delaware Art Museum.” Such a purpose seems altruistic: who wouldn’t want the sale of a painting to benefit an art museum? A problem arises when the current owner of the painting is the museum that the painting’s sale would ultimately benefit. Specifically, the funds raised from the sale of Isabella were intended to repay $19.8 million of debt from a 2005 facilities expansion of the Delaware Art Museum and to replenish the institution’s endowment. Bringing in only a half of the estimated valuation, other works would clearly need to be sold so that the debts could be paid and cash could be shored up.

Perhaps the subject of the painting itself foretells of the museum’s own fate: Isabella, the tragic heroine of John Keats’ poem on which the painting is based, is depicted by Hunt as tending obsessively to a pot of basil that contains the remains of her beloved. Has the museum, with its handsome collections, though humble financial standing, ultimately been killed just as Lorenzo was murdered by Isabella’s brothers who sought a more stable foundation for their sibling?

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Medium 9781442267923

Analyzing the Holes in the Art of Appraising

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Anna Heineman

Independent Scholar and Appraiser, Gainesville, FL; email: anna. m. heineman@gmail. corn

Abstract    When a client hires an appraiser, he or she often assumes that the appraiser will give the correct value to the object. Yet, in the field of art appraising, when an appraiser misattributes a work of art or places an inappropriate value on an object either through malfeasance or negligence, it is the client whose pocketbook is at stake. The appraiser can be legally found at fault, but the onus is on the client to sue if the appraised value is too high or too low. This article aims to analyze the holes in the art appraisal system that can negatively affect the value placed on objects and offers recommendations of what to look for when commissioning an appraiser.

The art appraiser’s role is to provide legal documentation for the value of an object as it relates to loss, damage, liquidation, pricing, donation, or other purposes. This document, called the appraisal, assigns a value that can vary depending on the above purpose. For example, insurance companies require the assignment of a replacement value for an object; this price is found in the retail market, such as a gallery. In contrast, for purposes of selling a work of art on one’s own, the appraiser will assign a fair market value, found at auction. This is defined as the value of property based on what a knowledgeable, willing, and unpressured buyer would pay to a knowledgeable, willing, and unpressured seller in the marketplace. To assign an appropriate value an appraiser finds comparables-other objects of similar origin, sizes, or credited from the same artist-in the appropriate market from which the assigned value is derived.

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Medium 9780874216592

Chapter 5 - Switching Gears: From History Writing to Engineering

Anne Beaufort Utah State University Press ePub

I never used to have patience with techies who would turn up their noses at fuzzy classes but I’m starting to sense why they do. I’m starting to get impatient with people for going on and on about nothing.

—Tim, two years after college

The first few classes that I took, they were “weeder” classes, so they just cleaned my clock. In response, I just kind of lowered my standard and also kind of held on to history as my, “I don’t need that while I have history.” Kind of as an excuse. Something to hide behind… . Even the individually designed major was something I was hiding behind so I wouldn’t have to take classes that I was afraid of.

—Tim, senior year of college

During autumn quarter, my passion and determination united to bring me out of a slump that had roots in a three-year hiatus from technical studies. At mid-quarter, I was brought to a crisis by my growing desire to pursue advanced smart product design and by my slipping grades. After testing my passion to be certain it was genuine, I dug in my heels and got busy relearning how to learn. By the end of the quarter I turned two failing midterm grades into final exam and project grades of B+, A–and A. That quarter marked a sea change in my approach to studies that will serve me the rest of my engineering career.

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Medium 9781538106235

Assessing Library Space for Learning

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Review

Museums and Innovations

Edited by Zvjezdana Antos, Annette B. Fromm, and Viv Golding. New Castle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017. 249 pages. ISBN: 9781443812689.

Reviewed by Kirsten Belisle, Collections Manager, Dubois Museum & Wind River Historical Center, 909 W. Rams Horn St., Dubois, WY; kirsten.belisle.a@gmail.com

An aptly titled book, Museums and Innovations brings together 16 essays that unite theories with practical applications for exhibition construction as related to increasing meaning making in a globalized world. These essays discuss how demands placed on the museum field by ever-evolving societies have created the need for a new museology focused on moral activism and deeper community engagement. Each essay stresses the idea that museums must address each group of people in their communities—be they part of the majority, minority, resident, or migrant populations—through exhibitions. In addition, the constant theme of innovation and the critical approach to current museology make up for the occasional paragraph in this book overburdened by colloquial terms and jargon. Still, this book’s strength lies in the extremely detailed case studies included in each essay that provide extensive overviews of problems faced by these institutions and the ultimate solutions they created in their quest to serve their communities.

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Medium 9781626567856

12 DIY Online Book Publicity

Burke, Fauzia Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

To amplify your message and grow the reach of your brand and book you’ll need to consider publicity. If you are working with a publisher they will provide publicity support, but it’s also a good idea to consider options to augment their campaigns. There are two ways to go about getting attention in the media: One is to hire experts to help you reach the media, and the other is to do the legwork yourself. I’ll be honest: Publicity is not rocket science. If you are committed to the process, you can do it yourself. It will take you longer and you will certainly spend many hours chasing opportunities, but you’ll save money. When you hire a PR expert, you are hiring them for their time, expertise, and contacts. Unfortunately, results are not guaranteed. Trust me: That fact is as frustrating for us in the field as it is for you.

