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2 Sharing the Meal: A Dalit Family’s Dialogue with the History of Tamil Christian Music, 1850–1994

Zoe C. Sherinian Indiana University Press ePub

A Dalit Family’s Dialogue with the History of Tamil Christian Music, 1850–1994

Virundu Parimāṟuṟadu (Meal Sharing Song)

From Girāmiya Isai Vaipāḍu (Village Music Liturgy)

Composed by J. T. Appavoo

Translated by J. T. Appavoo and Zoe Sherinian


Vāṅga ellām tayārā irukkudu

Come, everything is ready!


Tiruvirundu viḍutalai tandiḍum arumarundu

Holy meal, the rare medicine that liberates

1. Mantiramāyamilla mariccavarai neṉacci

It is not magic or illusion, not the feast given

Tandiḍum virundumala sāttira saḍaṅgumalla

in remembrance of the dead, or the rituals of sastirams

2. Sondamuyaṟciyālē vandiḍum mīṭpumalla

This meal is not redemption that comes through our own efforts

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6 The Second Battle of Siping: Phase Two—From Defense to Retreat, April–May 1946

Harold M. Tanner Indiana University Press ePub

From the beginning, the Nationalist assault on Siping had been accompanied at the same time by an attack on the Communists at Benxi, an industrial city south of Shenyang. As we noted in chapter 5, both General Du Yuming and his subordinate, General Zheng Dongguo, suggest (in their memoirs, written well after the fact) that Chiang Kai-shek and Xiong Shihui were responsible for the decision to fight the Communists on two fronts. When he returned to Manchuria in mid-April following his kidney surgery, Du Yuming had come to the conclusion that the Communist forces at Benxi were more vulnerable than those at Siping. Du then decided to set Siping to one side and to focus first on defeating—and ideally destroying—the Communist forces at Benxi so that he would then be able to transfer more troops north to capture Siping and press onward toward Changchun.

The Communist leaders, for their part, realized full well that the fighting in the Northeast was not over. The public declarations of a great victory at Siping were accompanied by continued planning on the part of the Communist Party Center, the Northeast Bureau, and Lin Biao, still commanding the Communists’ Northeast Democratic United Army from his headquarters at Lishu, north of Siping. Mao Zedong, now fully recovered from his own health problems and back in control of day-to-day business at the Party Center in Yan’an, told Lin Biao on 1 May that since Chiang Kai-shek still refused to accept proposals for a ceasefire agreement in the Northeast, “[the Nationalists] will continue to advance toward Changchun. Therefore, we must continue to fight at Siping and Benxi, to exhaust the enemy forces at these two places, to attrite their troop strength, to destroy their will to fight, and to cause them to greatly deplete the men, weapons, and ammunition that they have transferred over the past six months so that they don’t have time to replenish them, while, by taking Changchun and Harbin, we gain ample sources of men and materiel, and then we may be able to pursue peace on terms that are beneficial to us.”1

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Medium 9780874216264

Back to Utah April 18–July 21, 1866

Sandra Ailey Petree Utah State University Press ePub

So at last captain Thayer and his wife left for Fort Lyons and we prepared for our journey to Utah and on the eighteenth of April 1866 we left ^fort^ Leavenworth My husband accepted aposition as Clerk to Magor John L Mclintock1 to Fort Duglas Utah2 we started with fine outfitt two span of Muels and one Span of fine black horses one freight wagon and carage we was well fitted out for our Journey ^with^ plenty of provisions for the Jurney

