414 Chapters
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Medium 9780870819018

2. Morphology—Inflection

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

Although the inflection of noun stems is less complex than that of verb stems, they still show a rich variety of processes. Noun stems can be inflected for plural, obviative, vocative, and locative (using suffixes), as well as for possession (prefixed person markers, suffixed number markers). In addition, all nouns are either animate or inanimate gender. There are no specific inflections marking gender—it is a property of the noun stems themselves. But the gender of the noun determines the exact form of many inflectional markers. For this reason, we begin by discussing gender and then proceed to discuss the inflectional morphology.Animacy and inanimacy are fundamentally grammatical categories, but there is important semantic correspondence. For example, all humans, animals, birds, and other semantically animate objects are grammatically animate as well. In addition, all celestial objects (sun, moon, star, names of constellations) are animate, as are nouns for spirits, ghosts, and so forth. And conversely, most semantically inanimate objects are grammatically inanimate. In addition, virtually all nouns formed using verbal participles are inanimate. But there are a significant number of semantically inanimate objects that are nevertheless grammatically animate. Examples include:

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Medium 9781574411713

Conclusion: Contestation and Federal Bilingual Education Policy

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF



This brief history focused on one of the most contentious and misunderstood policies in the country: federal bilingual education. It traced and explained, in bold sketches, the rise and fall of federal bilingual education policy during the years from 1960 to 2001 and the role played by the contending groups of supporters and opponents in its development.

Three major findings were presented in this book. First, this study showed that contestation, conflict, and accommodation were integral aspects of federal bilingual education policy development. From its origins in the 1960s to the present, different groups with competing notions of ethnicity, assimilation, pedagogy, and power have contended, clashed, struggled, and negotiated with each other for hegemony in the development and implementation of bilingual education. Second, contextual forces over time, especially electoral politics and a changing political climate at the national, state, and local level, significantly shaped the contours and content of this policy. Finally, those supportive of or opposed to federal bilingual education displayed a wide array of political, educational, and social reasons for their actions.

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Medium 9780749461973

3. Individuals

Comfort, Jeremy Kogan Page ePub



This chapter focuses on:


After you have met a Kazakh, Brazilian or German for the first time, it is all too easy to think that you now understand something about all Kazakhs, Brazilians or Germans and their cultures. But in fact, a persons behaviour and actions are not solely influenced by their culture but result from the interplay of three factors: culture, the person involved, and the situation they find themselves in.

So when you meet a Slovak, Senegalese or Saudi for the first time, you do not necessarily learn something about the national or ethnic culture of this person. You may simply understand something about this individual and his or her personality.

It is in fact sometimes very difficult to distinguish between which features of a persons behaviour are related to their qualities and personality and which are related to their culture. You need to gain much more experience of the culture in question, for example by spending a lot of time watching people from that culture working or playing together. Then it may be possible to decide whether the behaviour and actions you see are mainly influenced by culture or by the individual. Even then, you have to be careful not to over-generalize and assume that all members of that culture are like those you have observed. What you see may be typical only of some of its members.

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Medium 9780856832710

Chapter 3 - Basic elements of language as evident in Sanskrit

Paul Douglas Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

Over the next few chapters attention is concentrated on how languages are constituted, with particular reference to the Sanskrit language, and how this may relate to Advaita. The constituents range from alphabets, through grammatically recognised parts of words, words themselves and different types of words, relationships between words, to sentences and finally to meaning.

Modern linguistics, the study of language, addresses all these matters, grouped into three subjects, which themselves each divide into two. It may help to identify what these subjects are called. The three subjects concern sound, structure and meaning, which relate to pronunciation, grammar and semantics respectively. The study of pronunciation divides into phonetics and phonology. Phonetics is the science of speech sounds, especially of their production, transmission and reception, while phonology addresses how sounds are organised to convey words and meaning. The study of grammar divides into morphology and syntax. Morphology relates to word formation and is the study of the smallest meaningful unit of grammar, a morpheme, while syntax relates to word combination and the formation and structure of sentences. The study of semantics divides into lexicology, which addresses vocabulary, and into the analysis of text or discourse.

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Medium 9781626567856

11 Social Media and Social Networking

Burke, Fauzia Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

No matter what your pursuit, the most fulfilling part is sharing it with others.
Eli Broad

Social media allows you to have conversations with your readers, and it will be a big part of your online marketing strategy. Ages ago I wrote an article on Huffington Post called “It’s 2010: You Really Need to Be on Facebook.” As you can imagine, that was a bit controversial. In fact, Donna Fenn, author of Upstarts, wrote on her blog that judging by the response, you’d think that I had asked people to walk around naked. That was many years ago, and I can’t tell you how often I still hear authors say, “All people do on social media is discuss what they ate for breakfast.” Only people who are not on social networks say that, since for the rest of us social media has become an important way to stay connected with friends, colleagues, and readers. It is surprising that anyone could still deny the benefits of social media for marketing, but I am still having those conversations.

