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Appendix C. Common Electrical Terms

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Electric Terms

Electric Current, symbol I, is the flow of electricity through a conductor.

Electric Resistance, symbol R, is that which opposes the transmission of electric current in material. Materials which are relatively small in resistance are called conductors; those of such high resistance that they can practically suppress electric transmission are called non-conductors or insulators.

Electromotive Force, symbol emf or E, is that electric condition resulting from difference of potential by which electricity is transmitted from points having positive potential to those having negative potential, often called electric pressure.

Ohm’s Law, discovered by German professor George Simon Ohm (1787–1854), states that the current in an electric circuit is directly proportional to the electromotive force in the circuits. These may be expressed by the formula:

, from which the values of E and R may be derived, E = IR, and

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1. Is It Folklore or History? The Answer May Be Important

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF




There is a great deal of history in folklore, and that’s good. There also is a great deal of folklore in history, and that’s not good. I suspect that many of you are either historians or folklorists. I am neither one. I am a lawyer, although I do have some friends in both camps. If you look around, you will be able to tell which people at this meeting are historians and which are folklorists. The folklorists are the ones who look smug and content. That is because they know that unless they are foolish enough to write about the history of folklore it’s impossible for them to make a mistake. They know that no one will ever accuse them of getting their facts wrong or of writing politically correct folklore and, of course, there is no such thing as revisionist folklore. If someone ever said that a folklorist got it wrong, all the folklorist has to say is, “that’s the way I heard it” and immediately he or she is off the hook and waiting for an apology. Sadly, it is not the same for historians; they are seldom off the hook and never receive apologies. It’s enough to make even folklorists sympathetic toward historians, and I am sure the more charitable ones are. I personally have never witnessed any concern on their part, but that may say more about the company I keep than folklorists as a group.

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CHAPTER 8 Getting Gregorio

Paul N. Spellman University of North Texas Press PDF


Getting Gregorio

NEARING HIS SEVENTIETH BIRTHDAY, ALEXANDER Gilmer stood with his hands on his hips, fists clenching, as he watched the fire consume his sawmill. The Irish born shipbuilder turned Texas lumber magnate stared in anger and disbelief at this, the fourth time his Orange County-based mill had gone up in flames. The other three times it had been accidental; this time it was deliberate. No more building here, he thought to himself. His next sawmill would be in

Lemonville a few miles away.

The Texas Rangers had arrived in Orange County a few days earlier when the race riots were determined to be beyond the control of the local authorities. In fact, it was roundly thought that local law enforcement was behind the violence. Roving gangs had controlled the countryside all summer, running off the Black families, beating up a number of them. In early August a mob had opened fire on a house, killing one of its residents and wounding several others.

Some of Company E arrived in Orange on August 18. Two days later Captain Rogers, in his first activity since the Laredo shootout and accompanied by Augie Old, arrested Jack Morris, Doug Harris, and Frank Weatherford for disturbing the peace and suspicion of involvement in the recent killing. The Rangers stayed in Orange

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9. Burning Brightly: The Easter Fires of Maternal Necessity

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF




“Freedom is not free—It is costly.”—John O. Meusebach

Imagine if you will that the season is late winter in the year 1847.

The night air is cold outside a woman’s small cabin in a new settlement in the Pedernales valley in the Texas Hill Country west of

Austin. She is alone in the dark with her young children; many women in her small German community are likewise alone, having fended for themselves since late January, when the men had gone northwest to try to negotiate a treaty with the Comanche Indians.

The men’s purpose in leaving was to secure their community from

Indian raids, but the women are alone, vulnerable and frightened, even as they try to keep up a brave front for the sake of their children. Up in the hills surrounding the valley, they can see the glow of Indian campfires, and each one wonders as the night passes if her husband is still alive, if she will survive another night.

This woman has braved other challenges before and survived.

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14. Feeling the Past at Gettysburg

Glenn W. LaFantasie Indiana University Press ePub

Something that Bruce Catton wrote many years ago about Gettysburg comes to mind every time I visit the battlefield. “The battle was here and its presence is felt,” Catton said, “and you cannot visit the place without feeling the echoes of what was once a proving ground for everything America believes in.”1 Although I’ve long wondered about Catton’s curious choice of words (most people hear echoes rather than feel them), I think he meant precisely what he said.

Despite the garish commercialism that for years has threatened to overwhelm the now peaceful battlefield at Gettysburg, it is still possible to feel the past there. I collided with those feelings several years ago when my youngest daughter, Sarah, and I visited the battlefield on a cloudy and misty day in May to conduct a historical experiment in the style of Francis Parkman and Samuel Eliot Morison, two historians who insisted on visiting the places they wrote about. This was the dad-and-daughter outing I mentioned in an earlier chapter. My intent was that my daughter and I could trace the route Colonel William C. Oates and the 15th Alabama took in launching their doomed attack against Little Round Top. The day turned out to hold much more in store for us than I had imagined.

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