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6 Encircling the Cities: The Autumn and Winter Offensives, September 1947–March 1948

Harold M. Tanner Indiana University Press ePub

Famous quotes are rarely good history, but there is often a grain of truth to them. The Communist Party did not achieve victory over Chiang Kai-shek simply by building bases in the countryside and then surrounding the cities. As Mao Zedong himself had observed back in 1939: “Stressing the work in rural base areas does not mean abandoning our work in the cities.”1 The growth of Lin Biao’s military power in the Northeast owed much not only to rural base areas (though they were important), but also to the Communists’ control of towns, small and medium cities, and branch railway lines, and to their access to urban resources in Soviet-controlled Lüshun and Dalian. But at the same time, there is something to the idea that the Communists gained victory in the Northeast by using the countryside to encircle the Nationalists in the three cities of Changchun, Shenyang, and Jinzhou, thus setting the stage for the Liao-Shen Campaign.

Lin Biao had begun to lay the foundations for success with the Summer Offensive. He completed the job with his next two campaigns: the Autumn Offensive (14 September to 5 November 1947) and the Winter Offensive (15 December 1947 to 15 March 1948). By early March 1948, the Northeast Democratic United Army (NDUA) had forced the Nationalists to withdraw to just a few positions centered on the cities of Changchun, Siping, Shenyang, and Jinzhou. All that held these four areas together were the fragile strands of the China-Changchun Railway (connecting Changchun to Shenyang via Siping) and the slender thread of the Bei-Ning line (running from Shenyang to Jinzhou and then down the Liaoxi Corridor to Shanhaiguan). Then, at the end of the Winter Offensive (in mid-March 1948), Lin attacked Siping again—this time successfully. Changchun was now cut off from Shenyang; Communist operations along the Bei-Ning line had also cut the land connection between Shenyang and Jinzhou. All that held these three remaining Kuomintang positions in the Northeast together was a strained and vulnerable air transport system centered on Jinzhou. Jinzhou itself was connected tenuously to China south of the Great Wall by the single port of Huludao and the Bei-Ning line. The situation was far more serious than Chiang Kai-shek or the Americans would have predicted only a year earlier.

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Medium 9780253115560

19. A Glorious Experience in the Springtime of My Career

Herman B Wells Indiana University Press ePub

FOLLOWING WORLD WAR II Greece was in a state of political turbulence. It had gone through a four-and-a-half-year period of dictatorship during which usual political activity was forbidden, followed by the Axis occupation, and then more than a year of civil strife between the forces of the Left and the Right. It was alleged that the Communists were pouring a good deal of money and support into the country in order to try to take possession of it. Historians and Russian experts agree that a longtime objective of Kremlin policy had been to gain an outlet and a year-round, warm-weather port on the Mediterranean, and Greece offered the best possibility for this. After all, one of the southernmost Soviet republics, the state of Georgia, is partly of Greek origin and the Georgians are closely allied with the Greeks in culture and attitude.

The Greeks were convinced that a democratic election had to be held soon and that they would need help from the outside to ensure the fairness of the process. Already the Soviets were charging the British military in Greece with intimidation and covert activities. At Yalta the Allies had pledged themselves to help the liberated countries reestablish their democratic institutions. In line with this pledge and upon the invitation of the Greek government, the United States, France, and Great Britain agreed to create a tripartite commission to observe the Greek election and to report to the world on its fairness and adequacy. The South Africans associated themselves with the observations as an international gesture and because of the large number of Greek immigrants in South Africa. The Russians, though pledged at Yalta, nevertheless declined to participate, using the excuse that the mission would interfere with the sovereignty of an independent state.

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6 Co-Opt the Power of Others

Barlag, Phillip Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Think of how often we see political infighting within an organization. Many times, people are asked to choose sides, and it becomes a battle of “You’re either with me or against me.” Careers and livelihoods fall victim to disagreements carried on between big personalities elsewhere in the organization. Those who straddle the line of neutrality can barely avoid getting swept up in the shifting tides. Sometimes, people just don’t have a side in a fight, and forcing an either/or choice alienates these poor souls who would have been useful regardless of the outcome.

In Caesar’s campaigns during the early days of the civil war, we see the benefit of a much more gracious and productive way of dealing with competing interests.

In chapter 4, we explored how Caesar bet on himself, making the decision to cross the Rubicon and bringing the awful possibility of a Roman civil war to reality (49 BC). Here is more of that story.

