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Medium 9780253019028

100,000 Men

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

“HUSH, HUSH,” HE said expectantly, jittery, running about the camp, the gaping hole in his brown shorts thoroughly visible, as was his entirely emaciated state. “Do you not hear them?” he turned around and around, looking about, pausing, staring intently at each face, as if to will them, to force them to apprehend what he was saying. “Do you hear them coming?” He breathed heavily. “They are coming! I saw them with my own eyes, my own two eyes! I swear they are coming.”

“Taidor, Taidor, Choul is having another of his fits again,” Alek said to her husband, stating the obvious.

Taidor looked on, unable to shake off the melancholy expression on his visage. Of course he knew there was no one coming. He was the sober one, calm, collected, resigned to fate without complaint. And he knew there was definitely no one coming. He hated the hopeless optimism of Choul. Even from their days at the university in Khartoum, Choul had entertained and nursed this ridiculously hopeless idealism. “They are coming where?” he scoffed. “Who? Who is coming?” He shook his head sarcastically and proceeded to scratch his unkempt hair.

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Medium 9781574414349

10. 1968 Tet Offensive

Lam Quang Thi University of North Texas Press ePub

10

1968 TET OFFENSIVE

On January 30, 1968, the second day of the new Year of the Monkey, at 2:00 AM., my aide awakened me and reported that the VC had simultaneously attacked the capital cities of Vinh Long, Vinh Binh, and Kien Giang. The situation was particularly critical in Vinh Long where the enemy occupied most of the city and part of the airport, which was defended by a U.S. Army aviation unit. The 1968 Tet Offensive in the Mekong Delta had begun. In the evening of January 29, General Manh, IV Corps Commander, had called to inform me that the VC had attacked a few cities in Military Region II, and that I should take necessary measures against a possible enemy attack in the Delta. Consequently, I ordered that all leaves for the traditional Tet festivities be suspended immediately and all units put in the highest alert status.

For the Vietnamese, Tet is Christmas, New Year, and Thanksgiving combined. Tet is the occasion for people to relax after one year of hard work, for the peasants to thank “Heaven and Earth” for a good harvest and to celebrate, for the members of the family to get together and to pay respect to the ancestors, and mostly for the children to put on new clothes and to receive “lucky money” in small red envelopes from their parents and friends of the family. Thus, it was customary for the government and the VC to declare unilaterally a three-day truce on this occasion so that soldiers could celebrate this important holiday with their families after one year of fighting. Normally, one-third of the soldiers in each ARVN unit would rotate to spend time with their loved ones on this important holiday.

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Medium 9781574414349

10 1968 Tet Offensive

Lam Quang Thi University of North Texas Press PDF

10

1968 tet offensive

ON JANUARY 30, 1968, THE second day of the new Year of the

Monkey, at 2:00 AM., my aide awakened me and reported that the

VC had simultaneously attacked the capital cities of Vinh Long,

Vinh Binh, and Kien Giang. The situation was particularly critical in Vinh Long where the enemy occupied most of the city and part of the airport, which was defended by a U.S. Army aviation unit.

The 1968 Tet Offensive in the Mekong Delta had begun. In the evening of January 29, General Manh, IV Corps Commander, had called to inform me that the VC had attacked a few cities in Military

Region II, and that I should take necessary measures against a possible enemy attack in the Delta. Consequently, I ordered that all leaves for the traditional Tet festivities be suspended immediately and all units put in the highest alert status.

For the Vietnamese, Tet is Christmas, New Year, and Thanksgiving combined. Tet is the occasion for people to relax after one year of hard work, for the peasants to thank “Heaven and Earth” for a good harvest and to celebrate, for the members of the family to get together and to pay respect to the ancestors, and mostly for the children to put on new clothes and to receive “lucky money” in small red envelopes from their parents and friends of the family. Thus, it was customary for the government and the VC to declare unilaterally a three-day truce on this occasion so that soldiers could celebrate this important holiday with their families after one year of fighting. Normally, one-third of the soldiers in each ARVN unit would rotate to spend time with their loved ones on this important holiday.

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Medium 9780253019394

10 1989: “Together We Liberated Eastern Europe”

Borhi, László Indiana University Press ePub

The day the Soviet Union collapsed, George H. W. Bush penned a personal note to his friend Mikhail Gorbachev in which he immodestly declared, “Together we liberated Eastern Europe and unified Germany.”1 Did this bold claim do justice to the complicated history of the transition from the Cold War to the reunification of Europe, the restoration of multiparty democracy, and national independence in Eastern Europe? The answer to this question is not only a matter of historical truth. The clarification of the process of transition will shed light on the dynamics of systemic change in international politics at the end of the Cold War. The British historian Ian Kershaw has averred that history would not have taken the same course without Adolf Hitler, and it is likely that the events of 1989 could not have happened without Mikhail Gorbachev. But Gorbachev did not cause the cataclysm of 1989. No single individual or entity can be credited with ending the Cold War, which was not ended by design. Gorbachev’s new course provided the environment in which internal developments in the countries of Eastern Europe – Poland and Hungary in particular – changed the prevailing international order.

