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Medium 9781538101391

Sparking Rural Community Dialogues with Digital Oral Histories

Juilee Decker Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Sparking Rural Community Dialogues with Digital Oral Histories

William S. Walker

Cooperstown Graduate Program, SUNY Oneonta, Cooperstown, NY, william.walker@oneonta.edu

AbstractIn the past, oral history recordings often lay inert and ignored on archival or library shelves. The digital revolution has transformed accessibility to oral histories, primarily by opening digital archives to a variety of users. Nevertheless, many audiences, particularly in rural areas, still do not engage with these digital archives. By incorporating digital oral history content into public programs, however, public historians can involve their audiences in community dialogues that connect past and present and open new avenues for engaging with challenging contemporary issues. This approach employs the dialogue methodology of the International Coalition of Sites of Conscience and has been successfully implemented in rural central New York State. Collecting with the intention of incorporating oral histories into community dialogue programs shifts the focus from static preservation and exhibition to a dynamic model of sharing authority, which directly engages one’s local community.

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Medium 9781538104118

Exploring the Concept of a “Legacy” Collection: A Study on German World War I Paper Textiles at the National Museum of American History

Juilee Decker Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Exploring the Concept of a “Legacy” Collection

A Study on German World War I Paper Textiles at the National Museum of American History

Kathleen King

Assistant Registrar, The George Washington University Museum and The Textile Museum, 701 21st NW, Washington, DC 20052; kking15@gwu.edu

Abstract  Using a collection of surplus German military objects composed of woven paper from World War I in the Smithsonian National Museum of American History as a case study, this article questions the value of keeping objects that no longer support the current mission statement of a museum, or if they ever did. It does not aim to answer definitively such a tough question, as a multitude of factors and stakeholders are involved with such a decision, but rather it seeks to bring this subject matter to the fore of collections and curatorial management, to explore best practices, and to examine if such best practices are being readily followed. The objects’ history, manufacturing processes, materiality, conservation concerns, and significance are explored in an effort to build context around the objects and to determine the appropriateness of their occupancy within the museum.

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Medium 9780870819018

5. Derivation—Verb Finals

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

Arapaho verb stems always consist of at least an initial root and a final element, the latter of which is usually abstract (in a few cases, certain verbs have a null abstract final). It is common for medial elements, and also concrete (lexical) finals, to occur as well, but discussion of these will be delayed until chapter 6. The combination of initial and final elements produces the verb stem. The initial roots contribute much of the lexical meaning to verb stems. Prototypically, they refer to either actions or states (/tew/ ‘to separate from a whole’, /be’/ ‘red’). The finals serve to indicate the stem class of the verb (AI, II, TA, TI). There are several different finals used to form each stem class, however, and the contrasting finals contribute important elements to the meaning of the stem itself, as well as licensing particular semantic categories of NPs that may serve as objects of the verb. The stems are thus best thought of as constructions whose meaning is the product of both lexical and non-lexical elements.

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Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER THREE. Deep History, Cultural Identities, and Ethnogenesis in the Southern Amazon

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Michael Heckenberger

Ethnogenesis is a widely discussed aspect of cultural change in indigenous Amazonia, generally taken to mean the emergence of a discrete “ethnos” through the mixing of two or more distinctive cultural groups, particularly within the context of European colonialism (Hill 1996). However, little is known in most cases about the actual processes of change, particularly over the long term, including different perspectives on change and continuity operating at multiple scales. Processes of cultural transformation, including major changes within societies and across regional systems, as well as cultural pluralism, are particularly poorly understood for pre-Columbian periods. This is due to a lack of well-documented long-term trajectories of sociohistorical change in discrete regions, especially such that can be linked to specific ethnographic cultural groups.

