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Medium 9780253000972

4. Industrialization and Urbanization, 1855—1914

Barbara Evans Clements Indiana University Press ePub

From 1855 to 1914, the Russian economy grew rapidly and so did the cities. Peasants freed from serfdom crowded into factories; merchants and shopkeepers expanded their businesses; apartment blocks went up, as did tenements. Between 1811 and 1914, the percentage of Russia’s people living in urban areas rose from 6.6 to 15 percent, with much of this increase concentrated in the metropolises. Moscow had swelled to more than a million inhabitants by 1902; St. Petersburg was home to more than 2 million in 1914.1 Now women of all ranks of life had to cope with the problems and the possibilities created by the Industrial Revolution in its Russian incarnation.

Women’s experiences of and participation in the economic and social developments of the last decades of imperial Russia depended on their social position, ethnicity, religion, place of residence, and individual experience. The standard of living rose for some women in the middle ranks of urban society, and the cities filled with new amenities, such as opera houses, theaters, and, by the early twentieth century, electric lighting. Influential noblewomen organized a feminist movement that set up charities and persuaded the government to admit women to higher education. Although, as in the past, improvements in education benefited the nobles first, they now spread to more girls from the middle ranks of Russian society, the working class, and the peasantry. Female graduates of the new schools then established a women’s presence in the growing professions, particularly teaching and medicine

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Medium 9781574416114

11. Fort Clark, the 18th Infantry and Retirement

James Carson UNT Press ePub

Chapter 11

Colonel Lazelle and his family joined the 18th Infantry Regiment on October 24, 1889. When the Lazelles arrived at Fort Clark, the 3rd Cavalry was still headquartered there and its colonel was post commander. During October and November, the Headquarters and companies of the 18th Infantry made their way from the Department of Missouri to their new assignment. The Field Staff and Band, along with eight companies under the command of Maj. George K. Brady, arrived on post October 16. The last two companies arrived in November.

Fort Clark was established in June 1852 at Las Moras Spring, opposite the village of Brackettville, 17 miles from the Rio Grande, to protect travelers along the “Lower Road” from San Antonio to El Paso. The earliest quarters for enlisted men were tents along Las Moras Creek. An Inspector General report of November 1859 described the men’s quarters: “The troops are in tents & the ground dispersion is of course very unfavorable to discipline.”1

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Medium 9781574414769

Chapter 23: Reward and Jurisdiction Squabbles

Mark T. Smokov University of North Texas Press ePub


Reward and Jurisdiction Squabbles

On the train that carried Curry to Knoxville, W. B. Carey and Walter Padgett, with their attorney Frank Parks (or Park), struck up a deal with Lieutenant McIntyre concerning the reward. They agreed that the men of the Jefferson City posse would split the reward with McIntyre and the other three policemen. When the train reached the city, the agreement that had been drawn up by Parks was signed by Carey and McIntyre, with police Chief Atkins as witness. However, the next day, Monday, December 16, the other members of the Jefferson City posse hired legal representation in the firm of Pickle and Turner. Frank Rhoton and John Clevenger publicly stated that Carey had made the agreement without consulting them, and that they did not agree with the division of the reward. The terms specifically stated that the four officers would divide half of the reward, leaving the other half to divide among the seven posse members. The Jefferson City men argued that the officers had nothing to do with the actual capture of Curry, and therefore did not deserve to receive such a large portion of the reward. Rather, the money should be divided among the sole captors of Curry, and W. B. Carey who saw the fugitive in the alley and initiated the search.1

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Medium 9781574412659

8. Women

Jacques D. Bagur University of North Texas Press PDF

8. Women

Of the 722 free white persons in Jefferson in 1860, 266 (or 37 percent) were female. Of the 266 females, 113 were married, 136 were children of families, and 16 were unattached. Of the 136 children of families, only 15 were aged 15 or greater, with the oldest being 20. This was because the families were young, and women tended to marry early.

The vast majority of the females in Jefferson were either married or the young children (under 15) of married women.

Of the 16 unattached, four were heads of families. These were older women with children, indicating that they were widowed or divorced.

Of the remaining 12, all lived with other families and ranged in age from infant to 58. These were apparently mostly relations or children of friends located elsewhere, because only two are shown with occupations.