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Medium 9781908372307

Chapter 9 – Why is goal-setting important?

Dee Clayton M-Y Books Ltd ePub

I want to encourage you to do some thinking about what you now want to achieve from your speaking. Instead of just remaining an OK speaker do you want to grow and develop to help you to achieve greater things? Who knows, you probably dont even know yet as you havent had a chance to think about it. The next chapter gives you time to think about the future and all these things youve always wanted to do but felt held back in before. The process I take you though is very thorough and detailed for a reason I know it works! So if youve had ideas of starting a business, teaching your kids how to tame their monkeys, changing career, supporting a charity, starting a club or new hobby, becoming the in-house mentor, becoming an after dinner speaker or speaking up for those that cant be heard or anything at all then spend some time on this chapter.

Everyone says its good to set goals but most people dont - so why bother? Setting goals - and in particular excellently worded goals - provides you with the motivation to do the job even if the going isnt always easy. Goals also help you to clarify your direction and at least highlight if you arent totally clear yet on the destination - and finally goals can give you good milestones from which to keep track of your progress. The following section is written with the purpose of speaking in mind but when you apply this to other areas of life too youll see an amazing difference.

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Medium 9781523094073

10. Being More Interested

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


I chaired a meeting of a group of applicants, all strangers to me, for a volunteer leadership position. Just before the meeting began, people found places to sit around a table. They all sat in silence except for one young woman, Suzanne, who approached me in front of the class and mentioned that her uncle was at Northwestern University at the same time as me.

Well, now! She had done her homework sufficiently to have me see her as an Us. Of course, I was flattered that she took the time to get to know me and to identify a feature that was shared in her family. Now look at this list of social anxiety triggers that Suzanne broached—darn near every one of them, but she did it:

• She initiated a cold introduction (strengthened by the insider knowledge she dug up).

• She placed herself in the center of attention in front of a group of strangers.

• She was rewarded by the immediate happy response of the “authority” (me).

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Medium 9781936757114

Assessment of Metadata Processes

Brian O'Leary Book Industry Study Group ePub
Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER ONE. Introduction: Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Alf Hornborg and Jonathan D. Hill

By endowing nations, societies, or cultures with the qualities of internally homogeneous and externally distinctive and bounded objects, we create a model of the world as a global pool hall in which the entities spin off each other like so many hard and round billiard balls.


Attempts to explain the distribution of indigenous languages and ethnic groups in Amazonia since the time of European contact, whether by historians, linguists, or archaeologists, have generally been founded on an essentialist conception of ethnolinguistic groups as more or less bounded, genetically distinct populations that have reached their recent territories through migration. This perception of ethnolinguistic diversity is a phenomenon that itself deserves explanation, as it appears to draw on a Eurocentric experience of nation-building that historically has struggled to integrate territory, language, identity, and biology (cf. Jones 1997). On closer examination, the evidence in Amazonia suggests a much more fluid relation among geography, language use, ethnic identity, and genetics (Hornborg 2005). Correlations of data on the physical geography, linguistics, archaeology, and ethnohistory of Amazonia indicate that ethnolinguistic identities and boundaries have been continuously generated and transformed by shifting conditions such as economic specialization, trade routes, warfare, political alliances, and demography. To understand the emergence, expansion, and decline of cultural identities over the centuries, we thus need to consider the roles of diverse conditioning factors such as ecological diversity, migration, trade, epidemics, conquest, language shifts, marriage patterns, and cultural creativity.

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Medium 9781574416367

The Favor

Gayle Reaves, Editor UNT Press ePub
Medium 9780870819018

13. Usage—Conjunct Order

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

The conjunct order, as described briefly in chapter 2, occurs primarily in subordinate clauses that express things like the background to or consequence of the action in the main clause. In this chapter, information is presented on the various more specific uses of the conjunct order beyond the prototypical uses described earlier.

The simple conjunct verbs look exactly like the affirmative order verbs in Arapaho as far as their person and number inflectional suffixes. They are distinguished only by sets of preverbs that are limited to subordinate clauses. Many of these express temporal and/or aspectual distinctions. The primary Arapaho simple conjunct order preverbs of this type are:

All of these preverbs are used with adverbial subordinate clauses. Before presenting examples of these preverbs in clauses, we offer an overall analysis of their function, concentrating on /toh/, /tih/, and /ei’i/. The fundamental distinction between these preverbs is between /toh/ on the one hand and /tih/ and /ei’i/ on the other. The distinction is based on a judgment of the relevance of the given background event referred to by the conjunct verb for the action in the main clause, as suggested by the parenthetical remarks in the above list. /Toh/ marks maximal logical relevance or connectedness between the actions of the main and subordinate clauses and is used in cause-and-effect statements. On the other hand, /tih/ and /ei’i/ mark events that are less clearly related to or necessary for the events in the main clause where there is no clear causal connection. The distinction between /tih/ and /ei’i/ is that the former marks the imperfective aspect, whereas the latter marks the perfective aspect. Background actions occurring in the present tense seem to require /toh/ obligatorily (and thus to be relevant by default), whereas actions in the past can be marked by any of the three preverbs. Note that /tih/ often occurs with the imperfective marker /ii/, which seems initially strange given the analysis just presented of its aspectual meaning. When the imperfective marker is used, this gives one of two additional senses to the verb: a background habitual aspect or a background ongoing aspect. Examples of the different temporal/aspectual usages follow.