This chapter discusses the southern Amazon periphery and, particularly, the upper Xingú region of the southern Amazon. The Xinguano regional culture has long been known as one of the best cases of ethnogenesis in Amazonia, since peer communities in this regional society speak diverse languages, including Arawak, Carib, and Tupían languages, yet share the same basic cultural pattern.1 Recent research demonstrates that, while post-contact changes, particularly during the period from 1700 to 1800, were critical in the genesis of the plural society known today (composed of Arawak, Tupí-Guaraní, or closely related Tupían- and Carib-speaking peoples), pluralism has been part and parcel of Xinguano society and culture throughout much of its long history. This culture history, which extends from before ca. AD 500–800 to present times, is discussed in relation to several major periods, each of which can be seen as representing different aspects of “ethnogenesis”: (1) the early emergence of settled, hierarchical, and regional social formations and the spread of these cultural features, related specifically to ancestors of Arawak and related ethnolinguistic groups, in the lowlands and, particularly, southern Amazon periphery; (2) colonization by early Arawak agriculturalists, ca. AD 500 to 800 or before; (3) development of the regional social formation, characterized by the integration of small territorial polities within a regional peer-polity, by ca. 1250; and (4) post-contact development of the multilingual Xinguano society documented ethnographically, particularly after 1650–1750.

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Medium 9781442276147

More Than Merely Transcription

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

More Than Merely TranscriptionAn Analysis of Metatasks and Twitter ChatChristine RosenfeldPh.D. candidate in Cultural Studies at George Mason University, crosenfe@gmu.eduAbstract This article seeks to understand the practices that digital volunteers of the Smithsonian’s Transcription Center (TC) engage in aside from transcribing. A thematic analysis of the Twitter feed @TranscribeSI demonstrates that volunteers are doing much more than just transcribing; they are additionally engaging in critical archival practices regarding reflexivity and filling in gaps in the historical record. Museums that hope to foster deep engagement among volunteers and to create a sustained community of virtual museumgoers may wish to model their digital initiatives on those of the TC. Doing so will ensure that museums move beyond mere data extraction toward building complex relationships with audiences through online initiatives. As a result of Web 2.0 technologies, museums in the 21st century are undergoing a transformation in the way that they produce and disseminate knowledge. Mancini and Carreras (2010) write that “new [museum] users do not only consume, they also want to be involved and to model their environment, creating social and cultural values for themselves and rejecting hierarchical structures” (60), which requires museums to decide whether to integrate user-generated knowledge into their archive, mission, structure, and workflow. For the purposes of this article, Web 2.0 refers to “the practice of getting users to add value to a website by having them build its content, thus accelerating the cycle of media production so that sites become dynamic, constantly updated sources of new material” (Gehl 2014, 47). Web 2.0 has exerted pressure on museums of the 21st century to switch from being institutions of memory to dynamic social spaces (Kelly 2010; Mancini and Carreras 2010). The Smithsonian Institution (SI) is beginning to embody the dynamic social space that characterizes contemporary museums (Kalfatovic et al. 2008). This movement is demonstrated by the Transcription Center (TC), an online digital space where volunteers transcribe and review other volunteers’ transcriptions of historical materials.

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Medium 9781855755079

3. Your Preferred Way of Writing

John K. DiTiberio Karnac Books ePub

3

Think over your years of writing instruction. What are the two or three things that you remember most from your writing teachers?

It is sad that many of us remember very little from all those years of writing instruction, all the hours that we spent in English classes listening to someone try to describe the correct way to go about writing. But there is one bit of instruction that most people remember, occasionally with appreciation, frequently with dismay: the lecture on outlining. Compare your memories of outlining with the various responses that follow:

•  3oy, was It painful Having to listen to the teacher talk about roman numerate and Arabic numbers, capital letters and lowercase letters, Indenting, and watching margins was bad enough. But then having to follow these complicated Instructions and actually Integrate this procedure Into my writing process just made things worse.

•  Actually, some of It was pretty helpful. Through outlining, I learned to make things clear. My thoughts got organized when I outlined them. Then I felt more confident about writing.

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Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER TWELVE. Change, Contact, and Ethnogenesis in Northern Quechua: Structural Phylogenetic Approaches to Clause-Embedding Predicates

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Pieter Muysken

This chapter is part of a research program focused on the long-term history and development of the South American languages. It tries to study grammatical properties of these languages as potential indices of genetic relationships. Under current analyses, based on years of research and using the well-established methods of historical linguistics, over 100 language families are postulated, many of them quite small or even unaffiliated or isolated languages, the so-called isolates. This is very surprising since other continents may have only half a dozen families, even though they were settled much earlier in the course of human history. South America is the most recently settled continent. There is widespread consensus that research in the coming years will yield further insights into links among now-recognized families, but I am pursuing the exploration of possible structural relationships because structural features as clusters may be more stable and revelatory of deep-time genetic links.

