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Medium 9781574416503

2. The Seven Townsend Brothers (and One Sister) of Texas

James C. Kearney, Bill Stein, and James Smallwood University of North Texas Press ePub

Seven Townsend brothers (and one sister), the progeny of Thomas and Elizabeth Stapleton Townsend of Florida and Georgia, made the move to Texas in the early decades of the nineteenth century. With one exception, all the brothers and the one sister eventually settled in Colorado County, which at the time of its establishment after the Texas War of Independence was considerably larger than it is today, embracing portions of present Fayette and Lavaca counties. As their father and grandfathers before them, the new generation resolved to carve a future on the shifting frontier, but this time the frontier was in far-away Texas.

During the nineteenth century an unmistakable restlessness characterized the family, and this restlessness drove them to pick up stakes and relocate every decade or so, first to Georgia from the Marlboro District of South Carolina, then to Florida, and finally to Texas. But there was method to their uprooted life: often taking advantage of bounty lands for military service, they positioned and re-positioned themselves on the leading edge of the frontier to profit from the inevitable growth to follow as land hungry masses followed in the footsteps of the vanguard. At least three Townsend generations followed the formula.

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Medium 9781574414677

9. Terribly Tongue-Lashed

Rick Miller University of North Texas Press PDF

9

TERRIBLY TONGUE-LASHED

R A N G E R S C A M E U N D E R C R I T I C I S M in San Antonio when, on September 13, 1876, several men from Company A were confronted by city policemen for “parading the streets . . . armed to the teeth.” The company, as Jones’ escort, was camped on the Leon River eight miles west of the city. The Rangers were finally induced to disarm while in public, but the local newspaper accused them “of a mind to break rather than preserve the law.”1 One of the men was arrested for carrying a pistol, but was acquitted by a jury upon hearing from Lieutenant Denton that the commander had reported to the sheriff the presence of his men in Bexar County, as well as a willingness to provide any assistance the lawman might need while the Rangers were there. A second charge against the Ranger for “intimidating an officer” was dismissed after a jury failed to agree on a verdict.2

The citizens of San Antonio felt they had good reason to exonerate the Rangers. On September 21, a group of citizens met and petitioned

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Medium 9780253204226

3. Sexual Politics and Religious Reform in the Witch Craze

Joseph Klaits Indiana University Press ePub

Why did the number of witch trials in Western Europe increase greatly after about 1550? Why did the crime of witchcraft, familiar for centuries, suddenly appear so much more menacing that thousands of trials unfolded between 1550 and 1700, whereas only a few hundred seem to have occurred earlier?

These questions have been posed by many writers on the witch trials over the past century. But they have taken on fresh urgency recently, in light of the findings (discussed in the previous chapters) of Norman Cohn and Richard Kieckhefer concerning medieval witch trials. These scholars, working independently, have uncovered convincing proof that previously accepted accounts of large-scale witch hunts undertaken by the Inquisition in fourteenth-century France and Italy were based on modern forgeries and other fraudulent evidence. Their discoveries have necessitated a complete revision of the chronology of European witch hunting. Until now, the mainstream of scholarly interpretation suggested a continuing flow in witch prosecution from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Periods of flood may have alternated with relatively dry spells, and there were some especially spectacular inundations around 1600, but in the accounts of earlier scholars the channel of witch hunting remained intact over the centuries, with few and minor changes of course. Thus, Henry Charles Lea could devote nearly half of his massive digest on witchcraft to the period before the mid-sixteenth century. And, as recently as fifteen years ago, H. R. Trevor-Roper could argue that the witch craze was primarily an extension and magnification of earlier witch hunting.

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Medium 9781574413496

Chapter 2. Deputy Marshal Christopher Columbus Fitzgerald (August 25, 1877)

Richard F. Selcer and Kevin S. Foster University of North Texas Press Denton, Texas ePub

CHAPTER 2

DEPUTY MARSHAL CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS FITZGERALD

August 25, 1877

An Irish Cop with Attitude

The second local peace officer to die in the line of duty was Christopher Columbus Fitzgerald, mostly remembered as C. C. Fitzgerald, who joined the little community on the Trinity after it was incorporated as a city in 1873. Far removed from the Emerald Isle, homeland of his ancestors, Fitzgerald decided to put down his roots in north Texas. By this time Irish cops were already a cliché in law enforcement, and not just in big cities like Boston, San Francisco, and Chicago. Tombstone had Marshal Dave Neagle; Cochise County, Arizona, had Sheriff Johnny Behan; and Wichita, Kansas, had Marshal Michael Meagher during this era. The Irishman remembered today only by a pair of initials and a last name became one of the stalwarts of the first Fort Worth police force.