[T]he Morning was quite damp and chiley when we started and after we campt for night it rained so bad we staid in the carrag all Night My brother John his boy and the teemster slept in the wagon3 My sister in law Staid in the carrage with me and the children My husband threw awagon cover over the carrage and he took shelter under that the night was cold I beged of my dear husband to come in the carrage so that he would not get wett I told him we could all keep dry and warm but he said no that he was allright . but still I fealt very anxious about him knowing how delicate his health was and before morning he caugh terrable I told him that he had taken cold and it prooved that he had he was one of those staut hearted men that would never give up untill he was obliged too he was abroaken down man his constetution was gone when he returned home from the war but he never complained as long as he could get around boath his Mind and body was full of activity and currage to the last before he took his final disscharge from the armey he obtained ^agovernment^ s position in Washington he came home to Washington D C. on the sisteenth of October ^1863^ having beign disscharged in New York the next day he reported himself at headquarters for duty as clerk . he never lost one days pay from the day he went into ofice in Washington untill his death . he was one that never complained but was allways cheerfull and hopefull to the last allthough I new he sufferd pain and weakness of body ^very^ ofton but when I would ask him if he was not feeling well he would Say I am allright an old Soldier can endure lots . Many times he had severe atacts of his heart but he never complained he was hopefull to the last he kept his sickness to himself as long as he could he told Captain McClintock he new if he gave up and told me that he was sick that I would greive and frett and perhaps get sick and would not be able to take care of our three boys

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Chapter 2 High Country Years

James Fell University Press of Colorado ePub

EVER SINCE HIS FIRST ARRIVAL IN 1864, COLORADANS HAD FOL-lowed Hill’s activities with interest. He was respected as both a scientist and an entrepreneur, and people watched his efforts to find a solution to the riddle of the sulfurets. But when the news arrived that he was about to build a smelter, many were skeptical. James E. Lyon had just failed, and here was Professor Hill about to try the same method. The “process mania” had returned again, many thought.

Hill and his associates had no illusions about the speculative nature of the Boston and Colorado Smelting Company, and they laid careful plans. At meetings in New England, they decided to construct a small plant that would have two roasting furnaces and one smelting unit to produce copper matte. Though it would be small by Welsh standards, the furnaces would be the largest size in use, so that Hill could take advantage of the economies of scale, an important consideration in a high-cost mining region. But Hill and his colleagues decided not to erect a refinery, since the smelter would not produce enough matte to make separation economically feasible. Instead, they negotiated a contract with Vivian & Sons and prepared to ship the matte to Swansea. Clearly, Hill and his associates wished to conserve their limited capital resources and minimize whatever losses they would have to absorb if so speculative an enterprise should fail.1

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3 Setting Boundaries, Negotiating Entitlements: Contested Borders and Bundles of Rights

Carola Lentz Indiana University Press ePub

PROPERTY RIGHTS OVER land involve not only arguments about time, usually stated in the form of claims of first possession and its legitimate transfer, but also about their spatial scope. In the Black Volta region, as in many other areas of the West African savanna, the original definition of spatial boundaries of landed property was, and continues to be, closely tied to a mental map of spiritual territories under the guardianship of earth deities that are propitiated by the first-comers at the earth shrines. Originally, these boundaries were mainly concerned with the definition of hunting rights, and rarely patrolled. However, with increasing population densities and the growing importance of agriculture for local livelihoods, earth-shrine boundaries assumed new functions, namely, defining the extension of property rights over farmland. Concomitantly, earlier notions of fuzzy, open border zones were complemented by concepts of linear boundaries. Since the twentieth century, local mental maps have also become influenced by the new politico-territorial boundaries of chieftaincy and administrative districts, which some groups readily translated into boundaries of property rights. These rights, in turn, have recently developed into an important source of income from immigrants who are expected to pay some form of rent (under the guise of symbolic gifts) to the allodial titleholders—a development that has made the definition of property boundaries all the more important. These new understandings of boundaries, however, have not completely eclipsed older notions of spiritual territories, and in current land conflicts, the local population draws on a palimpsest of border concepts.

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Medium 9781607321651

Seventeen: Questions of Loyalty

Mark Rawitsch University Press of Colorado ePub

Ever since her brothers had entrusted her parents’ urns to her at Topaz, Sumi had made certain they were always close by. In lonesome moments in her cold and dimly lit barracks apartment in what some might have regarded as unlucky Block 13, having them near had provided Sumi with a strange sense of comfort. Now, in the middle of May 1944, she was finally carrying them away from Topaz, traveling by train from Delta to Chicago. Sumi still worried about what lay ahead but she was also curiously optimistic about leaving the desolation and sadness of her family’s recent past far behind. Unexpected feelings of freedom began to surface as the train rattled along the railroad tracks snaking out of Utah east toward Chicago.