There’s another thing to consider, and this may be difficult to hear: If you are self-publishing your book, you will probably get fewer reviews than if you were published by an established publisher. This is simply the truth. I totally understand the reasons to self-publish, but it’s important to be aware of the implications of that decision on your publicity prospects. It definitely means that you’ll have to focus more time on guest blogging and interviews.

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Medium 9780870819018

5. Derivation—Verb Finals

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

Arapaho verb stems always consist of at least an initial root and a final element, the latter of which is usually abstract (in a few cases, certain verbs have a null abstract final). It is common for medial elements, and also concrete (lexical) finals, to occur as well, but discussion of these will be delayed until chapter 6. The combination of initial and final elements produces the verb stem. The initial roots contribute much of the lexical meaning to verb stems. Prototypically, they refer to either actions or states (/tew/ ‘to separate from a whole’, /be’/ ‘red’). The finals serve to indicate the stem class of the verb (AI, II, TA, TI). There are several different finals used to form each stem class, however, and the contrasting finals contribute important elements to the meaning of the stem itself, as well as licensing particular semantic categories of NPs that may serve as objects of the verb. The stems are thus best thought of as constructions whose meaning is the product of both lexical and non-lexical elements.

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Medium 9780253357137

Part 1. The Social Construction of Biotic Extinction

Edited by Genese Marie Sodikoff Indiana University Press ePub

Janet Chernela

In recent decades science has reached a critical juncture that calls our attention to its fundamental character and the contradictions within it. The crisis was brought about by the observation, by some scientists, that the Earth is facing a massive sixth extinction, one that may have been provoked by human activity. Reaction to this revelation has been complex; it points to some of the ways in which science is influenced by and inextricably integrated into the social fabric.

The degree to which science, as a pursuit of knowledge, is emancipated from the ideological underpinnings of society is an ongoing debate within the social and philosophical disciplines (Althusser 1971; Eagleton 1991; Giddens 1979). Theoretically, science and ideology represent two kinds of knowing, of which the first is open and the second closed. This profound difference has far-reaching implications, suggesting, among other things, that science reaches toward the unknown, whereas ideology continually reproduces itself. From the viewpoint of its proponents, science is an enterprise that not only is open to questions, but is built upon them.

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Medium 9781622500253

To the Student

Emily Hutchinson Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Lesson

1

The Five Ws

The five Ws—who, what, when, where, and why—are important guidelines when you’re writing to inform. Why? These key words remind you to include all the essential facts.

A. Read this bulletin board notice. Then answer the questions that follow.

Attention

Prom Committee!

The prom committee will meet in Room 314 on Thursday, March 4, at 3:30 in the afternoon. All those interested in helping us get organized are welcome to attend.

At the first meeting, we will decide on a theme for the dance. We will also establish subcommittees for decorations, entertainment, chaperones, refreshments, and election of the king and queen and their court. Meetings will be held every Thursday at the same time and place until the last week of May.

Please doN’T sign up IF YOU CAN’T SERVE ON the committee until prom night!

1. Who is invited to come to the meeting?

__________________________________________________________________________

2. What is on the agenda for the first meeting?

__________________________________________________________________________

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Medium 9780874216592

Appendix A: From Research to Practice: Some Ideas for Writing Instruction

Anne Beaufort Utah State University Press ePub

Here I briefly lay out a few of the teaching strategies I and my graduate student and collaborator, Dana Driscoll, have developed and tested in the classroom to put into practice the principles laid out in Chapter 6—principles that enable writers to become more flexible and learn writing requirements in new contexts more readily. I also draw on the excellent work of Amy Devitt, Mary Jo Reiff, and Anis Bawarshi in Scenes of Writing: Strategies for Composing with Genres (2004). And if ideas I think are mine were in fact borrowed from others but I no longer remember, I trust those individuals will let me know so that I can express gratitude and give proper acknowledgement.

TEACHING FOR TRANSFER

As I explained in Chapter 6, writers will not automatically bridge, or bring forward, appropriate writing strategies and knowledge to new writing situations unless they have an understanding of both the need to do so and a method for doing so. In other words, writers, if they want to gain expertise in multiple genres and discourse communities, have to learn to become lifelong learners. The developmental process for writers never ends.

