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Medium 9781607321484

9. Battlegrounds in the Courts

Donald L. Fixico University Press of Colorado ePub

Since the turn of the twentieth century, American Indian tribes have learned new ways to defend the natural resources on their reservations. The days of sending warriors against the U.S. Army have faded into history, and Indian leaders have adopted new tactics as the battleground has shifted. A long history of exploitation has rudely taught today’s sophisticated leaders to depend on the law, for they now understand that trust relations with the United States are their best weapons to use in defending their rights and resources in the federal courts. This approach was tried before, but success for the tribes did not occur consistently until the twentieth century. How to make the law work for them has been the objective, but an understanding of the law and its forum is a prerequisite for the tribes.

The key lies in recognizing, first, that the trust status between the United States and the Indian tribes binds the federal government to a set of responsibilities to the tribes and, second, that the courts and laws should be used to ensure that those responsibilities are met. Since the 1970s, tribes have learned to use the trust status to their maximum advantage in protecting their natural resources, preserving their lands, and reminding the federal government of its obligations as established in treaties.

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Medium 9781607321521

III. The Chino Years

Christopher J. Huggard University Press of Colorado ePub

THE OPEN PIT, THE MEN, AND THEIR METHODS

The Chino Copper Company initiated open-pit mining on September 23, 1910. That day the new corporation’s Marion 91 steam shovel Number 2 scooped its first bucket of low-grade porphyry copper (see figure 3.1). Thus began the stairstep descent in the quest to remove hundreds of millions of tons of earth peppered with minute flakes of copper deep in the bowels of the mountainous terrain. A new era had dawned at Santa Rita. Using the latest economies-of-scale technology, the newly incorporated mining company joined the international open-pit copper family that would dominate the industry throughout the twentieth century. No longer would underground high-grade mining feed America’s frenzied demand for the red metal. Rather, aboveground, low-grade digging would characterize the extraction of the most popular base metal. Chino was part of the growing American domination of the industry that by 1916 led the world with nearly 60 percent of overall copper production. This exploding North American supply provided copper for the expanding military arsenals of the globe, and the highly conductible metal played a key role in the rise of consumer demands in the 1910s and later for electricity, automobiles, and appliances.1 This worldwide need, combined with the application of new open-pit technology, changed Santa Rita’s dormant potential from one of little hope to one with the promise of a prosperous future.

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Medium 9781574416220

Chapter Five: Seoul—September 1950

Alec Wahlman University of North Texas Press ePub

General Douglas MacArthur's bold Inchon landings on 15 September 1950 were but a means to an end. The true objective of Operation CHROMITE was Seoul, as its capture would simultaneously cut off the bulk of the North Korean People's Army (NKPA) in the south from its primary supply hub and its principal escape route back north. An added incentive, especially for someone with MacArthur's flair for publicity, was the notoriety of recapturing an allied capital city.

Most of the defenders of Seoul were North Korean units that had been recently assembled, with little experience or training for the rank and file. Some of these units were leavened with experienced officers, and a few other units rushed up from the south. However, the caliber of most of these defending forces was not the same as those NKPA units that had crossed the 38th parallel four months earlier.

Unlike Aachen and Manila, which involved forces seasoned by several years of war, US forces at Seoul were a hastily assembled collection of units that included some personnel with World War II combat experience, but many without. Another difference from the two World War II battles was the reduced level of effort by US commanders to seal off the city. Unlike the combination of skill and luck that allowed American forces to avoid the primary enemy defensive positions guarding Aachen and Manila, the primary American thrust into Seoul would run headlong into the primary NKPA defensive position holding it.

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Medium 9781607321651

Four: In the Shadow of the Mission Inn

Mark Rawitsch University Press of Colorado ePub

We wish to form a colony of intelligent, industrious and enterprising people, so that each one’s industry will help to promote his neighbor’s interest as well as his own.

