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Duane A. Smith University Press of Colorado ePub

♦ Robert W. Steele, 1859–1861

♦ William Gilpin, 1861–1862

♦ John Evans, 1862–1865

♦ Alexander Cummings, 1865–1867

♦ A. Cameron Hunt, 1867–1869

♦ Edward McCook, 1869–1873

♦ Samuel H. Elbert, 1873–1874

♦ Edward McCook, 1874–1875

♦ John L. Routt, 1875–1876

♦ John L. Routt, 1876–1879

♦ Frederick W. Pitkin, 1879–1883

♦ James B. Grant, 1883–1885

♦ Benjamin H. Eaton, 1885–1887

♦ Alva Adams, 1887–1889

♦ Job A. Cooper, 1889–1891

♦ John L. Routt, 1891–1893

♦ Davis H. Waite, 1893–1895

♦ Albert W. McIntire, 1895–1897

♦ Alva Adams, 1897–1899

♦ Charles S. Thomas, 1899–1901

♦ James B. Orman, 1901–1903

♦ James H. Peabody, 1903–1905

♦ Alva Adams, 1905

♦ Jesse F. McDonald, 1905–1907

♦ Henry A. Buchtel, 1907–1909

♦ John F. Shafroth, 1909–1913

♦ Elias M. Ammons, 1913–1915

♦ George A. Carlson, 1915–1917

♦ Julius C. Gunter, 1917–1919

♦ Oliver H. Shoup, 1919–1923

♦ William E. Sweet, 1923–1925

♦ Clarence J. Morley, 1925–1927

♦ William H. Adams, 1927–1933

♦ Edwin C. Johnson, 1933–1937

♦ Ray Talbot, 1937

♦ Teller Ammons, 1937–1939

♦ Ralph Carr, 1939–1943

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Medium 9780253008350

Appendix 2. Biographies from the Ilinden Dossier

Keith Brown Indiana University Press ePub

The fourteen personal statements included here are taken from the Ilinden Dossier, housed at the National Archives of Macedonia in Skopje. This set of materials is stored in forty-three boxes, and individual files are catalogued by box number, first letter of surname, and sequential number among pension recipients under that letter. I have included a mixture of biographies, which were usually included in initial applications, and petitions, appeals, or complaints, which were submitted by unsuccessful or dissatisfied applicants and often provide more specific detail.

These fourteen records, composed by eleven men and three women, constitute only a small sample from the 3,500 applications, and also from the 375 awardees on whose records I took detailed notes. I selected them with an eye to geographical range (they represent twelve different birthplaces) and diversity in status and roles in the organization (including several self-styled četniks and couriers, and a vojvoda, a terrorist, a jatak, and a cashier or blagajnik). They offer rich descriptions of different kinds of mobility associated with unfree and paid labor, trade, marriage and education, and the ways the MRO harnessed those patterns of movement. A majority provide detailed and consistent information about key personalities and places.

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Medium 9781574411782

Chapter 15–Chu Lai

Chuck Gross University of North Texas Press PDF



March 28, 1971

Dear Mother,

Well our operation is over with for our company. We have six flyable aircraft left out of twenty-three which we started with.

Everyone’s back out of Laos and everybody sure is glad. We’re moving back to Chu Lai this week. I guess we’ll go back to the same area as before. Everybody is just worn out. Sure will be glad to come home. It’s starting to get real hot again. I was hoping it would stay cool until I left. Sure could use a good meal now, our mess is so pathetic. I guess I’ll close for now.

The first of April brought a sigh of relief for the 71st AHC. Lam

Son 719 had finally ended. In the two-month period from January 30 through March 26, I had flown 285 hours of combat in 56 days. We were worn out and anxious to get back to Chu Lai and our old area of operations. As we packed our belongings, I felt that strange sad feeling come over me again. I was glad that Lam Son 719 was over, yet I knew that I was going to miss Quang Tri. Before I left, Com had given me a golden double-heart necklace. I would end up wearing this necklace for years to come.

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Medium 9780253012234

9 A Transnational Intellectual Sphere: Brazil and Its Middle Eastern Populations

Paul Amar Indiana University Press ePub

María del Mar Logroño Narbona explores the transnational cultural and political sphere of the first generation of Middle Eastern migrants in Brazil in the 1910s and 1920s. In particular, she looks at how the Arabic press in Brazil during these decades, and more broadly in the mahjar (the term used to designate collectively the geographical locations of Arab migration), created a truly transnational sphere as it facilitated communication flows between distant segments of populations with shared political goals. She concludes that this generation of Middle Eastern migrants lived through a moment in history of political transition when political mobilization was not confined to a geographical location. As first-generation migrants they dreamt of transforming their homelands into the spaces they imagined would welcome them back after their “sojourn.”