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Medium 9781574414677

10. A Bedouin in the Saddle

Rick Miller University of North Texas Press PDF

10

A BEDOUIN IN THE SADDLE

M A J O R J O N E S L E F T K I M B L E C O U N T Y and by May 6,

1877, was at Fort McKavett, where he requested of General Steele that

Dr. E. G. Nicholson be once again reinstated as Battalion Surgeon, the appointment to date from April 19.1 Jones then moved on to Coleman

County. A brief report, without details, stated that Jones and Sergeant

N. O. Reynolds pursued and captured at Coleman City wanted murderer

J. H. Curtis and jailbreaker Edward Vontress ”Pete” Casner on May 9.2

All the while desperate crimes were being reported from around the state.

Jails were being broken into and prisoners removed, either to liberate or lynch them, leading Governor Hubbard to offer a standing $500 reward for arrests of such mobs.3 One such break occurred on May 11 in Brown

County when twelve men forcibly released six prisoners.4 In Mason

County, Rube Boyce, a known mankiller, shot and killed Bob Anderson at a ranch when the two got into an argument.5 Outside of Comanche, a deputy United States marshal, M. R. Greene, was shot to death while trying to arrest two suspected counterfeiters, the brothers Dee and James

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Medium 9781623491109

10. A Birth, a Death, and the Move to Town, 1896

Margaret Lewis Furse Texas A&M University Press ePub

Chapter 10

A BIRTH, A DEATH, AND THE MOVE TO TOWN, 1896

Within a six-year period from 1896 to 1902, James B. Hawkins, Ariella, their son Frank, and his wife Elmore were all gone. Ariella’s death in 1902 swept away the last but one of the Hawkinses who had come to Texas from North Carolina in the 1840s. Only Frank’s sister, Virginia Hawkins Brodie of Henderson, North Carolina, was still living (see appendix for more about the antebellum children). The story of the Hawkins Ranch then continued through the lives of Frank and Elmore’s five children.

The event that took these young children—my mother Meta and her four siblings—away from the Ranch House and brought them permanently to town occurred on April 3, 1896: the sudden death of their mother at the birth of their baby sister. The new baby was named Elmore for her mother but was always called “Sister.”

Rowland Rugeley witnessed this event as a boy of seven. Even later in life it was a painful memory for him, but he described to me what happened.

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Medium 9780253353832

10 A Diverse Inventor

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

As an inventor, Frank Sprague presents us with a complex character of sometimes seemingly contradictory traits. On the one hand, he provides a textbook example of the “inventor’s shop” model of focused, directed research on a specific set of design problems—working with his colleagues and employees methodically testing and revising designs in a disciplined shop environment. On the other hand, he also displayed characteristics more in accordance with the “lone inventor” stereotype—jotting down ideas and plans as they occurred to him, on nearly any design problem that presented itself during his daily business. Throughout his career, Sprague relied on both spontaneous creativity in recognizing and meeting design challenges, and disciplined, methodical work in refining his ideas. He combined both of these traits with an indomitable sense of purpose and tireless zeal for pursuing and promoting his ideas, as well as asserting his priority to specific inventions or design elements, particularly when he believed himself to be in the right. He must at times have seemed to his “opponents,” and probably to some of his colleagues as well, as something of a gadfly. He did not accept failure easily, and at times persevered against the odds to his cost. We will return to this aspect of Sprague the inventor below.

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Medium 9780253013088

10 A Hoosier Community, 1850–1920

James H. Madison Indiana University Press ePub

THEODORE DREISER WOULD BECOME ONE OF INDIANAS MOST acclaimed novelists – but he was not seen to be a Hoosier. Dreiser wrote of poverty, crime, cities, and sex in ways that did not fit with the Hoosier self-image. Born in Terre Haute in 1871, the son of a poor Catholic German immigrant father, he left the state at age eighteen. His own life was full of gloomy brooding, extramarital sex, and self-doubt. Yet in 1915, long removed from his Indiana home, the crusty author impulsively made an automobile tour of the state. Driving through Warsaw and other small towns, he exclaimed, “you have no idea what a charm these places have – what a song they sing.” And, he continued, “How good it all tasted after New York! And what a spell it cast. I can scarcely make you understand, I fear. Indiana is a world all unto itself.”1