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Medium 9781607322160

7 Seeing Is Believing: The Odyssey of the Pectol Shields

McPherson, Robert S. University Press of Colorado ePub

The Odyssey of the Pectol Shields

The issue of repatriation of Indian artifacts has become an ever-increasingly heated topic in today’s culturally sensitive society. Although NAGPRA (Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act), initiated in 1990, established a process by which this can be accomplished, the road to do so is rarely smooth. Individual, tribal, and governmental agency interpretation of where an object belongs is not always clearly spelled out in the archaeological and historical record or in Native Americans’ oral traditions. Even the tribes themselves cannot always agree. Many objects such as medicine bundles, religious masks, and other ceremonial paraphernalia have been willingly returned to the Navajo Nation for safekeeping, restoration, or use. Other items located in public repositories have been subject to long disputes.

This chapter looks at the history of the Pectol shields, a well-known story that began in 1926 and did not end until 2003. The shields, since their unearthing, have been subject to various interpretations on origins based on different religious beliefs and social science findings. It was not until Navajo medicine man John Holiday provided testimony that the government reached a final NAGPRA ruling as to their deposition. The importance of Navajo oral tradition and culture in reaching this conclusion cannot be overemphasized. The history of the shields makes plain that it was not enough to have only a religious or scientific view of their origin; it required a cohesive cultural pattern long practiced to make the difference. Future decisions of this nature may very well call again upon the power of Navajo tradition and culture.

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Medium 9781574416244

Chapter 2: The American Offer

Tom Killebrew UNT Press PDF

Chapter 2

The American Offer

Even after implementation of the Empire Air Training Scheme and finalization of the Canadian training agreement, British officials still had many concerns. As impressive as the final Canadian phase of the overseas training plan appeared on paper, British officials worried that the magnitude of the program might prove beyond the capabilities of the

Canadians or that such an immense undertaking might run into difficulties that could result in unacceptable delays. Officials sought alternative training plans not only as an additional source of pilots and aircrew, but also as a safeguard against the possible failure or lengthy delay of the

Canadian plan. Even though other Commonwealth governments were agreeable, even desirous, of expanding their training plans (and later expansion would occur), the distances involved and in some cases the extremes of nature and geography limited these considerations. As a result, the British looked to the United States for possible assistance.

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Medium 9781574413038

1. Prelude: Military Relations between the United States and Germany and the Great General Staff Fantasy

Jörg Muth University of North Texas Press PDF

one

Prelude: Military Relations between the United States and Germany and the Great General Staff Fantasy

“The German Army has been busy since the War, as it always was busy before the War, in developing new weapons or new applications of old ones, new tactics and new methods of training.”1

—Thomas Bentley Mott, U.S. military attaché to France at the turn of the twentieth century

“We are indebted to the Germans for this system of teaching the art of war, now gradually working its way into our own Army.”2

—Annual Report of the Commandant, U.S. Infantry and Cavalry School, 1906

I

t has been stated that “no other army in history has ever known its enemy as well as the American army knew the German army when the Amer­ icans crossed the Rhine River and began their final offensive.”3 While the

U.S. Army might have known a lot, it understood little.

The German Army—and before that the Prussian—has been a source of inspiration and education and even a role model for the U.S.

Army since it came into existence but especially since the successful wars of German unification.4 However, because the Americans have misun­ derstood the German culture of war until the present day, the lessons drawn from it by the U.S. Army often were, and still are, flawed or not implemented. Warfare is so much based on culture, tradition, and his­ tory that it would have been hard anyway to put into practice the warwaging culture of one army in another but it becomes close to impossible when this culture is misinterpreted.5

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Medium 9780253020833

19 White Chief of the Shoshoni

Raymond W., Jr. Thorp Indiana University Press ePub

19

White Chief of the Shoshoni

Gray Bear and his braves did carry the word that the Crow Killer had buried the hatchet with the Absaroka. News so unexpected spread like wildfire, with diverse speculations and rumors in its wake. Grizzled Mountain Men reserved judgment till all developments might be reported. Fur traders, more cynical, assumed that Johnson’s motives were selfish and that the deadly enemy of the Crows, after so many years of open warfare, would now turn to deceit and to murder in secret. Black Elk, a Sioux chief on the Rosebud, tried to turn the news against his Indian enemies. “The livers of the Crows are diseased,” he proclaimed. “Eating them has caused Dapiek Absaroka to become as cowardly as the Crows themselves.” He went on practically to invite Johnson to sample Sioux livers, or at least the innards of their brothers the Cheyennes, should he wish once again to be strong as the bull buffalo.