In the historic neighborhood of Botafogo, in Rio de Janeiro, stands the house of Rui Barbosa, a well-known lawyer, politician, and public intellectual of early-twentieth-century Brazil. Today his residence has become the seat of the Rui Barbosa Foundation, a public research center and library specializing in Brazilian literature that houses an important library and archival collection donated by Brazilian personalities, featuring Barbosa’s personal library and an archive of documents he wrote. Barbosa was an avid collector of books during his lifetime; his personal library amounted to around thirty-seven thousand volumes, with particular interest on publications from around the world about jurisprudence.1 Barbosa’s literature collection included titles that connected the cultural universe of turn-of-the-century Brazilian elites to that of European elites, including a passion for Orientalist writings such as an 1888 edition of Gustav Flaubert’s Salammbo and a green leather-bound copy of FitzGerald’s Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyam. Among the more unusual holdings, Barbosa’s library included a 1609 edition of the book by Dominican missionary João dos Santos, Ethiopia Oriental e varia historia de cousas, notaveis do Oriente (Oriental Ethiopia and Other Notable Things of the Orient).

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Medium 9780253000989

1 Protestantism in Nazi Germany

Christopher J. Probst Indiana University Press ePub

At the 1927 Königsberg Protestant Church Congress, Paul Althaus gave a rousing and groundbreaking keynote address on Kirche und Volkstum (Church and Nationality). In it, he offered a carefully constructed new political theology that railed against a “foreign invasion” (Überfremdung) in the areas of the arts, fashion, and finance, which he believed had led to a disintegration of the national community (Volksgemeinschaft). The present distress of the German Volk, he charged, was due to the “Jewish threat.” The church’s attempts to penetrate the Volk with the Gospel were opposed by “Jewish influence” in economics, the press, the arts, and literature. Althaus had captured perceptively the mood of Weimar Protestants and provided theological legitimacy for völkisch (nationalistic) thinking in their ranks.

Althaus was one of the most prominent and prolific theologians of the late Weimar and Nazi eras. His carefully constructed doctrine of the “orders of creation” influenced large numbers of German Protestants during late Weimar and the Third Reich. The importance of this innovative theological construct during the Nazi era, its consequences for German Protestant ideology, as well as the influence of its progenitor, require careful examination, which I will undertake shortly. First, however, a few words are in order about some key interpretive issues, the evolution of antisemitism in modern Germany, and some important developments in German Protestantism during the 1920s and 1930s.

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Medium 9780876112458

6. The Collector

Bernhard, Virginia Texas State Historical Assn Press ePub


The Collector

In 1950 an article about Houston in the magazine People Today described Ima Hogg as “a little 67-year-old woman with light brown hair and twinkling eyes” who was the “spark-plug of the city’s cultural life.” Ima Hogg, in her sixties, was busier and perhaps happier than she had ever been in her life. It was as though, with Tom’s death in 1949, the constraints of family connections and responsibilities were removed, and she was free at last to be herself. Houston author George Fuermann wrote of her in his book on the history of the Bayou City: “She is a woman of great personal charm and a paradox of the practical and the intellectual.” In 1956, Ima Hogg, then seventy-four, served her last term as president of the Houston Symphony Society, but she was far from finished as the guiding spirit and grande dame of that organization, and her role in the city’s cultural life had barely begun.

Like her brother Will, Ima Hogg kept a watchful eye on the progress of Houston, which was by the mid-twentieth century a bustling, booming, hustling, adolescent city whose city fathers had never bothered much with guiding its growth. When there was talk of building a municipal stadium on part of the Memorial Park land, Ima Hogg (who, along with her sister-in-law Alice Hanszen, owned three quarters of the reversionary rights to that land) wrote a polite but firm letter of opposition to the Houston newspapers. A few years later, in 1964, she had to protect Memorial Park again, when the city proposed drilling for oil under the leafy glades by the bayou. Both then and after the energy crisis of the early 1970s, Ima Hogg had to threaten to take back the park land to keep it from becoming an oil field adjacent to River Oaks. She was always keenly interested in the environment, just as her father and brothers had been. Perhaps the memories of the Piney Woods of East Texas and the rolling, tree-shaded hills of turn-of-the-century Austin, where she played as a child, reinforced her determination to keep Memorial Park unspoiled for the children of Houston. In the mid-1960s, when flood control authorities proposed cutting down a number of hundred-year-old live oaks on the banks of Buffalo Bayou and lining part of the rustic stream with concrete, Ima Hogg and some forty other property owners along the bayou protested loudly enough to halt that project.

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Medium 9780253015495

2 Origins of Affect: The Falling Body and Other Symptoms of Cinema

Thomas Stubblefield Indiana University Press ePub

An excess of speed turns into repose.