Normally, an invading army created a wake of destruction and bloodshed. The loot it acquired was considered to be one of the prime motivators for fighting. “Win and get rich” was a pretty simple manifesto. Besides, sacking one city sent an example to the others. But as Caesar advanced toward Rome, he and his army showed great courtesy toward the Italian cities they crossed. He wanted no ordinary Romans to come to harm. Caesar’s attitude was, “If you’re not against me, then you’re with me.” This more tolerant approach often softened the path in front of his army.

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Medium 9780253018779

3 SOPAC’s Air and Naval Offensive

Ronnie Day Indiana University Press ePub

ON THE MAP BOARDS OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC IN WASHINGTON and Tokyo, no flag marked New Georgia as either a critical objective to be taken or an important position to defend. On the American side, the Joint Staffs’ March 1943 directive for an advance on Rabaul does not even mention New Georgia (although it was assumed that Halsey would take it for the airfields needed to provide air cover for the Bougainville operation).1 On the Japanese side, the IGHQ directives, also issued in March 1943, put the emphasis on the army’s need to hold eastern New Guinea while relegating the Solomons to a secondary area and New Georgia to a navy outpost.2 As it turned out, however, the battle for possession of New Georgia took all summer, and not long into the fighting, comparisons were being made to Guadalcanal and Buna.

“It does not seem possible, in view of the daily increasing power of our forces, that the enemy will be able now to hold this primary defensive line [New Georgia] for very long,” Major Frank S. Owen, intelligence officer of the 5th Bomb Group (H), had written in his February 1943 report. “But in the Buin area the Japanese have a ‘Gibraltar’ capable of defending itself for an indefinite time against tremendous odds.”3

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Medium 9780253009081

8. Kapyong The Final Day

Paul MacKenzie Indiana University Press ePub

 

What are those blinking white lights sparkling on the ground?

LIEUTENANT ROD MIDDLETON, 2PPCLI, to U.S. helicopter pilot above Hill 677, 8:00 am, re. Chinese anti-aircraft fire1

It was the most beautiful sight I can ever remember seeing.

UNIDENTIFIED SOLDIER, 2PPCLI, re. 10:30 AM supply drop2

If the 118th CPV division renewed its vigorous attacks on Hill 677 in the hours after dawn, then the chances of survival for the Patricias would be lower than they had been after midnight. “By that time our Mortar Platoon was almost completely out of mortar bombs,” Private Mike Czuboka remembered. “The rifle companies were also down to a few rounds of ammunition. Our food and water was almost gone.”3 Some of the badly wounded, to be sure, could now be evacuated by two American helicopters, but ground fire from the Chinese as the machines flew in was a reminder that the enemy still surrounded the battalion and could close in again.4 After a night of sometimes quite vicious hand-to-hand fighting one or two soldiers found they were unable to switch off their bloodlust. Decades later PPCLI veterans could claim that they had felt no hatred for the enemy, but early Wednesday morning after the fighting had died down two Patricias, discovering a pair of wounded Chinese forward of their position, first rummaged through their possessions and then deliberately picked them up and threw them to their deaths down a steep slope.5 Other soldiers maintained a remarkable sang-froid in the face of imminent danger. “I responded to the desperate situation as soldiers are wont to do when they can’t do anything about it,” Corporal John Bishop of 2 Platoon later wrote. “I got my head down and fell into a comfortable doze.”6 But there was no doubt in the mind of the CO, Lieutenant-Colonel Jim Stone, that if the enemy kept pushing, “in all probability the 2 PPCLI would have been annihilated.”7 Or as an unidentified Patricia reflected a quarter century later, “what happened to the Gloucesters could easily have happened to us.”8 That it did not was due to the actions of both friends and enemies.

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2. Imjin The Second Day

Paul MacKenzie Indiana University Press ePub

 

They’ll give up at dawn. Mark my words, sir; they’ll go back across the river.

RSM Jack Hobbs, in conversation with Padre Sam Davies, 1GLOS HQ , c. 6 AM, 23 April1

As I sit talking to Richard, I wonder if he realizes how gravely we are situated: a vast body of enemy pushing south; our flanks open; the road cut behind us.