John Wesley North, “A Colony for California,” March 17, 1870

California has always been a land of possibilities. Its borders have never prevented dreamers from crossing, challenging, and forever changing the way of life here, and many a dream has been realized, or at least imagined, in this free land of the sunset at the edge of the Pacific. The origins of Riverside were no exception. In the spring of 1870, entrepreneur John Wesley North, an abolitionist who had already developed new communities in the Minnesota and Nevada territories, proclaimed from Knoxville, Tennessee, new plans for “A Colony for California.” With his friend Dr. James P. Greves, another anti-slavery advocate, North was promoting the settlement of a community in Southern California near the lines of the newly constructed Southern Pacific Railroad. After considering a variety of potential new townsites scattered throughout the state, North and his colonists finally settled in the south, just across the Rio Santa Ana from the crumbling adobes of the old Louis Robidoux Ranch. They founded their new community on nearly vacant livestock grazing lands in what was then San Bernardino County, not far from San Salvador, the earlier frontier river-bottom settlements of La Placita and Agua Mansa. San Salvador occupied part of the old Jurupa Rancho at the northwestern boundary of an arid region inhabited for many generations by the small family lineages and clans of the First People later called the Cahuilla Indians.1

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Medium 9781574411386

Sketch Maps

Fred L. Edwards, Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9780253015822

7 A General Out of Step: North Africa, 1940–41

Anthony Clayton Indiana University Press ePub

Regarding much of Weygand’s life, admirers pay their respects, sometimes perhaps too generously, detractors pour out their criticisms, often unjustly or harshly, and the small details of his daily life and work are not fully covered—for example, the impression Weygand made on individuals who were later to matter or on groups of soldiers whose impressions were apparently too insignificant to record. Above all, this is true in the period of Weygand’s command in North Africa, where his presence, covert actions, and personal example were very real, but difficult to quantify and easy to belittle. He was to create an ethos: “We are not here just to defend North Africa, but to prepare to clear the enemy out of France.” He always referred to the Germans as “les boches” and their activities as “les bocheries.” His February 1941 secret instructions to regiments and garrisons concluded with exhortations to make every effort for their love of their country and their “longing for revenge,” in particular to remember their duties, train hard, and keep fit. Improved morale and self-confidence had in fact already begun.

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Medium 9781574414820

Chapter 11. Percy Heard and the War Years

Mitchel P. Roth and Tom Kennedy University of North Texas Press ePub

11

PERCY HEARD AND THE WAR YEARS

As the 1930s came to conclusion, city politics were as complicated and acrimonious as ever as a new mayor took office and a new police chief was appointed. L. C. Brown became police chief in January 1939 and almost immediately set about putting his stamp on the force by demoting twenty-six police officers, forcing seven to retire and firing three others. He also closed three police substations and promoted many of the officers that Holcombe had demoted during his administration to their former ranks.1

The same year that saw the release of Gone with the Wind and The Wizard of Oz also saw HPD open its first police training school for new recruits, under the direction of Captain L. D. Morrison. The five-week classes were conducted at the Sam Houston Coliseum. Moving farther away from its roots in patronage politics, the department subjected new recruits to more requirements than simple political party affiliation. In 1939, HPD adopted a military model for screening potential officers. Of the first 362 who passed the initial exam (out of 597), only seventy were selected as recruits and of these only fifty graduated. But due to budgetary constraints, only twenty-four would wear the HPD blue. The remaining twenty-six were put on a waiting list and would be considered for future jobs on the force or as special police officers. One of the questions asked on the written exam was, “Why do you want to be a police officer?” The same question was still on the test seventy years later.

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Medium 9780870818004

15 THE GREAT DEPRESSION

Stephen J. Leonard University Press of Colorado ePub

Within the last three years—a bank failure—a motor
accident—long severe illness of my son, and this thing called
depression. Now we are really quite hungry.1

—JENETTE BERESFORD TO CHARLES BOETTCHER,
MAY 12, 1932

In 1930 most Coloradans—or at least most of the official spokespersons—would have denied that their state was suffering from the Great Depression. “Look at The Denver Post and the Rocky Mountain News,” they might have told a visitor, “as fat as ever with advertising. Does that show a state in trouble? Look at the employment rate, higher than that in the rest of the country. The Depression may be a problem for the industrialized East, but it isn’t for us. Our resources protect us. Our climate protects us. It won’t happen here.”

Such bravura was short-lived. By late 1931 the entire state was in trouble, as farm commodity prices fell and trade slowed. By 1932 Denver’s bank clearings were less than half those in 1929. The economic disaster of the 1930s hit Coloradans especially hard because many of them had struggled during the 1920s. As in other parts of the Rocky Mountain West, agriculture and mining had been depressed since the end of World War I, leaving many people without surplus wealth to fall back on. The twenty years between 1920 and 1940, two decades of reduced income and limited opportunities, shaped a society that was like a hibernating bear: sluggish and resentful of change.