In 1900, the soul suddenly stopped being a memory in the form

of wax slates or books, as Plato describes it; rather, it was

technically advanced and transformed into a motion picture.




Origins of Affect


During the stock market crash of 1929, it was widely circulated that disheartened financiers began jumping from the windows of their Wall Street offices in record numbers. A London newspaper described Manhattan pedestrians’ having to wade through bodies of jumpers that “littered the sidewalks.”1 Mexican painter José Clemente Orozco, who was in New York working on a mural for the New School, explained, “Many speculators had already leaped from their office windows, and their bodies gathered up by the police. Office boys no longer bet on whether the boss would commit suicide but whether he would do it before or after lunch.”2 Comedian Will Rogers claimed that “you had to stand in line to get a window to jump out of,” while Eddie Cantor joked that hotel clerks were asking guests if they wanted rooms “for sleeping or jumping.”3 One imagines the scene on that day as a kind of perverse realization of René Magritte’s Golconda (1953), in which bankers in bowler hats and black suits fall en masse from the urban sky.4

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Medium 9780253007896

Maple Sugar Time

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Maple Sugar Time activities consist of an early spring walk through five demonstration stations in the Chellberg Farm area that demonstrate the enthusiasm for and making of maple syrup and maple sugar in Duneland over the centuries.

STOP 1 · The American Indian Sugar Camp. Indians poured sap into hollowed-out wooden bowls and then cooked it by placing hot rocks into the sap. If it is cooked long enough, it turns into sugar, always appreciated during and after a long, hard winter.

Sap drips from a spout into a collection bucket.


In the 1830s, Sagganee, a Potawatomi chief (perhaps the same person as Shabbona), went with the rest of his tribe to Kansas, but later returned, saying that he could not live in Kansas because there were no “sugar trees.” He so enjoyed making maple sugar from the sap of sugar maples that he spent the rest of his life in Indiana, where sugar maples were plentiful.

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Medium 9781574412246

14. Jack Maxwell Testifies

Corey Recko University of North Texas Press PDF


Jack Maxwell Testifies

The next day led off with the witness whom the prosecution had been waiting for. Jack Maxwell, who claimed he had been absent due to illness, was brought into town by Ben Williams. Maxwell was finally sworn in and took the stand.

Maxwell stated that he had known Lee and Gililland for five or six years and that his ranch was not very far from Lee’s. “On

February 1, 1896, I was at Dog Canyon ranch and spent the night there. I got there just before sundown. When I got there I found

Mrs. Lee [Oilver’s mother], Mr. Blevins, Mr. Bailey, and Ed, the colored man. I ate supper there that night and slept in the house with Mr. Blevins.”

“What time did you get up Sunday morning?” Childers asked.

“At sunup and I ate breakfast with Mr. Blevins and others.”

“Did you see either of these defendants there for breakfast?”

“No sir.”

“What did you do that day?”

“I stayed down at the corral.”

To an unknown question, Maxwell answered, “Saw four persons mounted on two horses coming from the northeast toward the house. They came within 200 yards from me and dismounted.”

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Medium 9781574412000

Chapter Thirteen: The End of the Quaker Dream

John R. Erickson University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Thirteen: The End of the Quaker Dream


here was some good steel in those Quakers. I am sorry that I have never had the pleasure of meeting any of the Singers or Underhills, other than Perlina Sherman. As far as we know, they all left the High

Plains sometime around 1892 when their dream of Eden on the Prairie had faded to dust, both poetically and literally. Bad crop years played a major role in the demise of Estacado, as the harsh reality of life on the Llano crushed Paris Cox’s vision of orchards and vineyards. He had been correct in saying that the soil was deep and rich, but he had underestimated the power of those endless southwest winds to pull the moisture out of every living thing. Coronado and Marcy and the

Comanches could have told him, but Paris Cox’s dreams didn’t allow him to hear it.

Also, the Quakers failed in their attempts to keep the Gentiles at bay.

“Soon the cowboys on the nearby ranches learned of the settlement with its beautiful daughters. They came courting and won some of the hearts of the fair Quaker damsels, which was one of the disheartening factors that caused the Quakers to disintegrate.” (Spikes and Ellis 1952: 259)

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Medium 9781574412659

22. Middle 1850s Merchants

Jacques D. Bagur University of North Texas Press PDF

22. Middle 1850s merchants

The Cass County tax rolls indicate ownership of town lots and value of merchandise as of January 1 for the years 1854 through 1856. Persons with town lots and merchandise from 1854 through 1856 include:

W. C. Baker & Company (1854–1855); J. T. Prewitt & Company (1854–

1855); John Sabine (1854–1855); W. P. Torrans (1855–1857); C. G. Peele

(1855–1856); and Sabine, Gillian & Company (1856). Persons without town lots but with merchandise and known to have been Jefferson merchants include: Walker & Sayre (1854); J. C. Preston & Company

(1855); J. L & S. C. Smith (1854–1857); Henry Schluter (1855); Turner &

Jenkins (1855–1856); and J. W. Kemp (1856). William Hodge, who was mayor of Jefferson in 1860, appears in the tax rolls without town lots but with merchandise in 1854–1855; however, this facility appears to have been located on Black Cypress Bayou.