Thinking of more practical matters for the moment, Sumi wondered how she would establish herself in Chicago with what remained of the $65.82 in resettlement expenses provided by the War Relocation Authority. She had just spent more than half that amount on train fare. Starting over would not be easy. In her application for assistance, filed with the WRA at Topaz on May 6, Sumi reported that she had had no earnings during the previous six months. She said she was starting this next episode of her life with a grand total of $5 of her own money, the only savings she had after twenty-four months in camp.1

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Medium 9781574412659

1. Background

Jacques D. Bagur University of North Texas Press PDF


The area in which Jefferson came to be founded was once part of

New Spain and from 1821 part of Mexico until the Republic of Texas was established in 1836. Although there was early Spanish settlement to the south in Nacogdoches, there was never a hint of Spanish influence in the Jefferson area. Although Jefferson came into existence before Texas entered the Union, it cannot be characterized as a Republic of Texas settlement. While the town was emerging in early 1845, Texas was well on its way to entering the Union, with annexation approved by the U.S. Congress in March 1845 and Texas formally admitted as a state in December. Jefferson was an American settlement whose origins were coterminus with the achievement of statehood by Texas. As a matter of coincidence, the first steamboat reached the emerging town during the same month that annexation was approved.

When the Louisiana Purchase took place in 1803, the western boundary between the United States and New Spain was uncertain.

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Medium 9781574412680

Chapter 13 “A dynamite cartridge under the saloon”

Bob Alexander University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 13

“A dynamite cartridge under the saloon”

Dawn may have broken for a new decade, but the history of Company

D reveals some things remained unchanged. Texas Rangers, in most instances, were not making state service a career. Again, comparing two Company D Muster Rolls is illustrative. A 1890 roster contains but one name that was listed on a 1885 Muster Roll, that of Frank

Jones who had managed the evolution from lieutenant to captain.

There was, however, one dynamic that merits mention. On the Muster Roll for 1890 there are as many unpaid Special Rangers as there are salaried Texas Rangers.1 Two aspects of Texas Ranger lore were rooted too deeply for any change: peril and politics.

The policing of people can be a markedly hazardous line of work, which 1890 will confirm in spades for the Texas Rangers of Company

D. Corporal James R. Robinson had that message driven home during the year’s first month. Robinson, in charge of a three-man detail, had been sent to Sonora, Sutton County, to keep the peace in an asof-yet unorganized county. The town, ninety miles due north of Del

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Medium 9781574413588

Chapter 11: Madam Mary Porter: Mary, Mary Quite Contrary

Richard F. Selcer University Of North Texas Press ePub


Madam Mary Porter: Mary, Mary Quite Contrary

Few people have ever heard of Mary Porter, although many think they have. That is because Mary is usually confused with Fannie Porter, the notorious San Antonio madam who became famous as the consort of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. In the 1970 documentary “The Making of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid,” Director George Roy Hill stated that Sundance’s beautiful girlfriend, Etta Place, was “one of Fanny [sic] Porter’s girls in Fort Worth.” Wrong. Mary Porter was Fort Worth’s most notorious madam at the turn of the century, not Fannie Porter; they were not related except for being in the same line of work. And unlike Fannie, Mary Porter’s story was not turned into a Hollywood-ready legend; in fact, until now it has never been told.

She was born in Ireland in July 1844. Her family name is unknown at this time, and her time in the country of her birth was short.1 Ireland at the time was in the grip of An Gorta Mór, the Great Hunger, caused by the failure of several successive potato crops. Between 1845 and 1850 more than a million people died of starvation and disease in a country of only eight million. Of the survivors, more than 2.1 million left Ireland for good, 1.5 million of them settling in the United States. Among those who came to America were the infant Mary, her sister Catherine, and her parents. They probably landed in Canada sometime before 1850, then crossed into the United States over the open U.S.-Canadian border, eventually landing in Rochester, New York. Alternatively, they might have come through the Castle Garden port of entry in New York City and then made their way up to Rochester. The record is not clear. Because New York had a large resident Irish population, the newcomers felt comfortable and entered the workforce as menial laborers, which was still a vast improvement over life back in the old country. As one of their fellow countrymen observed of New York City, “No man or woman ever hungered or ever will and where you will not be seen naked . . . where you would never want or be at a loss for a good breakfast and dinner.”2

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Medium 9781574412864

Chapter 12. Nassau-Rosenberg

James C. Kearney University of North Texas Press PDF


James C. Kearney

business careers, rising to positions of prominence. As a group they were also extremely civic-minded. They established schools, churches, and clubs in many communities across the state.

