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13 The Paris Peace Accords and the Fall of Indochina, 1973–1975

Larry H. Addington Indiana University Press ePub

The American bombing of North Vietnam under Operation LINEBACKER II had brought the communists back to the negotiating table at Paris, but except for giving up their demand that President Thieu resign as head of the Saigon government they did not move far from their previous positions in negotiations. They were especially inflexible on the issue of partitioning South Vietnam into communist-controlled and Saigon-controlled areas, and they insisted on the continued presence of PAVN troops in the so-called liberated zones.

President Nixon’s delegation was in no position to haggle over these issues. On 3–4 January 1973, the Democratic caucuses in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives had voted by large majorities in favor of cutting off all funding for the war as soon as the U.S. troop withdrawal from South Vietnam was complete and all American prisoners of war were repatriated. If America’s war in Vietnam was not ended soon, Congress threatened to take even more drastic action. Even so, President Thieu still vigorously objected to the peace plan. In order to get Thieu’s acceptance of it, Nixon gave his personal promise of American air and naval support if the communists violated the armistice terms and resumed hostilities. In addition, Nixon threatened to cut off all further military and economic aid to South Vietnam if Thieu continued to block the peace process. A still reluctant South Vietnamese government finally withdrew its objections to the peace plan on 21 January.

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Medium 9780253357229

5: The Legacies of the Repression

Nanci Adler Indiana University Press ePub



The Legacies of the Repression

The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the demise of the Party had not been foreseen by either Communists or non-Communists. But the Communist faithful were particularly ill-prepared to make sense of the disappearance of an empire, much less the political institution that had successfully conflated itself with “the people” and patriotism. Where, now, was meaning to be found, especially for those raised in Soviet orphanages, where the policy was to indoctrinate them to believe that their parents’ incarceration was justified by a now defunct Party? Their narratives describe an amalgam of idealism and alienation, as well as an intermingling of open and clandestine rejections of Communism. But the narrators are often so guarded that it is difficult to distinguish between their accommodation to the immutable and their assimilation of the immutable—probably even for them.

As the orphaned and displaced “heirs of the Gulag,” the children of executed or imprisoned Communist loyalists bore unique political and psychological burdens. But all the “heirs of Stalin” had to find a way of adapting to Stalin's immediate and long-term influence. Some were infected by the repression and became carriers of the repression; others became resisters of repression and tried to spread resistance. In this final chapter, we will explore some of the questions that confronted the second generation (the children of repressed loyalists), and look at the short- and long-term legacies of decades of repression. In conclusion we will consider what, if anything, might be learned from a repression that had succeeded and a system that failed.

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Medium 9781574412567

Preface by Kenneth L. Untiedt

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574412383

“Traveling Texan”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

TRAVELING TEXAN by Archie P. McDonald

People just can’t stay put. As much as we love hometowns, or

Texas, or America, curiosity and horizons summon us to adventures beyond the seas. Texans, no less than Connecticut Yankees, wander the world with itchy feet and wide eyes at the wonder of it all.

I joined the caravan late. Apart from occasional excursions across the Rio Grande, I was dangerously close to the epitaph I read in an old novel a half century ago: “Here is my butt, the very watermark of all my sails.” Title and author escape me now, so this is as much attribution as I can muster for a line I wish I had written.

Then, in 1986, Ab and Hazel Abernethy tolerated my tagging along with them to Australia for three weeks on a folklore exchange. Ask Ab about our assignment to entertain the inebriated crew of the USS Joseph Kennedy, in port at American River on Kangaroo Island, South Australia, or the controversies that come with comparison of Queensland versus South Australia beer.

The passport acquired for visiting Australia got another stamp in 1990, when the fellow slated to escort fifteen high schoolers on a three-week summer trip to Germany had to withdraw. “Have passport and will travel,” says I, when the chairman of the exchange committee asked me to take over. The deal involved round-trip airfare and home stay with Rotarians in three cities.

