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Appendix 5 • Posts in the Department of Arizona

Edited and Annotated by Charles M. Robinson III University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781576337615

19th-20th Century Japan: Praxis World History

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9780253016751

8 Post-Communism and the New History

Jeremy Black Indiana University Press ePub

THE FALL OF THE COMMUNIST REGIMES IN EASTERN EUROPE in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought together a number of post-war trends that provoked new histories, particularly the collapse of imperial rule, the creation of new, as well as newly independent, states, for example Croatia and Ukraine, and sweeping political changes. The fall of the Communist regimes had reflected the difficulty of grounding authoritarian regimes in the absence of popular support – however much the people were told that there was a dialectical necessity for the success of these regions and one located in a clear historical continuum. A lack of popularity, particularly in Eastern Europe, made it difficult for the Communist governments to view change and reform with much confidence. Rather than vindicating the Communist prospectus, the passage of time made more apparent the sham character of Communist progress.

Far from having being made redundant by the advance of Communism, nationalism reemerged publicly as a powerful force, in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, as well as in China, which ostensibly continued to be Communist. Nationalism, which became a more central political issue in the former Communist bloc from 1989, apparently offered identity, freedom, and a route to reform freed from a sclerotic imperial structure. Nationalism also entailed the rejection of Soviet and Communist history and, instead, an emphasis on the histories subordinated by both. This process led at once to a searching reevaluation of recent history and to an often-strident consideration of earlier episodes. For example, in the Baltic Republics, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, there were complaints about the Soviet annexation in 1940, complaints that led to a focus on the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 under which the annexation had taken place. This was a pact that the Soviets had done their best to ignore. Moreover, nationalism could be readily combined with the revival of public religiosity that was also prominent in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Indeed, this revival helped give a particular character to nationalism in specific contexts, most obviously with Polish Catholicism.

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Medium 9780253010742

7 In the Dulcza Forest

Jan Grabowski Indiana University Press ePub

On the eastern border of Dąbrowa County, a few miles east of Radgoszcz, there is a large wooded area, called by the locals the Dulcza forest. The name derives from two nearby villages—Little and Large Dulcza. Both hamlets are located on the territory of Mielec County (Radomyśl Wielki commune), so the victims from this area have been excluded from the counts of Jews detected and killed in Dąbrowa County. It stands to reason, however, that we should take a closer look at the situations of Jews who sought shelter in this large forest, immediately adjacent to, and partially extending into, the county of our interest—especially since many of the Jews hidden in the Dulcza forest came from Dąbrowa or from Radgoszcz, and their strategies of survival differed greatly from the experiences of people hiding in villages or in the open. The unique conditions in the forest allowed the Jewish refugees to create something akin to a family camp, known from the territories further east (such as Belorussia or the Ukraine) but practically unknown anywhere else in central Poland. We have eight testimonies that describe the living conditions of Jews hidden in the Dulcza forest. These accounts were filed shortly after the war by survivors (two small children, one fourteen-year-old boy, and three women) with the regional Jewish Historical Commissions in Tarnów and Kraków, and two (given by the same people who testified after the war) were recorded during the 1990s for the Visual History Foundation.

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Medium 9780874216257

5 The Professionalization of Farm Women

Patricia Lyn Scott Utah State University Press ePub

The Professionalization of Farm Women


Cynthia Sturgis

“Household manager, cook, laundress, seamstress, dressmaker, nurse and teacher, to say nothing of the sacred duties of wife and mother: are these duties not sufficiently varied and important to require special preparation for their performance? In what other profession would an individual be allowed to practice without experience, without training or knowledge?”1

The eighty-five farm women who heard Dalinda Cotey speak those words at the Farmers’ Institute held December 12, 1905, in Mount Pleasant, Sanpete County, no doubt appreciated this formal recognition of their many responsibilities as homemakers. It would be interesting to know their response to the rest of the statement, however. For Mrs. Cotey, a faculty member at the Utah Agricultural College in Logan, was expressing a new but increasingly powerful philosophy: that the role of the farm wife was changing, and must change, in response to the needs and values of modern industrial society. Her query was both a challenge and a threat. Under the new order, women would find their work elevated to the status of profession; but, increasingly, they must defer to outside experts who alone could instruct them in the proper way to keep a home. Decreasing autonomy was the price of a higher life-style.

