246 Chapters
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11. Hide and Seek

Anita Belles Porterfield and John Porterfield University of North Texas Press ePub

Greg Ebert, an employee of Guns Galore in Killeen, thwarted a terrorist plot. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security

An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
~Benjamin Franklin

The death of Malik Hasan in 1998 initiated a string of unfortunate events beyond Nidal Hasan's control. His childhood home was hastily sold and within a few months his mother was diagnosed with cancer, dying just three months before 9/11. During this tumultuous time an embittered Hasan turned to Islam and seemingly found comfort in its teachings. His escalating hatred for the U.S. Army was not lost on his professors, classmates, and co-workers. But not one individual took him seriously enough to make certain that he never had an opportunity to act on his threats. Not one individual reported his behavior to a commander or to law enforcement. Hasan's enmity toward the military intensified and his inclination to commit violent acts was obvious to his classmates, co-workers, and superiors. When his commander, Col. Ben Phillips, handed him his deployment orders to Afghanistan, Hasan erupted in an angry burst of gunfire. Why didn't someone stop him?

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1 Sixteenth-Century Background

Jeremy Black Indiana University Press ePub

North America was created as a geopolitical issue by Europeans. Such a stark remark is subject to criticism on the grounds of Eurocentricity, and certainly risks underplaying the vitality of Native American states and peoples, let alone the extent to which the overwhelming majority of those who lived in North America in 1700 still had their origins in the Americas, with a more distant source in those who had once crossed from Asia across a Bering Strait land bridge. Yet, once in the Americas, these peoples had not interacted with the outer world. Instead, they had followed their own course of development, with distinctive outcomes in terms of religions, technological bases, and military methods. Exceptionalism is an overused concept, but, if the Americas were exceptional, in the sense of different, then this was far more the case in 1450 than in 1870.

Crucially, the Americas did not see long-range maritime activity, and certainly not activity comparable to some of the Pacific peoples, or Indian Ocean, East Asian, and European traders and states. Instead, American states were centered inland, as with the Aztec and Inca empires or the less-famous North American peoples that left extensive settlements reflecting a considerable degree of organization, notably in the Mississippi Valley, such as Cahokia. The same was true of areas of dense village settlement as in Huronia, the region of Huron settlement north of Lake Ontario where the results of archaeological work do not challenge Samuel de Champlain’s estimate of a population of about 30,000 in 1615.

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Part 5. Nation, State, and Society in the Everyday

Jeff Sahadeo Indiana University Press ePub

Popular and scholarly conceptions of the everyday direct us towards the personal, the private, the mundane. Broader and larger concepts and institutions nonetheless intervene in almost all aspects of daily life. As across much of the world, nation and state have emerged as two of the most important structures in modern Central Asia. Both evolved from a complex interplay of local traditions and international innovations. Central Asian intellectuals began to imagine national communities in the late nineteenth century as a result of contacts with philosophies and practices across Europe and Asia. Moscow imposed a highly invasive model of the modern state on the region. Both legacies permeate Central Asia today. Ordinary citizens at once support, accommodate, and resist policies, initiatives, and identities imposed by national and state agents. The divide between public and private, the extraordinary and the everyday, emerges as extremely blurred in the contributions that follow.

Before the arrival of tsarist troops, the peoples of Central Asia identified themselves with their religion, kin group, neighborhood, or village. Such affiliations confused Western observers, who sought to apply nineteenthcentury models of European nationality, based on a common language, culture, and broader territory. Clusters of Central Asian intellectuals, many of whom became known as Jadids, or “new-method thinkers,” saw European nationhood as a source of strength for a region that had been so easily conquered. Jadids sought to blend Western-style education, knowledge, and philosophies with local practices and reformist ideas circulating across Asian and Islamic regions in the late nineteenth century. As Shoshana Keller and Victoria Clement show, Jadids sought radical changes in everyday life, from the way people communicated to the way they educated their children and considered themselves part of the wider world. Jadids remained a small minority, however, distrusted by imperial authorities and condemned as impetuous youth by Islamic religious leaders.

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VIII Historical Time

Richard Wunderli Indiana University Press ePub

The pilgrimage to Niklashausen as a mass movement, indeed, had come to an end. But contemporaries did not know that, and for weeks after the Drummer’s execution, authorities in Würzburg continued to maintain their defenses against another expected assault by the peasant-pilgrims. Water buckets were ordered to be refilled, not only because the old water was beginning to stink, but also in anticipation of fire from a peasants’ war. The assault never came. Massive numbers of peasants who had trooped to Niklashausen now trooped home.

The execution of the Drummer, however, was not the end of the affair. In Würzburg, some secret followers of the Drummer dug up dirt from the spot where he had been burned and pre served it as a sacred relic or as magic powder, perhaps similar to the ashes they collected from the regenerative Easter bonfires. In Niklashausen, pilgrims still came to the church, not in gangs as during the summer, but they came. The spot where the young prophet had preached was for them a blessed site.

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8 Post-Communism and the New History

Jeremy Black Indiana University Press ePub

THE FALL OF THE COMMUNIST REGIMES IN EASTERN EUROPE in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought together a number of post-war trends that provoked new histories, particularly the collapse of imperial rule, the creation of new, as well as newly independent, states, for example Croatia and Ukraine, and sweeping political changes. The fall of the Communist regimes had reflected the difficulty of grounding authoritarian regimes in the absence of popular support – however much the people were told that there was a dialectical necessity for the success of these regions and one located in a clear historical continuum. A lack of popularity, particularly in Eastern Europe, made it difficult for the Communist governments to view change and reform with much confidence. Rather than vindicating the Communist prospectus, the passage of time made more apparent the sham character of Communist progress.

Far from having being made redundant by the advance of Communism, nationalism reemerged publicly as a powerful force, in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, as well as in China, which ostensibly continued to be Communist. Nationalism, which became a more central political issue in the former Communist bloc from 1989, apparently offered identity, freedom, and a route to reform freed from a sclerotic imperial structure. Nationalism also entailed the rejection of Soviet and Communist history and, instead, an emphasis on the histories subordinated by both. This process led at once to a searching reevaluation of recent history and to an often-strident consideration of earlier episodes. For example, in the Baltic Republics, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, there were complaints about the Soviet annexation in 1940, complaints that led to a focus on the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 under which the annexation had taken place. This was a pact that the Soviets had done their best to ignore. Moreover, nationalism could be readily combined with the revival of public religiosity that was also prominent in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Indeed, this revival helped give a particular character to nationalism in specific contexts, most obviously with Polish Catholicism.

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