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Medium 9781574414707

Chapter 16

Mark T. Smokov University of North Texas Press PDF


Death of the Rustler King


latnose George Currie did not accompany Sundance and Kid Curry to southern Colorado after the Wilcox train robbery, but it was too risky to remain in the area of Hole-in-the-Wall. By December 1899 he was rustling cattle in the Green River country of Utah, and had thrown in with rustler Tom Dilley. While working for the Webster Cattle Company on Hill Creek above Thompson, Dilley had got into a fight with the manager named Fullerton, and Sam Jenkins, a cowboy. All that winter

Dilley and Currie built up a herd by blotching brands, particularly on

Webster cattle. In April 1900 Currie was caught in the act by an employee and ordered off the ranch. The man went for the authorities after

Currie warned him off with his six-gun.1

Grand County Sheriff Jesse M. Tyler and Uintah County Sheriff

William Preece combined posses, and set out to capture the rustler or rustlers. They discovered a deserted camp not far from the McPherson

Ranch on the Green River. The posse searched through the hills until, about noon the next day, they came upon Currie on foot, looking for some stray horses. He answered the command to surrender by firing at the posse with his Winchester and retreating toward the Green River. He reached the river by dark, and either swam across or built a crude raft for the purpose. The morning of April 17 found Currie settled among some boulders on a hill near the river, ready for a siege. Sheriff Preece and his men tried to pick off the outlaw from across the river, while Sheriff

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Medium 9780253332516

13 Unveiling the Orisha

Sandra T Barnes Indiana University Press ePub

Philip Scher

Peoples of African descent in the New World do make of Africa and Slavery a profound presence in their cultural worlds, and seek rather to describe the tradition of discourse in which they participate, the local network of power and knowledge in which they are employed, and the kinds of identities they serve to fashion.

—David Scott

The legacy of African American anthropology in the United States until recently was marked in large part by a search for cultural survivals. From the scouring of the material and cultural worlds of African Americans for “Africanisms” (Holloway 1990), to the more abstract and perhaps more sensitive search for “grammars” of African origin still operating in African American patterns of behavior and aesthetics (Mintz and Price 1976), the task has been essentially the same: to authenticate an African past for New World descendants of Africans.1 It has been pointed out that investigations into African American culture that stress authentication at some level ignore the very real and active uses to which the past is put by African Americans themselves.2

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Medium 9780253356871


Luan, Nguyen Công ePub

In my early childhood, “war” was one among the first abstract words I learned before I could have the least perception of its meaning. It was when World War II began. When I was a little older, I saw how war brought death and destruction when American bombers attacked some Japanese installations near my hometown. But it was the wars in my country after 1945 that resulted in the greatest disasters to my people.

Particularly, the 1955–75 Việt Nam War has been the most destructive in Việt Nam history and the most controversial in the United States as well as in many countries in the world. The debate seems endless, the arguments contradicting.

Before and since April 1975, there have been conferences, teach-ins, books, reports, and movies about the Việt Nam Wars after 1945. I realized that many of them contained incorrect and insufficient information, one-sided and superficial arguments, and erroneous figures. There have been conferences held outside Việt Nam about the war, but among many hundreds of participants, there was not a single Vietnamese from either side.

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Medium 9781607321811

FIFTEEN Hunt, War, and Wobblies

David R. Berman University Press of Colorado ePub

Following a recount of the votes cast during the 1916 gubernatorial election, the Maricopa County Superior Court awarded the governorship to Thomas E. Campbell on December 16, 1916. Hunt went to the State Supreme Court seeking a reversal by charging vote fraud. The State Supreme Court’s final decision, which came a year after Campbell became governor, gave the election to Hunt by forty-three votes and put him back in office on December 23, 1917.1

During the time Campbell served as governor, several developments took place that were ultimately detrimental to Hunt and the cause of reform. With Hunt out of the way and Campbell in power, mine owners suddenly had a friend in the governor’s office. They used the improved political environment to step up their attack on organized labor, in hopes of wiping out the unions. The US entry into the ongoing war in Europe on April 6, 1917, gave corporations the weapon of patriotism to use against radicals who opposed US involvement and against union activity that appeared to interfere with the war effort. Critics and disruptors were labeled unpatriotic, if not outright enemy agents.