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Medium 9780876111970

4. Becoming Citified (1880–1900)

Selcer, Richard F. Texas State Historical Assn Press ePub



THE PROGRESS FROM A SMALL FRONTIER OUTPOST to a major regional city was anything but steady or assured. Securing a city charter from the state legislature in 1872 (commencing February 17, 1873) did not guarantee that Fort Worth would be around to celebrate many anniversaries. The physical transformation alone took years, measured in such long strides as street lamps, graded streets, municipal water supply, full-time police and fire protection, and brick buildings. It was also measured in small steps like the first bathtub, which was installed in the Mansion Hotel sometime in the late 1870s by owner W. W. Dunn.1

One large step on the road to legitimacy as a city was the division into wards, the basic political and administrative units of urban political life. The number of wards reflects the size of the municipality. In February 1877 the city council divided Fort Worth into three wards, each electing two aldermen to sit on the council. The long delay between receiving a city charter and dividing into municipal subdivisions was the result of the 1873 Panic that had almost depopulated the city. In the following decades, Fort Worth added more wards as the city grew.

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Medium 9780253356208

2 Maasai NGOs, the Tanzanian State, and the Politics of Indigeneity

Dorothy L. Hodgson Indiana University Press ePub

Shortly after his trip to Geneva in 1989, Parkipuny and seven other Maasai men founded one of the first Maasai nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Tanzania, called Korongoro Integrated People Oriented to Conservation, or KIPOC, which also means “we shall recover” in Maa. These men clearly recognized the tensions between international recognition of indigenous peoples and state hostility toward the relevance of the concept in Tanzania: although the word “indigenous” appeared thirty-eight times in the initial twenty-two-page project document written to publicize KIPOC’s program and funding needs to international donors (KIPOC 1991), it was mentioned only once in KIPOC’s formal constitution (in reference to livestock production: “integrated indigenous livestock and wildlife system”) (KIPOC 1990), which was submitted to the Tanzanian Ministry of Home Affairs as a requirement for formal registration as an NGO under the Tanzanian Societies Ordinance. The project document echoed and elaborated many of the themes raised in Parkipuny’s 1989 address to the UN Working Group; it was full of the language and logic of the sanctity of the “cultural identity” of “indigenous” peoples and their “basic human rights” to choose the form, content, and pace of changes in their lives. According to KIPOC, the Maasai struggle was “part of the global struggle of indigenous peoples to restore respect to their rights, cultural identity and to the land of their birth” (KIPOC 1991:7).

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Medium 9781574413205

Fishing for Whoppers

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF



8:17 AM

Page 307


Whoppers come in many forms, everything from a hamburger to a big fish, but I happen to be particularly fond of the kind that are measured not by taste or size but in the telling, such as the stories that can be heard around a table on a lazy afternoon in a country tavern—or at a fish camp like the one at Indianola that the old fisherman Ed Bell operated for many years.

Known in his time as one of the best tall tale tellers on the

Texas Coast, one example would be a story that Bell always credited to a friend, Tex Wilson. It seems that Wilson and his wife had been fishing in some fairly deep water when their boat bogged down.

“It had to be four feet of water for it not to kick up any mud,” Bell explained in telling the story. “All at once it just stalled and ol’ Tex couldn’t figure it out since there weren’t any logs or anything there to stop a boat. That was when his wife looked over the bow of the boat and said, ‘Good Lord, Tex, cut that thing off and come here and look a minute.’ He did and there was a big ol’ flounder with his back just flush with the top of the water.