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Medium 9780253019394

1 Peace Overtures, the Allies, and the Holocaust, 1942–1945

Borhi, László Indiana University Press ePub

In a forgotten episode of World War II, the United States and Great Britain chose to provoke a German invasion of Hungary (and Romania) in order to “spread the Germans thin” in Western Europe and facilitate the Allied landing in France in 1944. This decision appears to have been made without concern for the last remaining Jewish community in Europe, then numbering 825,000 people, or for Hungarian democratic elements. Allied planners expected that the Germans would need ten to fifteen divisions to occupy Hungary, troops that would thus be rendered unavailable for the fighting in Normandy. No calculation seems to have been made, however, to determine whether the removal of these divisions would actually make a difference in the success of the landing and the future course of the war, or whether these expected gains would outweigh the potential murder of almost a million people. According to Allen Dulles, the calculus was a callous one: for the sake of victory, “a few hundred thousand lives would not make a difference.” In January 1942, under strong German pressure, the Hungarian government had agreed to send a Hungarian army to the eastern front. Shortly thereafter, the Hungarian regent, Miklós Horthy, appointed a new prime minister, Miklós Kállay, in hopes of restoring Hungarian independence from Germany, and later that year they made secret peace overtures to the British and Americans. Soon Romania was sending peace emissaries as well, and by refusing to take advantage of these overtures the Allies missed a chance to disrupt the Axis and thereby to bring the war to an earlier end. The geopolitical consequence of this wartime diplomacy was, in the words of the historian Frazer Harbutt, that “Soviet domination of Eastern Europe . . . had in substance been accepted by the governments of Britain and the United States by 1945.”1

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Medium 9781574416541

14. The U.S. Marshals Improvement Revolution

David S. Turk University of North Texas Press ePub
Medium 9781603440868

Chapter 3 An Economic Overview of Selected Industries Dependentupon the Gulf of Mexico 28charles m. Adams, Emilio Hernandez, and Jim Lee

James C Cato Texas A&M University Press PDF

3

An Economic Overview of

Selected Industries Dependent upon the Gulf of Mexico charles m. Adams, Emilio Hernandez, and Jim Lee

Introduction

The Gulf of Mexico is a critical source of natural resources, providing billions of dollars in tangible and intangible benefits to a variety of marine-related industries and other user groups. The economic benefits of Gulf resources flow not only to bordering states but also to the U.S. economy as a whole. Industries directly or indirectly dependent on the Gulf ecosystem include coastal development, coastal recreation and tourism, merchant shipping, offshore oil and gas production, hard mineral mining, recreational boating, and commercial fisheries. Some of these, such as commercial and recreational fishing and tourism, are entirely dependent on a healthy coastal and marine ecosystem for their existence. The rapidly growing coastal population and industrial base are placing increasing demands on the Gulf’s critical natural resources. As a result, resource managers are becoming increasingly aware of the need for aggressive measures to enable sustainable management of Gulf resources and to ensure that marinerelated user groups and industries have future access to Gulf of Mexico natural resources.

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Medium 9781574416305

Chapter 2: Reconstruction and the City’s Beginnings (1865 – 1879)

Richard F. Selcer UNT Press PDF

42

A History of Fort Worth in Black & White

blacks celebrating the news of emancipation, probably because they didn’t dare. When ex-Confederates like R.E. Beckham, B.B. Paddock, and

Abe Harris came home to post-emancipation Fort Worth they found race relations virtually unchanged from pre-war.2

Most white Texans saw Reconstruction not as a fresh start but as a foreign occupation, the “foreigners” being Yankee carpetbaggers and bluecoats. Ex-Confederate and former Texas Governor Francis R. Lubbock wrote in his memoirs that Texas was “writhing under the heel of military despotism. . . [with a] premium on ignorance and barbarism.” The latter were code words for elevation of the freedmen. When Lubbock got home from the war in December 1865 he found the state’s principal cities “crowded with lazy negroes [begging] for rations, clothing, and everything else they could secure.” He lamented the loss of his home, which had been destroyed, and adding insult to injury, “all our negroes are gone.”3