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Medium 9780253009685

13. No Exit: Yemen’s Existential Crisis

David McMurray Indiana University Press ePub


A venal dictatorship three decades old, mutinous army officers, dissident tribal sheikhs, a parliamentary opposition coalition, youthful pro-democracy activists, gray-haired Socialists, gun-toting cowboys, veiled women protesters, northern carpetbaggers, Shi‘i insurgents, tear gas canisters, leaked State Department cables, foreign-born jihadis—Yemen’s demi-revolutionary spring had it all. The mass uprising in southern Arabia blended features of the peaceful popular revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia with elements of the state repression in Libya and Syria in a gaudy, fast-paced, multi-layered theater of revolt verging on the absurd.

President ‘Ali ‘Abdallah Salih stalled and contrived to avoid signing a late April 2011 deal brokered by Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) neighbors desperate to restore a semblance of stability in the most populous corner of the Arabian Peninsula. The GCC extracted a verbal promise from Salih to resign the presidency after a period of thirty days. But convincing him to make good on his pledge under conditions satisfactory to Yemeni elites, the pro-democracy movement and interested foreign parties was a gargantuan task, requiring more diplomatic legerdemain than had been brought to bear. On April 30, instead of signing onto the proposed agreement, Salih sent tanks firing live ammunition to clear some fifteen hundred campers from a central square in the Mansoura district of the southern port city of Aden. ‘Abd al-Latif al-Zayani, secretary-general of the six-nation GCC, who had flown to the Yemeni capital of Sanaa to meet with Salih, returned to Saudi Arabia red-faced and empty-handed.

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Medium 9780929398150

1. Hairpins on the trail

Joyce Gibson Roach University of North Texas Press PDF


Hairpins on the Trail

owhere are cowboys, both real and imaginary, more noticeable than on cattle drives. From journals and diaries to the silver screen, the drama of stampede, crossing the herd, prairie fire, storm, bandits, Indians, gunplay and death is clearly a man's province. The few women in the fictional treatments are generally at the end of the trail waiting to offer comfort. Some go so far as to say that there were no women on cattle drives, just as there were no women on board sailing ships, period. The thought of women going up the trail with wild animals and rough men offended the sensibilities of polite society, or it might have ifpolite society had known such a state of affairs was going on in a remote part of the continent where even neighbors did not see each other once a year.

Women, of course, did go up the trail. They shattered old standards and left behind evidence that they were there with the first herds. But they weren't called cowgirls.

The mountains of Colorado provided a properly rugged setting for a drive where a new hand took breakfast with the crew and then mounted up to help gather a thousand Longhorns scattered in the canyons and valleys around Long's Peak.

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Medium 9780876111970

3. Urban Growth and Industrialization (1876–1900)

Selcer, Richard F. Texas State Historical Assn Press ePub



NEARING THE END OF ITS THIRD DECADE of existence, Fort Worth was at a crossroads in 1876. The coming of the railroad had saved the town, but its continued well-being was still tied inseparably to cattle and agriculture. While this was not likely to change in the foreseeable future, Fort Worthers were nonetheless determined to create an industrialized city atop the agricultural and livestock foundation. As the Fort Worth Gazette stated in 1887, “the days of the cow pony and the lariat are passed, and we are face to face with the fierce struggle for commercial supremacy.”1 Since industry typically followed on the heels of the railroad, Fort Worth had already taken the first step to realizing its dream of being a commercial-industrial center. As the number of rail lines into Fort Worth multiplied in the 1880s, so did the city’s attractiveness to major industries.