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Medium 9780253356376

12 Javanese Women and the Veil

KATHLEEN M ADAMS Indiana University Press ePub

Nancy Smith-Hefner

When I first lived in the Javanese university town of Yogyakarta in the late 1970s and periodically walked the grounds of the prestigious Gadjah Mada University, I could not help noticing how young female university students were dressed. At that time, the coed school “uniform” consisted of Western-style knee-length skirts and short-sleeved blouses. Fewer than 3 percent of the Muslim female student population wore the veil. When I returned to Yogyakarta in the late 1990s, the transformation was dramatic. Women students had exchanged their short skirts for pants or “maxis,” and the percentage of Muslim women on campus wearing the veil had risen to more than 60 percent.

The veiling style preferred by most Indonesian women today differs considerably from the loose-fitting headscarf known as the kerudung or kudung, which in previous generations was worn by pious Javanese women and is still today preferred by some older or traditionalist Muslim women. The kerudung is typically made from a soft, translucent fabric and is draped over the hair or over a close-fitting hat. Parts of a woman’s neck and hair may remain visible. By contrast, the “new veil” or jilbab, is a large square piece of nontransparent fabric folded so as to be drawn closely around the face and pinned securely under the chin so that the hair, ears, and neck are completely covered. The fabric reaches to the shoulders, with some styles covering the chest. The jilbab is typically worn with a loose-fitting, long-sleeved blouse or tunic and a long, ankle-length skirt or loose, wide-legged pants.

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Medium 9781607321446


Duane A. Smith University Press of Colorado ePub

For many Americans, life seemed to speed up after the arrival of the automobile. During the 1920s, these horseless carriages changed the places and the ways people lived, worked, and played. Autos enabled people to move to new suburban homes and still work, go to school, and play in the city.

Cars cost a lot of money, but during the 1920s many people had money. World War I (1914–1918) had strengthened Colorado’s economy. When the war began in Europe in 1914, Colorado farmers and ranchers found European markets for their crops and livestock. Colorado’s mining industry also enjoyed new booms in coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, tungsten, and zinc.

World War I was also a tragic time. About 43,000 Coloradans joined the armed forces, and around 1,000 of them died. After the war ended on November 11, 1918, an even deadlier menace swept the globe—the 1918 worldwide influenza (flu) epidemic. In ten months alone, flu killed more than 500,000 Americans, including 7,738 in Colorado. Every Colorado community mourned its losses. One issue of The Silverton Standard listed over 125 deaths in that small mountain mining town.

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Medium 9781574416015

4. “Several Shots and Run Him into the River”

Bob Alexander, Chief Kirby W. Dendy and Texas Rangers University of North Texas Press PDF





“Several Shots and Run Him into the River” subsequent to the annual reshufflings and readjustments and more readjustments mandated by budgetary constraints and unremitting administrative tinkering, the Frontier Battalion’s Company

F was strategically positioned at Camp Wood in the northwestern corner of what was at times wrongly referred to as Uvalde County, but was then Edwards County (county seat Rocksprings), and is now guaranteed to be spotted in southwestern Real County (Leakey).1

The unit’s commander, Lieutenant Pat Dolan, was a veteran frontline settler, survivor of a shoot-out with Mexican bandits, Indian chaser, a tried and true Ranger, the former sheriff of Uvalde County and the future sheriff of another county.2 Pat Dolan was legit!

Probing the mindset of Frank Jones, now a civilian Kendall

County farmer and a sideline spectator of the Frontier Battalion’s doings would be an unworkable exercise—at least for the short go. Such would not be the case with one of Frank’s older brothers.