In the decades after the Civil War, Indiana did become a world unto itself – or so many Hoosiers hoped, and some feared. The state developed its own identity, a sense of being different from Ohio or Illinois, and certainly from New York or Mississippi. The people came to call themselves Hoosiers. By the time of the centennial in 1916, Indiana was one of the nation’s most distinctive places, a state with “brand” recognition within its borders and across the nation. Scholars now label such a place an “imagined community,” a place where even without face-to-face contact, people can imagine their connections to others within the community. Hoosiers imagined their connections to each other through shared history, shared values, and common aspirations. Rooted in a particular place, they knew who they were and what they wanted.

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Medium 9781574415858

10. A Killing in Scabtown

Chuck Parsons and Donaly E. Brice University of North Texas Press ePub

10

A KILLING IN SCABTOWN

“[Lieutenant Reynolds] of the rangers fears the consequences of his bloody work.”

—Widow Ida Miller, March 21, 1878

By 1878, Menard County, once on the very edge of the frontier, was considered settled. The county had been organized in 1871 and in the following year a courthouse was erected in Menardville (now Menard). Former Frontier Battalion member William W. Lewis, who had joined Captain Perry’s Company D at the same time Reynolds had back in 1874, operated a saloon there. Lewis’ saloon, according to the San Antonio Daily Express traveling reporter Hans Mickle, displayed a large canvass sign depicting an imaginative steamboat going up the Salt River in which Lewis was a “distinguished passenger.” The most prominent buildings were the two-story rock courthouse and Mr. Becker’s store.1

The community of Menardville had organized around a military post established in 1852, which was named after Captain Henry McKavett, killed at the battle of Monterrey during the Mexican War. Fort McKavett originally boasted five companies of the 8th Infantry stationed there to protect incoming settlers and to push the frontier further west. By 1859 the Indian menace was considered minimal and the post was abandoned. Then during the Civil War with many able-bodied men serving in the eastern theaters Indian activity increased in the area. In 1868 the fort was re-established; at its peak in the 1870s four hundred troops were stationed there, including units from the 1st, 10th, 16th, and 22nd Infantry along with “Buffalo Soldiers” of the 24th Infantry and 9th and 10th Cavalry. A variety of civilian establishments were there to provide services to the troops. After the Civil War, substantial homes were built and according to correspondent Mickle, there was “the air of comfort and convenience” everywhere.

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Medium 9780253020833

10 … A Missing Chapter

Raymond W.Jr. Thorp Indiana University Press ePub

10

… A Missing Chapter

Fortunately, perhaps, John Johnson never told how he destroyed twenty such Crow warriors, one by one; and since during the years when he killed the first seventeen of them he still kept himself pretty much alone, fellow Mountain Men observed his killing of only two.

No doubt the story of all twenty killings would illustrate the full extent of Johnson’s craft and above all his capacity for estimating others’ craft, his readiness for his opponents’ every variety of move. But in any such story the refrain—“He snapped off the scalp, he carved under the ribs, he ate the dripping liver”—must become not merely monotonous but intolerably sickening. Liver-Eating Johnson likely served his saga best by leaving this chapter to his contemporaries’, and our, imaginations.

Only one fact did he provide: that each of the twenty was slain hand to hand. Each, in his last moments, knew himself victim of the Crow Killer.

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Medium 9780253012586

10. A New Life at Home

Anand Pandian Indiana University Press ePub

I felt bored and listless within a week of coming back to Pudur. I couldn’t just sit at home. But there was nowhere to pass the time other than the village bazaar. I had an uncle named Gnani Nadar who had a shop in the bazaar. Each day I would go and sit on the steps at the entrance to his shop, just to watch what was happening. This uncle always spoke warmly to me, but he never offered anything to eat or drink—not even a bit of palmyra fruit, not even water.

Gnani Nadar made sesame oil to sell. There was a grinding mill at the Pudur pettai—pay the miller, and he would grind your sesame for you.1 My uncle would buy some sesame, mix it with palm sugar, and grind it at the mill to measure out and sell. He often saw me in front of his shop and noticed how closely I’d been watching him do business. “Maybe he can help out,” he must have thought to himself, because he asked me if I wanted to join him. I was doing nothing at the time, and so I went to work with him.