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Medium 9781538119976

Listening and Learning: Pacifica Radio Archives’ “American Women: 1963–1982” Digitization and Access Project

Decker, Juilee Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Listening and Learning: Pacifica Radio Archives’ “American Women: 1963–1982” Digitization and Access Project

Jolene M. Beiser

Project Archivist for the Cornell Hip Hop Collection, Cornell University Library, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Ithaca, New York, jolene.beiser@gmail.com

Holly Rose McGee

Digital Audio-Visual Assistant, Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, California, hmcgee@getty.edu

Abstract In 2016, the Pacifica Radio Archives in Los Angeles completed a two-year project in which more than 2,000 recordings of broadcasts from 1963 to 1982, produced by or about women, were digitized, recataloged, and made freely available for research and production.1 This project, titled “American Women Making History and Culture: 1963–1982,”2 demonstrated how women used the progressive, listener-supported Pacifica Radio studios and airwaves, first to communicate obstacles they faced in the 1960s due to their gender and then to spread information about the rising women’s movement and, finally, to broadcast whatever they desired. Programs ranged from historical radio dramas to experimental music performance to programs discussing issues of intersectionality (e.g., lesbian women of color facing racism and homophobia within the women’s movement). This article discusses women as both curators and creators of radio programming, the challenges of cataloging underrepresented and sometimes invisible creators and subjects, and the finished digitization and access project as an accessible and important collection where women are the subject.

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Medium 9781626567856

6 Your Priority List

Burke, Fauzia Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Only by carving out think-time and reflection can we actually understand, in an entirely different context, the actions we take.
Daniel Patrick Forrester

Most authors think of online marketing as a directive to “go start tweeting” or “go start blogging.” But as you can see from the work you have already done in the first few chapters, just tweeting without understanding why is not only frustrating, it’s also ineffective and unsustainable. Before you can dive in, you need to consider your priorities.

As you know by now, I believe in the value of developing an online brand, but it does not rule my life. I try to be strategic in my use of time and effort. Like you, I have other, more important priorities. So let’s just try to keep all of this in perspective. If you start to feel overwhelmed, take a break and reread your lists of goals and dreams for some encouragement.

Tip for #BusyAuthors

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Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER EIGHT. The Spread of the Arawakan Languages: A View from Structural Phylogenetics

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Swintha Danielsen, Michael Dunn, and Pieter Muysken

Over the last three decades the Arawakan language family has drawn increasing attention in a number of disciplines (cf. Hill and Santos-Granero 2002). The family is unique in South America in several respects. It has the widest geographical extension of a language family in the continent. Furthermore, the literature reports for many individual members of the language family considerable influence from other languages in their immediate surroundings. In this chapter we aim to accomplish four things. First, we present a first analysis of a database of structural (as opposed to lexical) features of the Arawakan languages (Dunn et al. 2008). Comparative linguistic work on Arawakan languages was generally based on lexical material, such as that by Payne (1991). Structural features have been compared, for example, by Aikhenvald (1999a), but not systematically. Second, we carry out an analysis of the structural database using isolation by distance measures. Our third objective is to present the outcomes of a statistical analysis of the distribution of the structural features, using the SplitsTree program (NeighborNet) to yield a classification of the language family. Discrepancies between the classifications on the basis of structural features and the traditional lexical features may give us insight into the role of spread as a second language, as in the case of pidgins and creoles. The data may support Hornborg’s hypothesis that the Arawakan diaspora was in part a relatively recent phenomenon and that languages did not spread successively in one big migration phase, but rather in waves (cf. Hornborg 2005:603). Finally, we survey the data on the role of contact in shaping Arawakan languages.

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Medium 9781574411713

Conclusion: Reasons for Opposing or Supporting Bilingual Education

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF



the White House and to both chambers of Congress in 2000 also became an important element in the repeal of federal bilingual education. From the beginning of his administration, President George W. Bush, elected to office in 2000, expressed his support for eliminating the federal preference for bilingual education and for supporting English-only methods for teaching LEP children. President Bush and the Republican Party also supported placing a three-year limit on bilingual education, setting performance objectives to ensure that ELLs achieve English fluency within these three years, and converting bilingual education from discretionary to block grants. President Bush’s education plan likewise called for states to be held accountable for making annual increases in English proficiency from the previous year and for them to ensure that these students met standards in core content areas that were at least as rigorous as those in classes taught in English.32

These sets of circumstances eventually led to the formulation and enactment of S. 1, the comprehensive education reform bill proposed by the Bush administration and to the repeal of the Bilingual Education Act of 1994.33

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