When prominent white men like John Peter Smith and B. B. Paddock returned home to Fort Worth after the war they found what they believed to be a restive black population. Some Dallas men, including June Peak, the brother of Fort Worth’s Dr. Carroll Peak, organized a Ku Klux

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Medium 9781574414714

“Buddy Holly, Beethoven, and Lubbock in the 1950s”

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF

BUDDY HOLLY, BEETHOVEN,

AND LUBBOCK IN THE 1950S by Paul H. Carlson

I love the music of Beethoven—Ludwig van Beethoven. I also like

Buddy Holly’s high energy songs, Waylon Jennings’s rebel sounds,

Virgil Johnson’s doo wop, and, in part because I grew up in Minneapolis, I love Sonny Curtis’s theme song to the once-popular

Mary Tyler Moore TV Show.

We know—those of us gathered here know [at the 92nd annual meeting of the Texas Folklore Society, in Lubbock,

Texas]—that Lubbock is a college town. It is not Ann Arbor or

Palo Alto or New Haven, but it is a college town. We know that

Lubbock is a sports town. It is not Chicago or Boston or New

York City, but it is a sports town. We know—those of us gathered here know—that Lubbock is an agricultural community. It is not a meat-packing center or an implement manufacturer of any great renown, but it is an agricultural community.

Outsiders don’t know this. Outsiders, rather, know that Lubbock is a music town. It is not a Boston Conservatory of Music town—although Texas Tech University and South Plains College have strong music departments—but it’s a music town. To outsiders, Lubbock’s music image is not the easy genius of a Mozart.

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Medium 9780253010803

8. Other Worlds to Live in: Palestinian Retrievals of Religion and Tradition under Conditions of Chronic National Collapse

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub

 

Palestinian Retrievals of Religion and Tradition under Conditions of Chronic National Collapse

LOREN D. LYBARGER

Today, perhaps more than ever, the question of Palestinian identity has become obvious and urgent. The always-fragile national consensus has ceded to open schism. In the wake of devastating interfactional bloodletting, the Islamic political movement, Hamas, now dominates the Gaza Strip while the weakened secular-nationalist Fatah movement putatively controls the West Bank. The choice for Palestinians, as it comes across in media analyses and think-tank position papers, seems stark: either an embattled secular-nationalist Fatah movement reasserts itself, or Palestine becomes “Hamastan.”1 But, even the very possibility of Palestine, or, for that matter, “Hamastan,” seems ever more unrealizable. Israel, backed by the United States and the European Union, relentlessly presses its advantage. It has expanded its settlements and road networks while extending a system of walls, fences, and checkpoints that have isolated Palestinians within their towns, villages, and camps, and in the case of Gaza, within a besieged coastal strip subject to punishing bombardments from air, sea, and land. Negotiation and armed resistance have seemed to yield little more than cynicism, despair, and death. The parties backing these diverging approaches—Fatah and Hamas, primarily—have failed to galvanize consistent broad majority support. Neither secular nationalism nor Islamism in their current forms appear to offer any clear basis for political unity and collective action.2 But if not these, then what?

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Medium 9780253008152

13 Stereotypes, Myths, and Realities Regarding African Music in the African and American Academy \ Jean Ngoya Kidula

Edited by Brandon D Lundy and Solomon N Indiana University Press ePub

For several years, the University of Georgia’s African Students Association has hosted an “African Night.” The occasion, managed by students who are recent immigrants or first-generation Africans, usually features a fashion show, a dance routine, and a play. The play typically addresses students’ transitions into college and American life. In 2009 and 2010, the plot involved a male who relocated to the United States to go to college, leaving his wife or girlfriend in Africa. While in school, the man met and married someone else: an African or an African American woman. In due course, he communicated sporadically with his family in Africa, usually leaving out controversial or “unsavory” details about the transitions or the struggles undergone to survive in the “land of plenty.” Music either framed the scenes or was central or formed a backdrop to the action. The dance routines and the fashion shows were inserted in the narrative or performed as interludes between scenes. The dances were generally of a popular urban Congolese type with a nondescript African ethnic root. The fashion show typically consisted of “African” materials and cloth sewn in contemporary trends, along with a catwalk; the modeling was set to live or canned music that was recognizably rooted in Africa.

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