No longer just a stopover on the way north to Kansas railheads, Fort Worth was now home to a number of powerful cattle companies, including the Brazos Cattle Company, capitalized at $100,000 and the Topeka Cattle Company, capitalized at $200,000. The railroad reservation was covered with acres of cattle pens, all built and maintained by the Texas & Pacific. Before the end of 1877 the town had a slaughterhouse and refrigeration plant. That same year saw the first boxcar loaded with beef quarters on ice leave Fort Worth on the way to the eastern market. In a few years Fort Worth would have “the most extensive cattle yards in the state” though its slaughtering and shipping facilities left much to be desired. “Cowtown” with a capital “C” was the new nickname for “Fort Town,” and no wonder. By one estimate, half of the 343 business firms in town in 1884 would have had to shut down or move if the seasonal stream of cattle quit flowing through Fort Worth.2

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Medium 9781576336458

World War II: GED US History

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9780870819285

CHAPTER FIVE Reflections

Kenichiro Shimada University Press of Colorado ePub

Beyond heightening the possibilities for critical evaluation of the WRAPS photos, what ramifications does this analysis offer? There may in fact be an enduring value to the WRAPS photographs, whatever their historical origins were. If my analysis of the performative nature of WRAPS work is accurate, then I submit that the photos by themselves have no necessary or inherent meaning.

Even if the WRAPS images bear the traces of power that overdetermined their social relations of production in the first place, there is no reason the photos cannot be appropriated and redeployed for new purposes and with new visions in mind. That much has happened already, albeit selectively. In fact, the wholesale reappropriation of WRA photographs has been going on since at least the 1970s. In the pre-Redress context the manifestations of this reappropriation had largely to do with the use of the WRA’s own photos to illustrate the injustices that mass incarceration entailed.1 If this is so, also possible are additional configurations of meaning far beyond what the WRA and its postwar critics intended or even anticipated.

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Medium 9780253018595

Remembering SA-I-GU

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

an interview with Dai Sil Kim-Gibson

DAI SIL KIM-GIBSON is the co-director, along with Christine Choy, of Sa-I-Gu, an acclaimed documentary film about the Los Angeles riots that focuses on the perspectives of Korean American women. The film’s title literally translates to “4-2-9,” or April 29, which is what many Korean Americans call the uprising in keeping with the Korean practice of naming important events by their date. PBS broadcasted Sa-I-Gu in 1993, and since then, the film has been screened in many venues, including numerous film festivals and universities.

Kim-Gibson left Korea in 1962 to pursue graduate studies in the United States. After holding positions with the National Endowment for the Humanities and the New York State Council on the Arts, she decided in 1988 to devote herself to filmmaking. In addition to Sa-I-Gu, she is the director of Wet Sand: Voices from L.A. and Silence Broken: Korean Comfort Women. The latter film was critical in raising awareness about the Japanese military’s practice of forcing Korean women into sexual servitude during World War II. Kim-Gibson is also the author of the recent book, Looking for Don: A Meditation, which brings together writings she composed after the passing of her husband. She is the first Korean American filmmaker granted official permission to film in North Korea, where she herself was born. Both personal and historical, her film on North Korea, People Are the Sky, is in the editing stage and set to be completed in 2014.

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Medium 9781574415476

21. To Kiamitia

Edited and Annotated by Jacques D. Bagur University of North Texas Press PDF

The Reminiscences    139

advertised his Jonesboro land consisting of 8,196 acres (450 acres improved) for sale for $8,000 in the June 26, 1844, Clarksville Northern Standard, noting that it had only been partially flooded once in the previous 20 years. This offer had been preceded by a January 15, 1840, Arkansas Gazette advertisement for the sale of his plantation near Jonesboro and a September 10, 1842, Northern

Standard advertisement for the sale of three tracts of land on the Red River in the Jonesboro Prairie that included 300 acres of cleared land.

14. The August 2, 1851, Clarksville Northern Standard contains an

“Administrator’s Sale” advertisement concerning the succession of James H.

Johnston that includes 4,996 acres in Cass and Titus counties.

15. This was probably the New York that advertised for Coats Bluff in the

January 8, 1838, New Orleans Commercial Bulletin. William Lytle’s Merchant

Steam Vessels of the United States, 1807–1868 lists a New York that was a 105-ton sidewheeler built in Cincinnati in 1835.

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