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2 Gunpowder Technology, 1490–1800

Jeremy Black Indiana University Press ePub

Edward Gibbon was to claim that gunpowder “effected a new revolution in the art of war and the history of mankind,”1 a view that was common in the eighteenth century and indeed both earlier and later.2 More recently, the widely repeated thesis of the early modern Military Revolution3 has focused renewed attention on the issue of gunpowder technology. Improved firepower and changing fortification design, it is argued, greatly influenced developments across much of the world and, more specifically, the West’s relationship with the rest of the world. In other work, I have questioned the thesis,4 but here, first, I want to draw attention to the changes that stemmed from the use of gunpowder.

Gunpowder weaponry developed first in China. We cannot be sure when it was invented, but a formula for the manufacture of gunpowder was possibly discovered in the ninth century, and effective metal-barreled weapons were produced in the twelfth century. Guns were differentiated into cannon and handguns by the fourteenth.

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Part VI Efforts to Break the Stalemate: From the Intifada through the Oslo Peace Process

Mark Tessler Indiana University Press ePub

FUELED BY CONTINUING Israeli settlement activity and the “iron fist” policy of the Israeli military administration, as well as by the failure of diplomatic efforts aimed at moving the parties toward territorial compromise, Palestinian anger gave rise in late 1987 to widespread protest demonstrations. Spontaneous outbursts and efforts at resistance then coalesced into a coordinated uprising embracing virtually all sectors of Palestinian society, a rebellion that some compared to the revolt of 1936–39 and that soon became known as the intifada, literally translated as the “shaking off.” By the early 1990s, the intifada had run its course; but almost four years of sustained unrest had dramatically changed the political outlook both in Israel and among the Palestinians. In Israel, many were taking a new look at the occupied territories and rethinking earlier assessments about the costs and benefits of retaining the West Bank and Gaza. This was sometimes described as the reemergence of the Green Line in Israeli political consciousness. There was also a growing willingness to open talks with the PLO. For Palestinians, the uprising not only pushed their concerns to the forefront of political debate in Israel, and in the regional and international arenas more broadly, it also laid the foundation for a new peace plan put forward by the PLO.

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Between the Cracks of History, Preface to Between the Cracks of History: Essays on Teaching and Illustrating Folklore. PTFS LV, 1997

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt and Kira E. Mort University of North Texas Press PDF

Between the Cracks of History

[the Preface to Between the Cracks of History: Essays on

Teaching and Illustrating Folklore, PTFS LV, 1997]

pP

I wonder if folklorists follow historians like gleaners—or cotton strippers in west Texas—and collect the leavings from academic historians, all the tales and songs and traditions that the historians allow to fall between the cracks? Or that historians sweep under the rug? Or drop? Or choose to ignore?

Historians research, document, and file the facts of a happening. They are supposed to get the details right, but sometimes in following the letter of the investigation, they lose the spirit—which falls between the cracks of history where it is pounced on by the ever-lurking folklorist, who scarfs it up like a hog on a mushmelon.

Maybe its not just historians who let pouncable things fall between the cracks. Maybe folklorists follow doctors around for their droppin’s and leavin’s, and find out that urine relieves bull nettle burn and that tobacco eases the pain of a yellow-jacket sting and that chicken soup is as good for the flu as anything doctors prescribe. And maybe folklorists follow wildlife biologists and conclude that if they hear an owl hoot in the daytime, that owl is watching a buck walking. I hold firmly to that latter belief, by the way, and when the owl hoots I can see vividly in my mind’s eye a big, old mossy-horned buck easing his way through a pine thicket.

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Appendix A · Some Background on Our Protagonists

Allen F. Roberts Indiana University Press ePub

LUSINGA LWA NG’OMBE (ca.1840–1884) and his mother’s brother Kansabala Kisuyu hailed from Buluba (Urua or Uguha in early European accounts), the generic name for lands northwest of Lubanda inhabited by eastern Luba and Luba-influenced people. Pierre Colle’s important ethnography of 1913, Les Baluba, concerns just such communities that were peripheral to Luba polities along the lakes of the Upemba Depression and the banks of the Lualaba River, as a major tributary of the mighty Congo. Indeed, the foremost figure of Colle’s account, Chief Kyombo, was of the same clan as Lusinga, and as Colle explains, Kyombo actively sought Luba material and performance arts in emulation of his powerful neighbors.1 Lusinga took similar measures, and his praise name, “Ng’ombe,” makes esoteric reference to Luba kings, tributary gifts, burial places, and ancestral spirits. At greater geographical and intellectual distance, the name resonates with social relations and cultural principles personified by Ryangombe, the hero of societies of the Great Lakes region of east-central DRC, Burundi, and Rwanda.2 Such references are consistent with the thesis of the present book, that Lusinga lwa Ng’ombe was a most ambitious actor in times of radical social change.

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8 Entry into Battle

J. Ted Hartman Indiana University Press ePub

8

Entry into Battle

While still in England, the 11th Armored Division was organized into three combat units, Combat Commands A, B, and R (Reserve). Each combat command was considered a complete fighting unit and contained the following organizations:

One tank battalion

One armored field artillery battalion

One armored infantry battalion

One armored engineer company

In addition, the division retained control of the following organizations to serve all three combat commands as needed:

Headquarters, 11th Armored Division

One armored medical battalion

One armored military police platoon

One armored signal company

One cavalry reconnaissance squadron mechanized

One ordnance maintenance battalion

This organizational structure provided an effective system for combat in which three separate objectives could be operational at the same time. The 41st Tank Battalion was assigned to Combat Command B. In each tank battalion there were three medium tank companies and one light tank company—Companies A, B, C, and D.

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