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Medium 9781574416367

The “Boys” in the Bunkhouse: The New York Times / By Dan Barry

Gayle Reaves, Editor UNT Press PDF

The “Boys” in the Bunkhouse

The New York Times

March 9, 2014

By Dan Barry

Waterloo, Iowa

A man stands at a bus stop. He wears bluejeans, cowboy boots, and a name tag pinned like a badge to his red shirt. It says: Clayton Berg, dishwasher, county sheriff’s office.

He is 58, with a laborer’s solid build, a preference to be called Gene and a whisper-white scar on his right wrist. His backpack contains a jelly sandwich, a Cherry Coke and a comforting pastry treat called a

Duchess Honey Bun.

The Route 1 bus receives him, then resumes its herky-jerky journey through the northeastern Iowa city of Waterloo, population 68,000. He stares into the panoramic blur of ordinary life that was once so foreign to him.

Mr. Berg comes from a different place.

12

Best American Newspaper Narratives, Vol. 3

For more than 30 years, he and a few dozen other men with intellectual disabilities — affecting their reasoning and learning — lived in a dot of a place called Atalissa, about 100 miles south of here. Every morning before dawn, they were sent to eviscerate turkeys at a processing plant, in return for food, lodging, the occasional diversion and $65 a month.

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Medium 9781936757114

Appendix 7: Sources

Brian O'Leary Book Industry Study Group ePub
Medium 9781574416367

A Father’s Scars For Creigh Deeds, Tragedy Leaves Unending Questions

Gayle Reaves, Editor UNT Press ePub
Medium 9780870819018

4. Derivation—Nouns

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

The second-most important word category in Arapaho, after the verb, is the noun. In this chapter, we examine first the internal structure of the noun stem. The stem consists of one or more lexical roots and sometimes various derivational suffixes. In many cases, the noun stem is modified by lexical prenouns, although the analytic distinction between a prenoun and an initial root of a complex noun stem is not always clear. Next we discuss abstract grammatical initials, preverbs, and proclitics that occur with nouns. Finally, we discuss derivation of nouns from verbs.

Note that in this chapter, we have included underlying pitch accents in the analyses as much as possible: a special effort was made to verify all the underlying forms, in order to show the relationship to surface pronunciations.

The noun stem, like the verb stem, is often internally complex. In addition to single-morpheme stems, there are stems that contain both an initial and a final element and also modified stems that have one or more adjective-like “prenouns” affixed to them. Moreover, some of the initial and prenoun elements are themselves derived from independent verb or noun stems. There are also noun stems that contain lexical derivational finals—“dependent nouns”—that cannot occur independently and are not obviously related to another independent noun. Note that from a broad perspective, as argued by Ives Goddard (1990), all of the multi-morpheme nominal forms can simply be considered to be compound noun stems consisting of two elements, an initial and a final. The finals may be either independent or dependent. The initials are likewise often derived from independent forms. Nevertheless, in the following, we examine separately the different subcategories of compound nouns listed above for the sake of greater clarity.

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Medium 9781442265790

Survivor(s)! Historical Peregrinations of New Orleans’s French Superior Council and Spanish Judicial Records

Collections ePub

Howard Margot

Curator, The Historic New Orleans Collection, Williams Research Center, 410 Chartres Street, New Orleans, LA 70130; howardm@hnoc.org

Abstract The city of New Orleans is home to extensive notarial and judicial manuscript records that document, often in minute detail, economic and legal activity in the Lower Mississippi Valley during the French (1699–1768) and Spanish (1769–1803) colonial periods. The legal custodianship of New Orleans’s largest colonial period archive has changed hands quite often over the last three centuries. This article recounts the peregrinations of these documents and their insertion into the collections of the Notarial Archives Division of the Orleans Parish Clerk of Civil Court’s office (NONA) and Old U.S. Mint of the Louisiana State Museum (LSM).