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Medium 9780253345677

10. A Night to Remember

Thomas Goodrich Indiana University Press ePub

SHORTLY BEFORE 8:30 P.M., AS drizzle began to fall softly on Washington, a carriage halted outside the imposing facade of Ford’s Theater. Despite the weather, a large number of curious spectators were on hand, some to see the president, but most to view for themselves the man so much had been made of recently, Ulysses Grant. When the four occupants finally stepped down and into the light, however, the short, bearded general and his trademark cigar were nowhere to be seen. Nevertheless, the presidential party, in the “gayest spirits,” was imposing enough, and Lincoln himself was more than sufficient to write home about.1

“I had never been so near to him before, and I remember remarking how much taller he appeared than I had previously imagined,” wrote a man who boarded just across the street from Ford’s. “He was engaged in animated conversation as he passed me, and I was struck with the peculiar softness of his voice. . . . As he passed through the crowd he towered a full head and shoulders above them.”2

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Medium 9780253013132

10 A Nineteenth-Century Life of St. Stefan of Perm (c. 1340–96)

HEATHER COLEMAN Indiana University Press ePub

Robert H. Greene

LIVES OF THE SAINTS (ZHITIIA SVIATYKH) WERE AMONG THE most popular reading material for Orthodox Russians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. As part of its efforts to improve religious knowledge and catechize the laity, the Russian Orthodox Church promoted the popularization of saints’ lives in church newspapers, devotional pamphlets, and occasional publications, in the hope that men, women, and children could learn from the example of “God’s Beloved” and imitate the Christian virtues of faith, love, and good works that the saints embodied in life. Diocesan newspapers and Orthodox journals from the latter half of the nineteenth century encouraged priests to incorporate examples from saints’ lives into their sermons and to hold informal discussions (besedy) with their parishioners on the moral lessons that the faithful could glean from the lives of the holy dead. Literate parishioners were enjoined to borrow copies of saints’ lives from the church library and familiarize themselves in their free time with these texts. Although a saint’s written life was seldom lengthy, Orthodox publishing houses also issued condensed and easy-to-read versions of the lives, often with a helpful paragraph at the end summarizing the valuable lessons that believers might learn from the saint in question. In 1895, for example, the religious journal Kormchii [The Helmsman] ran a year-long series called “Lessons from the Lives of the Saints,” in which readers were given succinct and pointed instruction on such various moral and religious topics as the preservation of chastity, the importance of visiting the sick, the existence of miracles, how to live in Christian harmony with one’s spouse, how to avoid both gossip and flattery, and the significance of confession and communion for an Orthodox Christian.

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Medium 9781574416015

10. “A Strong Undercurrent of Excitement”

Bob Alexander, Chief Kirby W. Dendy and Texas Rangers University of North Texas Press PDF

1

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“A Strong Undercurrent of Excitement” though it would take several months to unravel, an assertion that it was Ranger Private Dillard that had actually popped the cap—or was thought to have popped the cap—killing Abraham

Recéndez is further buttressed by another missive. Captain Jones posted AG King: “The Jury in the Dillard case could not agree, some for conviction and some for acquittal.”1

What could be agreed on by most everyone was that things were a mess in South Texas. Rightly or wrongly the killing of Abraham

Recéndez fanned the flames of cultural, racial, and economic discontent. Perhaps true character is best defined by actions. Depending on perspective, Catarino Erasmo Garza Rodriguez was either a firebrand or patriot. Or both! Highly educated and articulate, Catarino

Garza over the years had cleaved unto himself a burning—raging—purpose in life. Maintaining residence on the Texas side of the

Rio Grande, though a Mexican by birth, Catarino harangued and agitated for political and philosophical and pecuniary and personal causes dear to his heart and/or self-interest.2 As with most men of the place and time, Catarino Garza carried his own baggage of interpretative nationalism and racial insensitivity.3 More popular with

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Medium 9781574412901

10. Aftermath and Redemption

Bill O'Neal University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 10

Aftermath and Redemption

“I sometimes think of the long ago as the most harrowing terrible dream imaginable….”

Rocky Higgins Johnson

A

n important element of classic tragedy is redemption. In Romeo and Juliet the Capulets and Montagues reconciled over the corpses of the young lovers. But there would be no Johnson-Sims reconciliation in West Texas.

Kelly Sims remained so unreconciled to the murder of his older brother, Ed, that he refused ever to set foot in Snyder. Kelly was certain that if he ever sighted Sidney Johnson that he would kill him.

Although his wife could not be deterred from occasional trips into

Snyder for shopping, Kelly insisted that she carry a gun in her purse.

Kelly always packed a pistol, a .45 automatic that was the deadliest handgun of the time. At night the .45 always went beneath his pillow, and before going to bed Kelly propped an automatic shotgun beside the bedroom window. Many years later Kelly refused an opportunity to buy a four-section parcel of land because it belonged to Weldon

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