CAPTAIN TONY FARRAR-HOCKLEY, with Captain R. A. St. M. Reeve-Tucker, 1GLOS HQ , c. 3 am, 24 April2

The coming of spring daylight to the land of the Morning Calm on Monday, 23 April revealed just how serious the situation was becoming for 29th Brigade after a night of hard fighting. The Chinese, instead of slackening their assaults, seem to have redoubled their efforts to break resistance, and not without effect. The decisions made by those in command in the next few hours would help save one battalion but contribute to the destruction of another.3

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Medium 9780253342119

18 Adjusting to Peacetime

J. Ted Hartman Indiana University Press ePub

18

Adjusting to Peacetime

As World War II came to an end, the army had to make plans for sending the American soldiers back to the United States. Because of the large number to be returned, both from Europe and the Far East, there was a relative shortage of ships to transport the troops. The army developed a point system that would determine when an individual soldier would be eligible to be sent home for discharge. Points were granted for the number of months in the army, months in combat, months as a prisoner of war, months in the Army of Occupation, and certain other things. When points were initially counted, many longtime soldiers had more than eighty points, so they were among the first groups to return. As more soldiers were shipped home, the number of points required began to drop. When points were first counted, I had forty-one. When I received my orders to go home, they had increased to fifty-two. Until we had enough points, most of us were to be a part of the Army of Occupation.

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Medium 9781574414653

In Pursuit of the Texas Rangers: The Nineteenth Century

Edited by Bruce A. Glasrud and Harold J. Weiss, Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

In Pursuit of the

Texas Rangers: The

Nineteenth Century

Bruce A. Glasrud and Harold J. Weiss, Jr.

The Rangers have both a black side and a white side but mostly, like all institutions composed of people, a range of grays separating the two. Sound history records the range as well as the poles.1

I

n Texas mythical history the Rangers exist as the saviors and protectors of Texas society. According to this story, the Rangers wore the white hats. They protected Anglo Texas from American

Indians and from Mexican nationals, from peoples of color. They served as runaway slave catchers. They enforced white supremacy and Jim Crow laws and traditions. They made a stand against feudists. They arrested the bad guys. The task of determining the role of the Rangers as the state evolved and what they actually accomplished for the benefit of the state is a more difficult challenge. The actions of the Rangers fit no easy description. There is a dark side to the story of the Rangers; during the war with Mexico, for example, some murdered, pillaged, and raped. Yet these same Rangers eased the resultant United States victory. Even their beginning and the first use of the term “Texas Ranger” have mixed and complex definitions. It is not lack of interest that complicates the unveiling of the mythical force. With the possible exception of the Alamo, probably more has been written about the Texas Rangers than any other aspect of Texas history.

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Medium 9781574415735

The Tower of Babel

Joyce Gibson Roach University of North Texas Press PDF

The Tower of  Babel

pP

Outsiders sometimes come to Turtle. Outsiders used to be referred to as Yankees, even if they were from

California. Outsiders were mostly those who didn’t talk like us—well, they didn’t act like us, either. They thought we talked “funny,” which equated to “ignorant.”

Effie Grace Gordon, who tried hard, graciously, to explain “us” to “them,” always responded sweetly, “We are just one of the rooms in the Tower of Babel way out here.”

“Fixin’ to,” as in “I’m fixin’ to take a cold” or “We were just fixin’ to come over to your house,” caused a commotion with outsiders. (Incidentally, a commotion is like getting folks stirred up, but is short of a hue and cry.) How do you fix to do something? Maybe getting ready is better. But then how do you get ready to take a cold?

Words and phrases can be rich and flavorful, dripping with imagery and completely undecipherable, unless you were born and raised here.

If you were “quite a card,” you were funny. If you “took a fancy to something,” it meant you liked it and wanted it, even if it was a person—“He sure took a fancy to her” but she “took a fancy to the yard goods in the mercantile.”

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Medium 9781574414820

Appendix 1. Fallen Heroes of HPD

Mitchel P. Roth and Tom Kennedy University of North Texas Press ePub

Appendix 1

Fallen Heroes of HPD

Mar. 10, 1860—C. Edward Foley—Shot

Mar. 17, 1883—Richard Snow—Shot

Feb. 8, 1886—Henry Williams—Shot

Mar. 15, 1891—James E. Fenn—Shot

July 30, 1901—William F. Weiss—Shot

Dec. 11, 1901—Herman Youngst—Shot

Dec. 11, 1901—John C. James—Shot

Apr. 1, 1910—William E. Murphy—Shot

Aug. 4, 1911—John M. Cain—Shot

Oct. 18, 1912—Joseph Robert Free—Shot

May 24, 1914—Isaac “Ike” Parsons—Shot

Aug. 23, 1917—Rufus H. Daniels—Shot/Mutilated

Aug. 23, 1917—E. G. Meinecke—Shot

Aug. 23, 1917—Horace Moody—Shot

Aug. 23, 1917—Ross Patton—Shot/Mutilated

Aug. 23, 1917—Ira D. Raney—Shot

Feb. 19, 1921—Johnnie Davidson—Shot

June 19, 1921—Jeter Young—Motorcycle Accident

June 27, 1921—Davie Murdock—Shot

Aug. 23, 1924—J. Clark Etheridge—Automobile Accident

Jan. 21, 1925—Pete Corrales—Shot

Sept. 17, 1925—E. C. Chavez—Shot

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Medium 9780253329110

IV. The Postwar Era

James Von Geldern Indiana University Press ePub

 