Johnson, when he heard the stream of stories coming in to Hawley’s, chuckled happily and said he liked people to speculate on his next move. “Ye kin tell ol’ Black Elk I mought get his liver next,” he told a friendly Cheyenne. Then he saddled, mounted, and rode off toward his Flathead relatives in the Bitter Roots.

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Medium 9780870818851

CHAPTER FOUR WOMEN ARISE THE RED THREAT ON THE DOMESTIC SCENE

Mary Brennan University Press of Colorado ePub

THE RED THREAT ON THE DOMESTIC SCENE

Not content just to talk about the evils of communism, conservative anticommunist women across the country participated in various efforts to rid America of the evil forces that lurked within the nation’s borders. Some women acted in ways that defied conventional limits regarding female behavior. Others took a more traditional route. They joined clubs; they wrote letters, newsletters, books, and articles; they gave speeches and organized demonstrations. They even ran for public office. They seemed not to think twice about whether women should participate in the anticommunist crusade. In fact, the opposite appeared to be the case. Underlying the activities of most of these women was an urgent sense of responsibility. Joining the fight against communism seemed one more duty of good wives and mothers. If, in the process of combating this enemy, they ended up expanding their overall political participation, that was a consequence most of them had not consciously anticipated or, for the most part, desired. They were just fulfilling what one Texas clubwoman called woman’s “special mission.” Women, she explained, were called “to do battle, continuously and evermore, with any power or influence which threatens the unity and perpetuity of this first of society’s institutions—the family in its home.”1

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Medium 9780253010025

1 The Cinema Industrial Complex in French West Africa to the 1950s

James E. Genova Indiana University Press ePub

In 1949, André Lemaire submitted a report to Commission du cinéma d’outremer, a division of the Ministère de la France d’outre-mer (formerly the Ministère des colonies) that addressed matters pertaining to cinema in the French colonies, that signaled the emergence of a new dimension to the cultural politics of empire in French-ruled West Africa. In this report, Lemaire discussed the problem of “raising the level of the Africans,” which he argued had been solved for the elite but not the masses. To further France’s objectives, Lemaire said officials should recognize that “in most cases” they were operating in social contexts in which societies “are organized on traditional bases of oral culture and [are] more open to the concrete thing than the abstract thing.” Consequently, he continued, “it seems that the image is particularly designed to resolve in part the problem here posed.” Lemaire then came to the point of his recommendations. He argued that “in effect, there is by now no doubt that the procedures of visual education, and in particular the cinema, are extremely powerful means of expression and susceptible of rapidly diffusing among the nonevolved population the most diverse [forms of] knowledge. The subtlety of that means of expression enables addressing practically all the problems in adapting the level of the exposé to that of the spectator.” Lemaire concluded that “the use of audiovisual procedures” to generate “reciprocal information” and “to culturally orient the populations in all areas, technical, economic, and social, is liable to ameliorate the human climate and favor a harmonious entente” between Africans and Europeans. He urged the French administrators to study how the Belgians, English, and Americans used film to advance their interests.1

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Medium 9781782202189

Chapter Five

Judith Edwards Karnac Books ePub

In which Molly describes the exciting world of the farm, where pigs eat their young, her three year old brother learns to shoot and kill, and her parents struggle with the weather as well as with various farming projects, many of which fail. Molly even manages to see a chicken lay an egg.

Good conservation results in as little interference with the historic object as possible, and this makes the briefing of the conservator of the utmost importance.

Again Molly batters her fists against the sides of the constraining box. Can she, will she, be heard in the tattered scribbling of voices which lie at the margins of every life? These voices come and go. Where is there room in all this cosmic babble for the noise of one little individual ordinary life?

Well, she's going on so much, let her have another say…

Going on. Well, at least she did. As we all try to do. Molly's mother's elegantly plucked eyebrows are raised at this point. They may well stay that way.