Housewife was not an occupational category in the census. Only three women are shown with occupations. One of these was a married music teacher (Rachael Smither). The other two were the 21-year-old milliner Mary Tillus, who lived in the house of Frederick Stutz, and the 28-year-old teacher M. Marton, who lived in the house of Ephraim

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Medium 9780253016447

1. Nabil Maleh: Syria’s Leopard (Syria)

Edited by Josef Gugler Indiana University Press ePub

Christa Salamandra

The anti-regime uprising that began in Syria in 2011 lends a particular poignancy and urgency to a discussion of filmmaker Nabil Maleh’s life and work. The eminent director epitomizes the figure of the artist-activist, the socially committed and politically engaged cultural producer. Over decades of production and across genres, his work has challenged artistic, cultural, and political regimes. Maleh often cites a defining moment of childhood resistance: the seven-year-old Nabil confronted a soldier who tried to keep him off a public park swing so that military officers’ children could have free rein. In return for his defiance, the boy received a slap which, as Maleh puts it, echoed throughout his life.1

Aesthetics and ethics merged early in the director’s life. Born in 1936, the son of a high ranking army physician, and eldest of four siblings in an elite Damascene family, Maleh credits his mother for shaping his artistic and political sensibilities. Samiha al-Ghazi, an educated woman from a family of high-ranking nationalist activists and politicians, encouraged her son’s creative pursuits from an early age and instilled an enduring resistance to authority. At nine Maleh attended his first political protest, for the Palestinian cause; at fourteen he had a poem about Vietnam published in a Beirut newspaper. Soon afterward he became a political cartoonist and columnist for the Syrian daily Alif Baa, writing of the 1950s tumult: multiple coups d’état in Syria, the Suez Canal Crisis, and the Baghdad Pact. Upon completing secondary school Maleh worked as a substitute teacher in Syria’s rural northeast, experiencing firsthand “a world of barefoot children, unjust labor, and the wasted future of generations.”

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Medium 9780253019301

8 Becoming Ottoman in Sixteenth-Century Aintab

Christine IsomVerhaaren Indiana University Press ePub

Leslie Peirce

A GENERATION after its surrender to Sultan Selim I in August 1516, the city of Aintab and the province of which it was the capital were busy adjusting to the new Ottoman presence and exploiting it as well. For a northern Syrian province whose recent overlords had resided to the south—in Cairo, Damascus, or Aleppo—Istanbul demanded a radically new orientation. But if the Ottoman conquest meant subordination to imperial policies, it did not mean wholesale domination by the capital. The governors, judges, and soldiers assigned to Aintab by the ruling regime included numerous local individuals. More important, Ottoman practice depended heavily on the cooperation of provincial power brokers, especially in the aftermath of conquest.

Aintab entered the Ottoman domains in a period when the empire was still “becoming.” Selim’s huge conquests of 1514 and 1516–1517 doubled its size, and the process of absorbing new territories was far from immediate. It was only around 1536 that Aintab began to appear regularly in records of the province’s integration into imperial networks of administration. Two kinds of Ottoman bookkeeping provide the portrait of Aintab sketched here. One is the case records kept by the judge of the Aintab court. The other is the detailed land and census surveys (tahrirs) periodically carried out by the Ottoman regime; the Aintab surveys of 1536 and 1543 are bookends for the period this chapter focuses on.

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Medium 9781574416305

Chapter 1: The Antebellum and Civil War Years

Richard F. Selcer UNT Press PDF


A History of Fort Worth in Black & White

post’s founder, owned a body servant, and so did his First Lieutenant,

Washington P. Street. In that day and age, white men who grew up in the South, regardless of where they had been born, considered slavery part of the normal order of things. Men owned slaves, not necessarily a field full, but more than likely a personal or body servant if they could afford one. Lieutenant Washington Street grew up in the upper Midwest of Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa—abolitionist country. But when military service took him to Texas he was accompanied by London Triplett, a black man who had worked for the family in some unspecified capacity for years. Family lore has it that Triplett was a free man, and having a last name suggests that, but it is also hard to imagine a black man in antebellum Texas being able to come and go as he pleased. It is equally hard to imagine a young Army lieutenant paying servant’s wages out of his meager salary. Army life on the frontier was different from the world that gentlemen officers came from. Far beyond the pale of civilization, they might keep a black slave or live with an Indian squaw when they would never have done either back home.2

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Medium 9781574414998

Chapter 19. Joe Robert Shaw, 1918

Bob Alexander University of North Texas Press PDF


Joe Robert Shaw, 1918

Chapter 19

Joe Robert Shaw


Th e day after Independence Day 1918 twenty-eight-year-old Joe

Robert Shaw laid aside his leggings and catch-rope, intent on shifting career gears from cowboy to cop: A Texas Ranger. What his wife thought about the switch would be but guesswork, but there’s little doubt she, as the mother of two, vacillated between pride and apprehension. Joe Robert was on the right side. Flipping the coin, she also knew Joe Robert’s posting in the Lower Rio Grande Valley near the southern tip of Texas would not be a cakewalk.1