Merchants appearing in various newspaper advertisements from late 1853 through early 1857 include: W. Brooks & Brother, receiving, forwarding, and commission merchants (September 1853); Brooks,

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Medium 9780253014856

13 Barefoot Doctors and the Provision of Rural Health Care

Bridie Andrews Indiana University Press ePub

The year 1968 saw the publication of Ralph Croizier’s Traditional Medicine in Modern China: Science, Nationalism, and the Tensions of Cultural Change, which would become one of the most cited books on twentieth-century Chinese medical history. It focused on one “central paradox and main theme”: why twentieth-century intellectuals, committed in so many ways to science and modernity, insisted on upholding China’s ancient “pre-scientific” medical tradition (Croizier 1968, 2). Through the perspective of cultural nationalism, Croizier argued that these intellectuals were influenced by “the interaction of two of the dominant themes in modern Chinese thinking—the drive for national strength through modern science, and the concern that modernization not imply betrayal of national identity” (Croizier 1968, 229). However, 1968 also marked the inauguration of a massive public health initiative in China, which would have far-reaching consequences for the medical development of the world’s most populous country: a rural medical program that was inspired by the principles of revolutionary socialism and promoted nationwide. This new medical program pitted Chinese and Western medicine against one another and, more importantly, eventually determined the future of the two types of medicine in Chinese villages. This social transformation of medicine in Chinese villages has been largely overlooked by scholars of Chinese medical history. The centerpiece of the program was the introduction of “barefoot doctors” (chijiao yisheng) into Chinese villages at the height of the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976).

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Medium 9780253018595

An Afropean Travel Narrative

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

THIS JANUARY, I found myself squashed in a small room with perhaps a hundred other people, mainly black, cocooned within a snow-covered Paris for a conference on Black Portraiture. As I looked beside me, I noticed the silhouettes of my fellow attendees’ African features contrasted against the icy white brightness gleaming through the windows. I had my camera poised—it would have made a great photograph, but Simon Njami, the influential French art critic, was finishing his talk entitled “The Black Body as an Artistic Metaphor.” His eyes were heavily lidded and self-possessed, and speaking in English with a French accent he exuded authority.

I have searched for my blackness as though it were a missing piece of luggage containing important ID.

“Of course,” he said, “this whole idea of the ‘black body’ is preposterous—if you are black it isn’t a black body, it is just a body. I don’t see anybody talking about the white body in such a way.”

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Medium 9781574413786

Chapter 25. “Many friends will mourn him”

David Johnson University Of North Texas Press ePub



“Many friends will mourn him”

BEHAN DID NOT FAIL TO SECURE APACHE because the military favored the Earps. In January 1882 messengers from Juh and Nachez were sent to chief Loco on the San Carlos reservation. “During the intervening weeks there were indications that Apaches were moving north to contact the Warm Springs Indians at San Carlos.”1 The army was on the alert, and scouts were kept busy on government business and unavailable as scouts for Behan, thus facilitating the escape of the fugitives.

The Earps raced northeast to avoid “a possible confrontation at Deming with a sure-enough man-killin’ deputy, Dan Tucker” arriving in Silver City with aliases as they ignominiously fled Arizona. “They were all mounted and armed to the teeth. One of the men when asked his name, answered John Smith, and another Bill Snooks.”2 The outlaws found refuge in Colorado. “While the Earps blackened the reputation of the marshalcy in southern Arizona, other deputy marshals earned the regard of the citizenry.”3

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10. Striking Back at Egyptian Workers

David McMurray Indiana University Press ePub


The earliest mainstream narratives of the 2011 Egyptian revolution centered around a “crisis of the state.” Among the elements of the crisis were the utter failure of top-down political reform, as shown in the shamelessly rigged 2010 legislative elections; mounting corruption and repression; emerging opportunities for collective action offered by networking sites like Facebook and Twitter; and the advent of neoliberal economic policies and the resulting constraints on the state’s capacity to deliver on its traditional obligations, such as social services, subsidies, price controls, and guaranteed employment for college graduates. There was considerable consensus that the revolution was—at least in part—a backlash against the exclusionary economic order that the deposed president’s son Gamal Mubarak and his associates helped to erect over the preceding decade. Yet over a year later it remains unclear if post-Mubarak Egypt can succeed in addressing the socio-economic grievances that helped to spark the January 25 uprising.

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