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Medium 9780253011404

12. Cold War Memories and Post–Cold War Realities: The Politics of Memory and Identity in the Everyday Life of Kazakhstan’s Radiation Victims

Madeleine Reeves Indiana University Press ePub

Asan, an elderly Kazakh man, was nineteen years old when the first nuclear test exploded near his village on August 29, 1949.1 Despite his young age, as a schoolteacher and a member of the Communist Party, he would have been viewed as a member of the village elite, or intelligentsia, at that time. When we interviewed him, Asan recalled how everybody in the village was completely taken by surprise during the first explosion. In his version of events, he was giving an exam at the local school, when one or two large explosions took place. From the windows of the classroom, he saw a very bright, mushroom-shaped cloud appear in the sky. He ordered the children, who were very afraid and hiding under their desks, to stand up and go outside. Asan explained how everybody in the village was confused about what was happening, and they were trying to come up with explanations to account for this very peculiar occurrence. Some people thought that it might be an unusual weather episode, and the strange noises and sights could be attributed to thunder and lightning. Soviet military personnel appeared in the village shortly after the explosion and started to ask villagers what they had seen. As he told us this story, he noted how he was eventually taken aside by “the soldiers” and told: “You are a Communist. You did not see anything and you do not know anything. That was the testing of the bomb that came from America. You will sign a document stating that you will not tell anybody.” Asan’s narrative is not unique. Similar to many of the other narratives that we collected, his account, filled with emotions of fear and anger, portrayed him as somebody who, despite his status within the village, was in a relatively powerless position compared to the formidable Soviet state, which he largely trusted at the time. In other words, Asan’s memories of nuclear testing in the present help assert his current identity as a victim of nuclear testing and a victim of the Soviet state.

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Medium 9780876111734

A Prayer for the Dying

Francell, Lawrence J. Texas State Historical Assn Press ePub

A PRAYER FOR THE DYING

(A Song of the Old Army)

We meet ’neath the sounding rafters,

The waits alt around us are bare.

They echo the peals of laughter,

It seems that the dead are there.

So stand by your glasses steady,

This world is a world of ties.

Here’s a toast to the dead already;

Hurrah for the next man who dies.

There’s a mist on the glass congealing,

’Tis the hurricane’s fiery breath.

And thus does the warmth of feeling,

Turn ice in the grip of death.

Oh, stand to your glasses steady,

For a moment the vapor flies.

A cup to the dead already,

An hurrah for the next who dies.

Who dreads to the dust returning?

Who shrinks from the sable shore?

Where the high and haughty yearning,

Of the soul shall sting no more.

So stand to your glasses steady,

’Tis all we have left to prize.

A toast to the dead already,

And hurrah for the next who dies.

Cut off from the land that bore us,

(Betrayed by the land we find.

Where the brightest have gone before us,

And the dullest remain behind.

So stand to your glasses steady,

The world is a web of lies.

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Medium 9781574413786

Chapter 24. “his band of questionable repute”

David Johnson University Of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER

24

“his band of questionable repute”

MARCH FOUND VIRGIL’S CONDITION IMPROVING. With Williams’ departure, stage robberies dropped away. Additionally there was a dramatic decrease in reports of the ever-elusive “Cowboy” gang. “There being a lull in cowboy criminality (which we will hope is something more than temporary), and the Indians apparently having left the Dragoons, Tombstone people have been obliged to look to other causes for excitement.”1 Brown ascribed the decrease to the presence of C. P. Dake although it was actually due to Clum’s departure. Leigh Chalmers reported that Dake confessed to having received a $3,000 Wells Fargo loan, “under false and fraudulent representations.” Dake deposited the money in Wyatt Earp’s account. Earp had spent most of that in pursuing “Cowboys” fruitlessly. “Dake spent some $300 of that sum in a drunken celebration with the posse in the sporting houses [brothels] of that notorious community.”2

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Medium 9781574411799

Chapter I Pioneer Days—An Indian Scare

Revised by William Rathmell. Edited with an Introduction and Annotations by Robert K. DeArment University of North Texas Press PDF

ter

Chap

I

Pioneer Days—

An Indian Scare

In Nashville, Tennessee, in 1822, there lived in happiness and comparative prosperity, a very youthful married couple, the husband being scarce eighteen years of age. This was the handsome and ever good-natured Williamson Marlow Sr. and his child wife.1

After the birth of their first child2 they moved to Missouri, and a few years later, when three little pledges of love had gathered about the family fireside, the grim King of Terrors came in the still hours of the night and robbed that peaceful little home of its dearest treasure—a mother’s love and watchful care. A tiny spark of humanity was placed in the young widower’s arms, making four little ones3 for the griefstricken Williamson to be both father and mother to, and on that memorable day life lost for him its charm. Grief for the loss of a dutiful wife and loving mother knocked at his heart with a knell and he became for a time a wanderer, a brother and sister caring for the children. But time heals all wounds, so after the keen edge of his sorrow had worn

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