Joe Robert Shaw’s reporting to Company G headquarters in

Hidalgo County would be a genuine eye-opener for the young Rangerto-be. Butting up against the Rio Grande the locale was far diff erent from the rolling hills interspersed with live oaks where he had grown up. Th ere were no palm trees, seagulls, sharks, and salty Gulf breezes in that interior Texas country drained by the Guadalupe, Navidad, and Lavaca Rivers. Where Joe Robert actually had fi rst seen the light of day has not been historically nailed down. However, geography he tramped over and rode horses across as a youngster and into manhood is not worthy of nitpicking dispute. Joe Robert Shaw, when asked where he was from declared he hailed from Yoakum, Lavaca

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Medium 9781574411638


Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF


The designer of the Harding family of projectiles has proved to be the most elusive of any of the designers of Civil War projectiles. The author searched in vain at the National

Archives, the Museum of the Confederacy, the Library of Virginia, and talked with librarians at the Charleston Historical Society and the Charleston Museum. No information was found to identify Harding.

This family of projectiles owes its “Harding” name to a series of photographs taken at the Charleston Arsenal shortly after the war. In preparing projectiles to be photographed, someone had meticulously assembled about 50 pieces of heavy artillery projectiles and torpedoes and painted the names and calibers on most of them. Among those, were more than a dozen projectiles labeled “Harding.” (See front of dust jacket.)

During modern times some 11 different types and calibers of projectiles from this family have been recovered in various locations around Charleston and along the South

Carolina coast. Based on their recovery locations, Harding projectiles may have appeared as early as 1863, certainly by 1864. They continued to be used until Confederate forces abandoned Charleston as General Sherman began to move north from Savannah towards

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Medium 9781574412376

twelve: The future of hate

William and Rosalie Schiff and Craig Hanley University of North Texas Press PDF

chapter twelve

The future of hate

Warsaw ghetto fighter Alexander Donat did not consider the Holocaust the last chapter in the book of human cruelty.

He saw it as the preface to a future age of total chaos. With great passion and urgency Donat warned that a new generation would destroy the world with nuclear war unless mankind could keep hate from seizing power again.

Near the site of the Kennedy assassination, the West End district in downtown Dallas is a collection of old warehouses that have been redone as restaurants, shops, and nightclubs.

The temporary quarters of the Dallas Holocaust Museum occupy a corner by an old railroad track. William and Rosalie lecture here at least twice a week.

In the auditorium today they tell the short version of their story to eighty-three seventh graders from a suburban school district. It’s a tale that museum director Elliott Dlin is careful to put in context.

“The Schiffs are very much the exception,” he says.

They survived the Holocaust; most did not. So we shouldn’t look for patterns or models of survival. The

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Medium 9781574416220

Chapter Six: Hue—February 1968

Alec Wahlman University of North Texas Press ePub

The battle for Hue began with US and South Vietnamese (SVN) forces in possession of the city. The initial communist assault rapidly captured most of the city, but this chapter focuses on the subsequent four-week US/SVN counteroffensive that followed. During the initial assault there were so few American forces present in the city that an examination of that phase would shed no useful light on American capabilities. The communist forces at Hue comprised both North Vietnamese Army (NVA) regulars and Viet Cong (VC) guerrillas. Hue would also be unlike the other urban battles as US forces could leverage their control of the sea to lend extensive naval gunfire and logistical support. The American forces in Vietnam had benefited from advances in air strike, air mobility, and aerial resupply capabilities since Korea, although those advances created a greater dependency on fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft by the ground forces. That dependency would cause difficulties when the weather at Hue seriously hampered US air operations.

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Medium 9780253001764

19. Ekaterina Sabashnikova-Baranovskaia (1859–?)

Edited by Stephen M Norris and Willard Indiana University Press ePub



At my father’s death I was left an orphan, and in charge of a large family and a substantial and dispersed estate. When I married Aleksandr Baranovskii, who was twice my age, I naturally expected to find my husband a support for my orphaned family. So in the first year of marriage I presented my husband with the right to conduct the affairs of my sisters and brothers, over which my uncle, my father’s brother, stood guardian. The guardian died a year after my marriage. . . . My husband then proposed that his brother Egor take the guardian’s place. None of my siblings wanted that, and not knowing Egor at all, instinctively neither did I. But my husband was so insistent and my resistance elicited such dissatisfaction from him that eventually I gave in. His brother moved into our home, assumed control over our affairs, and ruled over everything despotically. . . .