In addition to the considerable parochial archives of its Catholic Archdiocese (baptisms, marriages, deaths) and a modest but very important archive held in its main Public Library (the records of the Spanish Cabildo), the city of New Orleans is home to extensive notarial and judicial1 manuscript records that document, often in minute detail, economic and legal activity in the Lower Mississippi Valley during the French (1699–17682) and Spanish (1769–1803) colonial periods. Taken together, these three sets of records bear the names and witness to the lives of virtually every colonist who was propertied, and of many or most who were not, and of virtually every enslaved person who was ever publicly bought or sold or freed in New Orleans and environs during that span of time. But whereas the ecclesiastical and Cabildo (city hall) records have been continuously curated by the respective institutions that generated them in the eighteenth century, the legal custodianship of New Orleans’s largest colonial period archive—its notarial acts and judicial records—has changed hands quite often over the last three centuries, the most recent occurrence having been in 2007. Most often, the changes in custodianship have entailed changes in physical location, with the records’ having been transported a distance of anything from a few city blocks to a hundred miles. These peregrinations have for over two centuries compromised both the coherence of this priceless archive and the public’s ability to access it, and on too many occasions they have threatened its very existence.

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Medium 9780982259269

11 - Create a Category

Lindsay Carleton Marzano Research ePub

For upper elementary through high school language arts, math, science, and social studies

Design

Create a Category gets its name from its focus on categorization. The object is for students to create as many different categories of words as possible based on a given list of terms and phrases. It can be used in upper elementary through high school classes in all four major content areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies). It requires a working understanding of the relevant terms and phrases.

Materials

You will need a chalkboard or whiteboard.

Set Up

In advance, prepare word lists. Four to eight lists of fifteen to twenty words work well. The terms you choose should be similar enough to allow students to categorize them in ways discussed in class, but disparate enough for students to use creativity in creating categories as well.

Play

The game can be played by breaking students into teams, or each student can work alone. After you write or display the first list of words on the board, the students' job is to categorize three or more terms in as many ways as they can think of. At the end of an allotted period of time, each group shares what categories they came up with and what terms are in those categories. Points may be assigned based on the number of categories generated.

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Medium 9781576754306

8 Team Up with Energy

Jack Foster Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Due to rising energy costs, the light at the end of the tunnel has been turned

Unknown

I don’t want any yes-men around me. I want everybody to tell me the truth even if it costs them their jobs.

Samuel Goldwyn

Teamwork is essential—it allows you to blame someone else.

Unknown

We’re all in this alone.

Lily Tomlin

Painting and writing and composing and sculpting— indeed, physically creating most forms of art—are, like brushing your teeth, jobs best done alone.

But when you’re trying to get an idea, it often helps to do it with a friend.

Not simply a coworker or an acquaintance. A friend.

Or with a couple of friends.

The different experiences and frames of reference and points of view and backgrounds and needs and bits of knowledge other people bring to the effort often open doors to rooms you might not otherwise have known about.

And sitting inside one of those rooms, smoking a big fat cigar and looking swell, might well be an idea that solves your problem.

For make no mistake:

There is strength and spice and adventure and excitement and vitality and life and newness and power and energy in variety; in sameness there is lethargy.

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Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER FOURTEEN. Constancy in Continuity? Native Oral History, Iconography, and Earthworks on the Upper Purús River

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen

When I was working with the Manchineri in Acre state, Brazil, I asked young people to produce drawings as a way of gaining more insight into their lived worlds. Once a young man drew the ayahuasca (Banisteriopsis) vision he had seen during a shamanic ceremony. When I later compared this shamanic Manchineri design with a satellite photo of an earthwork of the same region, I was surprised by how similarly the drawing followed the geometric forms of the earth structure. According to the young man, the geometric design was the “vehicle” of a palm spirit, which he depicted above it.1

According to Manchineri people, the shamanic visions come from entities such as palm spirits, one of the most powerful non-human beings in Manchineri sociocosmology. These visions, similar to dreams, provide an important source of knowledge from non-human beings. The visions allow transformation through the interaction with non-humans whose real nature and forms are expressed. They are experienced at a very personal level and represent a totalizing image of the world in which things are connected in complex invisible ways.

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