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Medium 9780253019417

5 Discursive Discriminations in the Representation of Western Mono and Yokuts Stories: Confronting Narrative Inequality and Listening to Indigenous Voices in Central California

Edited by Paul V Kroskrity and Anthony Indiana University Press ePub

Paul V. Kroskrity

AT THE HEART of folklore’s interest in oral traditions, traditional narratives provide critical resources for the mutually dependent projects of constructing selves and creating communities. But even though all human groups seem to display a penchant for stories, most also live in a world in which it is abundantly clear that not all stories are equally valued, supported, or permitted. This “narrative inequality,” to use a concept created and championed by Dell Hymes (1996), calls attention to disparities of treatment and to disparate evaluations of stories. Oral versus literate, schooled versus unschooled, standard language versus minority language, and elaborated versus restricted code provide a sample of the dichotomies used not only in the ranking of narratives, but in the stratification of their speakers. As noted by Jan Blommaert (2009, 258), Hymes’s “democratic” and ethnographically based “political” theory of language called for students of language and discourse to use their skills not to hierarchize language users but to offer resources to communities in what Hymes (1996, 60) termed a “mediative” manner that would enable them to better understand and use their linguistic and narrative diversity:

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Medium 9781538104118

House of Lost Worlds: Dinosaurs, Dynasties, and the Story of Life on Earthby Richard Conniff

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Introduction to Metadata

Edited by Murtha Baca. 3rd edition. Los Angeles: Getty Publications, 2016. 96 pages. ISBN: 978-1-60606-479-5. Read online for free: http://www.getty.edu/publications/intrometadata/

Reviewed by Jessica Williams, Associate Collection Information Manager, Digital Department, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1000 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10028; jessica.williams@metmuseum.org

Introduction to Metadata provides an overview of metadata and examines the methods, tools, and standards for presenting digital resources on the web. The guide focuses on the function of metadata in expanding access and use of digital collections in museums, libraries, and archives. The third edition has been updated to explore the changes in metadata standards and technologies in the information field, and includes an expanded glossary of terms. The guide is available as an online resource with updates posted on the project repository site GitHub.

In the initial chapter “Setting the Stage,” Anne Gilliland provides an overview of metadata for museums, libraries, and archives. Gilliland explains the types of metadata standards, including structure, value, content, and format/technical exchange, and the purpose of standards to maintain the quality, consistency, and interoperability of metadata. She examines the types and functions of metadata, including administrative, descriptive, preservation, technical, and use. She also focuses on the role of metadata in improving access, maintaining context, and expanding use of digital resources.

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Medium 9781538106235

Museums and Innovations

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Review

Museums and Innovations

Edited by Zvjezdana Antos, Annette B. Fromm, and Viv Golding. New Castle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017. 249 pages. ISBN: 9781443812689.

Reviewed by Kirsten Belisle, Collections Manager, Dubois Museum & Wind River Historical Center, 909 W. Rams Horn St., Dubois, WY; kirsten.belisle.a@gmail.com

An aptly titled book, Museums and Innovations brings together 16 essays that unite theories with practical applications for exhibition construction as related to increasing meaning making in a globalized world. These essays discuss how demands placed on the museum field by ever-evolving societies have created the need for a new museology focused on moral activism and deeper community engagement. Each essay stresses the idea that museums must address each group of people in their communities—be they part of the majority, minority, resident, or migrant populations—through exhibitions. In addition, the constant theme of innovation and the critical approach to current museology make up for the occasional paragraph in this book overburdened by colloquial terms and jargon. Still, this book’s strength lies in the extremely detailed case studies included in each essay that provide extensive overviews of problems faced by these institutions and the ultimate solutions they created in their quest to serve their communities.

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Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER NINE. Comparative Arawak Linguistics: Notes on Reconstruction, Diffusion, and Amazonian Prehistory

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Sidney da Silva Facundes and Ana Paula B. Brandão

In this chapter we address two issues related to the historical-comparative studies of Arawak. First, we will review the Apurinã-Piro-Iñapari linguistic subgrouping hypothesis that we have previously presented (Brandão and Facundes 2007). Second, we will make an exploratory analysis of twelve lexical similarities between Arawak and Arawá languages. And third, we will present suggestions on possible implications of the answers to the first two issues for the historical development of Arawak.

In 1492 Christopher Columbus landed on an island he called San Salvador, where he met the Taíno people. It was the beginning of the end of the Taíno communities and the language they spoke. Taíno was one of the languages belonging to the genetic group proposed in 1782 by Fillipo Salvadore Gilij then called Maipuran, based on a comparison between the languages Maipure and Moxo (Noble 1965:1; Payne 1991:363; Aikhenvald 1999:73). Although Gilij used the name of the Venezuelan language Maipure to name this genetic group, Brinton (1891) and von den Steinen (1886), according to Aikhenvald (1999:73), named the same group “Arawak” after the Arawak (or Lokono) language spoken in the Guyanas.

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Medium 9781622500246

Sentence Structure

Emily Hutchinson Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice

Sentence Structure

Sentences that are varied in length, structure, and word order add interest and emphasis to writing. Study these examples of different sentence structures.

A simple sentence consists of one independent clause and no additional clauses.

A compound sentence consists of two or more independent, or main, clauses.

A complex sentence consists of one independent clause and one or more dependent, or subordinate, clauses.

A compound-complex sentence consists of at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

We went out for pizza.

We went out for pizza and they watched a movie.

Before we went out for pizza, we finished our homework.

We went out for pizza and they watched a movie as heavy rain pelted the city streets.

A. Write T or F to show whether each statement is true or false.

1. _____ All clauses contain both a subject and a verb.

2. _____ A main clause is also called a subordinate clause.

3. _____ A main clause can stand alone as a sentence.

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