My husband demanded that I bring the children to his brother Egor’s estate and said that if I failed to do so voluntarily, he would take them by force. He took the children and brought them to his brother’s house, leaving them in the company of alien, non-Russian people in Mogilev.

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Medium 9781574414349

9 The Battle of Mang Thit

Lam Quang Thi University of North Texas Press PDF

9 the battle of mang thit

IT IS NO SECRET THAT the U.S. media was hostile to the Viet Nam

War. The war was presented from unfavorable angles, with the media sensationalizing the news and distorting the truth if necessary, to achieve its antiwar objectives. I believe that the media played a major role in the final downfall of South Viet Nam. A Vietnamese journalist who was sympathetic to the Communist cause during the war and who escaped to Paris after the fall of Saigon said: “A physician who makes an error kills his patient; a general who makes an error kills one division; a journalist who makes an error kills an entire country.” And this was exactly what happened in Viet Nam.

Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap stated in a French television broadcast that his most important guerrilla during the Viet Nam War was the American press. This was a tragic compliment.

As a division commander, I had an interesting experience with a self-proclaimed Viet Nam expert. Harvey Meyerson, a professor at the University of Hawaii, decided one day to go to Viet Nam and write a book about the war as it was a fashionable thing to do in those days. However, in lieu of traveling all across the country as other correspondents did, he chose to stay in one province to observe the progress of the pacification program and the war in that province. He tried, from these observations, to reach conclusions about the Viet Nam War as a whole. The province he chose happened to be Vinh Long, located between the Mekong and Bassac

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Medium 9780253011510

1 The Shtetl: A Historical Landscape

Jeffrey Veidlinger Indiana University Press ePub

Reading Yiddish literature as a child, I used to imagine the shtetl as a Smurf village, an oasis fantasyland populated with peaceful, joyous, and simple Jews, singing Yiddish songs and humming Hasidic tunes. This blissful flow of life would only be interrupted sporadically by the marauding Cossacks, who, I imagined, lived in the outskirts of the village, plotting like the Smurf’s nemesis Gargamel against the Jews. My images were probably influenced by the likes of Maurice Samuel, who did much to bring the idea of the shtetl to American audiences in the 1960s, although I only encountered his writings much later. In 1963, he described the shtetl as an “impregnable citadel of Jewishness.” “The Shtetlach!” he continued, “Those forlorn little settlements in a vast and hostile wilderness, isolated alike from Jewish and non-Jewish centers of civilization, their tenure precarious, their structure ramshackle, their spirit squalid.”1 In one of the first academic articles published on the shtetl as a sociological phenomenon, Natalie Joffe referred to the shtetl as “a culture island.”2 To Elie Wiesel, the Shtetl (spelled occasionally in his rendition with a capital S) is a “small colorful Jewish kingdom so rich in memories.”3 In Wiesel’s imagination, “No matter where it is located on the map, the shtetl has few geographical frontiers. . . . In its broad outlines, the shtetl is one and same everywhere.”4 It has become customary to write about the shtetl as an ur-space located outside of any particular time or place. Countless “composite-collective” portraits of “the Shtetl” have emerged in the Jewish imagination, as though no further geographic distinction is necessary. Some refrain from naming individual shtetls and instead write of an imagined “Shtetlland.”5 Wiesel’s portrait purposefully exemplifies the duality of this tragic and nostalgic image:

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Medium 9780253012586

26. Giving and Taking

Anand Pandian Indiana University Press ePub

I was born in some small village, somewhere. I went to Burma, never thinking that I’d come back to India. If the Second World War hadn’t happened, I would have remained in Burma. I would have lived as a Burmese man with other Burmese people. Who knows, I might have even married a Burmese woman.

There was no one to teach me discipline in those days. Amma left us when I was a small boy. I was still young when Appa died. My brothers never told me firmly that I had to do one thing and not another. There was no one around to say such things to me. And even if they had been there, I would never have listened.

I grew up as I wished, lived as I wished, and made it to this place in life on my own. It was only until the eighth grade that I studied, before going off to work at the age of thirteen. My schooling was poor. I know three or four languages. But how many languages are there in the world? A thousand? Eight thousand? Maybe eight thousand, eight hundred and eighty-eight, shouldn’t there be at least this many?

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