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Medium 9780253009043

4 - Forgive Me, Friend: Mohammed and Ibrahim

Afterword by Kevin Dwyer Edited by Davi Indiana University Press ePub


In Morocco I tend—like many American anthropologists—to seek rapport with a smile. Retailers in Fes refer to American tourists by the code word miska—chewing gum—meaning they are all teeth and lips. (British tourists, in contrast, are ad-dam al-barid, which means cold blood.) Yet a Moroccan acquaintance of mine characterized Americans as tragically sad friends. The United States is so enormous, he said, and everyone so mobile, that “you Americans are always ready to drop a friend.” He's right, in my experience. The friendly first steps of rapport are, if not the opposite of friendship, a firm defense against it. Defense against the long-term obligations and demands of friendship may be why so many American ethnographers have focused on these themes in Moroccan social life. Perhaps this shadow of contractual obligation is why my dearest friend, Mohammed, assures me in his inimitable English: “Ibrahim, I have no interest in you.”

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Medium 9780253019028


IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

CLEMENTINA, OH, CLEMENTINA! A woman is not supposed to wear a miniskirt and pick up a coin from the ground. I am coming right behind you, rushing to catch up with you. Hang on, please. Don’t you remember me anymore? Oh, for history’s sake, stop pretending you can’t recognize my face. My name is Chinedu, Felix Okeke’s first son. You should know my Popsy, my weird father. He used to be a driver in the city where he sired seven of his children from a single wife. Where did you hide your face? I was searching for a tortoise in the sky and did not know that the cunning animal was on the ground, crawling under my feet. I’ve found you today, Clementina, and my stomach is happy, and I thank our ancestors for that.

You said you were fingering it for love, and that love was headquartered in my groin.

Are you going to the market, too? I am dragging this old she-goat to the market so that my Popsy can sell it off. I returned from the boarding school last week, and I can see that you are now one of the many palm-oil traders in this village. I think the load of palm-oil barrels, which you have in the wooden carrier on your head, is too heavy for you, a breastfeeding mother with a sleeping baby on her back. But that does not stop me from reminding you, as we trek, of where we both started our journey. So listen to me, and stop pretending! You already know there is a poisonous snake lying under your mattress, and you don’t need a microscope to see what you grip tangibly in your hands.

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Medium 9781847772114

Fall In, Ghosts

Blunden, Edmund Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF


An Essay on a Battalion Reunion

Alonzo. Captain!


I am glad to kiss

Your valiant hand, and yours; but pray you, take notice,

My title’s changed, I am a colonel.

Pisano. A Colonel! where’s your regiment?


Not raised yet;

All the old ones are cashier’d, and we are now

To have a new militia: all is peace here,

Yet I hold my title still, as many do,

That never saw an enemy.

Massinger’s Bashful Lover


he battalion had halted in the light shade of the line of poplars, which began to look a little unkempt aloft.

Rifles had been piled into the usual little pyramids, men had seated themselves on their heavy packs, except the cooks and others with immediate duties. The cooks had lost no time. Their fires already breathed blue spires of smoke into the calm but subtle sky. Beneath that sky, two empires were at war. One village further to the east, and you would have seen the furrowings and burnings of that dismay on the face of the land. Here there was not such obvious evidence. The big grey house with deep white window-sills at the turn of the field path, the farm with its square-set sheds and stalls among other poplars, the crucifix surmounting the steps of granite in the middle of the rootfields, the clean causeway, the trickling land-drain under the culvert did not report the imminence of an enemy. On a closer inspection, it would have occurred to you that some

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Chapter 1. Initiation

Fred L. Edwards, Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 1



A quick goodbye to my wife in the blackness of predawn. My mind spins as I slide into a seat on the bus. The sun will never come up this day because the bus will lurch from Oceanside's darkness into the Los Angeles smog belt, and will slip from there into the fog belt of San Francisco.

The driver lets us out for lunch and I sip a glass of orange soda. Before returning to the bus, I buy a paperback book titled The Lost Command about a group of French paratroopers operating in Indochina, and later in Algeria. l I spend the afternoon reading about a war the French lost, and about the warriors they abandoned. Confident we will do right what they did wrong, occasionally I doze.

Nearing San Francisco, the bus passes several wineries that advertise complimentary tasting rooms.

Mywife and I had spoken of stopping at one of those, but never did. It hits me that we and our families should do what we want when we can, because we might never have another chance.

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