THE PROLIFIC POGODIN WROTE THIS SCRIPT FOR THE MOST FAMOUS STALINIST POSTWAR FILM, RELEASED AT A TIME OF SEVERE SHORTAGES AND THE RAVAGES OF RECOVERY, AND DIRECTED BY IVAN PYRIEV—MASTER OF THE GLOSSY RURAL MUSICAL COMEDY. IT IS A HORSE OPERETTA ABOUT COSSACK COLLECTIVE FARMERS COMPETING IN A “COUNTRY FAIR” VENUE (LIKE RODGERS AND HAMMERSTEIN’S STATE FAIR, 1945) AND A COUPLE OF STANDARD LOVE PLOTS (DASHA SHELEST-KOVYLEV, VORON-PERESVETOVA). ISAAK DUNAEVSKY’S BRIGHT SCORE MAKES THIS A LIGHT-HEARTED FROLIC. BUT FROM THE OPENING CHORUS AMID FIELDS OF GRAIN TO THE TRADE PAVILIONS AND BOOTHS BULGING WITH CONSUMER GOODS, COSSACKS GAVE A DISTORTED PICTURE OF THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF RURAL RUSSIA. As THESE EXCERPTS SUGGEST, THE SIMPLE PLOT TWISTS AROUND THREE TENSIONS: A CONTEST BETWEEN TWO COLLECTIVE FARMS, A DIFFICULT LOVE BETWEEN THE CHAIRMAN AND CHAIRWOMAN OF THOSE FARMS, AND THE LOVE OF DASHA FOR A MEMBER OF THE OPPOSING FARM.

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Medium 9780253013064

2 • Forgetting to Remember: Gyapagpa Temple’s Shifting Identity

Melissa R. Kerin Indiana University Press ePub

Tibetan Buddhism often places a strong emphasis on memory. Supernatural powers of recollection, for example, are among the great abilities acquired through enlightenment; the saṃsāric state, by contrast, can be described as amnesic.1 In artistic contexts, this ideal of perfect recollection has often found visual expression in the form of maṇḍalas, iconographic compositions of highly orchestrated constellations of deities housed within precisely rendered geometric forms. Another visual tool used to catalyze a more pragmatic level of mnemic engagement2 is the illustrated lineages of Buddhist teachers who have mastered and taught Vajrayāna practices. Wall paintings such as the ones found at the Gyapagpa Temple include painted lineages that are carefully and deliberately used to communicate the veracity and heritage of a specific teaching and lineage. This lineage works in concert with the larger iconographic program including deities, Buddhas, and bodhisattvas, all identified with accompanying inscriptions. But what happens when these carefully crafted identities—both divine and human—are forgotten? In this chapter I look at precisely this problem.

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Medium 9781574412680

Chapter 11 “Smoke boiled from that gentleman’s gun”

Bob Alexander University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 11

“Smoke boiled from that gentleman’s gun”

Realizing practical advantages of disbursing his troops, especially after the triumphs of the West Texas detachment, Captain Sieker deployed a three-man squad to Eagle Pass, Maverick County, straight across the Rio Grande from Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico.1 After assuming their post, Texas Rangers assigned to Eagle Pass demonstrated their worth to Maverick County Sheriff Tom Oglesby, the former commander of Company F. In but short order they made a number of significant arrests for Theft of Cattle, Smuggling, Assault to Murder, and Assault and Battery. Prisoners were quickly turned over to Sheriff Oglesby for safekeeping until their appearance before a judge.2

Tom Oglesby’s quitting the Texas Rangers had sparked a political firestorm, one touching Company D. Although himself a candidate in a hotly contested bid for sheriff of La Salle County, Charles

Brown “C. B.” McKinney, Oglesby’s lieutenant, was given command of Company F, at least until the shrievalty matter was settled. In the end, after a second county election, C. B. McKinney won the prize.

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Medium 9780253340481

Chapter Four On Father’s Side: The Baks

Samuel S. Bak Indiana University Press ePub
Medium 9781574413700

Appendix A: Recovery Rates From Disease at the Nine Major Union Prisons and at Chimborazo Hospital

James M. Gillispie University of North Texas Press ePub

APPENDIX A

RECOVERY RATES FROM DISEASE AT THE NINE MAJOR UNION PRISONS AND AT CHIMBORAZO HOSPITAL 1

1. Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, Volume I, Part III, 30, 46.

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