They were also prime participants in an unpleasant but fascinating episode concerning the plantation; they left an extensive record of their move to and assimilation in their new country; and, finally, their presence in the Round Top area acted as a magnet to other educated Germans so that the small town and surrounding community eventually emerged as one of the more refined German settlements in Texas.1

The record they left is generally in the form of letters; most, but not all, translated and published by the family.2 Collectively, this correspondence offers a rich, absorbing, and multifaceted record of the trials and tribulations, as well as the simple joys and pleasures, of frontier (or quasi-frontier) life in Texas in the 1850s with particular reference to Nassau Plantation. Additionally, Amanda

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Medium 9781574412048

Chapter 10: “Shooting Each Other With Renewed Energy”

David Johnson University of North Texas Press PDF

chapter 10

“Shooting Each Other

With Renewed Energy”

On October 29 Lucia Holmes noted in her diary that “Old Man”

Miller was shot at dark.1 Writing from Fredericksburg one correspondent erroneously reported that “reliable information from Mason” told of the killing of a “Mr. Martin.”2 Two days later the same paper corrected itself, stating in part that “The Fredericksburg correspondent of the Freie Presse mentions the killing of a Mr. Mueller in Mason.”3

Gamel also recalled the man as Miller but provides no first name.

Contemporary records indicate that the man was J. P. Miller.4

Miller had been assigned the task of constructing the coffins for the men lynched in February but was never paid for his work. When

Charley Johnson was arrested, he had a “fine pearl handled 45 Colts sixshooter” that was taken from him. How Miller came into possession of the pistol is unknown, but he decided to keep it in payment for his work. When Johnson wanted the weapon back, he asked Tom

Gamel to get it for him. Miller refused, claiming that it was his payment for time and materials. Johnson worked for Gamel long enough to earn money for a new pistol, then rode to Miller’s and asked him if he had a good pistol available. Miller responded that he had had one but sold it.

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8 Mao Fun Suits

Sean Metzger Indiana University Press ePub

IF THE LAST CHAPTER PRESENTED COMRADE CHIN FROM M. BUTTERFLY as a rather earnest figure, the performance of the character onstage enables a wide range of potential expression. In her initial incarnation on Broadway, she embodied a sassy sensibility, perhaps bordering on camp for at least some spectators.1 The comic gambit of an individual actor can shift the apparently given meaning of individual lines, as Charles Parsloe long ago demonstrated. Performance, then, might imbue the apparent political content of a script or the associations of wardrobe with a different resonance. The staging of M. Butterfly certainly produced a spectrum of both serious and lighthearted overtones and undertones that contextualize the display of the Mao suit. These comedic associations have a genealogy in a set of American artistic creations that first emerged in the late 1960s.

The milieu of citation, from Mao’s speeches to the slogans chanted by Red Guards, creates a political context for Edward Albee’s play Box—Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung—Box, a triptych consisting of two different dramatic scenarios in an ABA structure that premiered on Broadway in 1968. Because it foregrounds citational play with the Mao suit even before the more famous prints created by Andy Warhol in 1972–73, Albee’s theatrical experiment might be seen as an American precursor to subsequent cultural productions that shifted the image of the Mao suit to more playful, sometimes parodic, associations. Such spoofs culminate in the performances involving Tseng Kwong Chi.

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Medium 9780253013088

15 Government, Politics, and the People

James H. Madison Indiana University Press ePub

THE INDIANA CONSTITUTION OF 1851 STATED THAT THE purpose of government was to ensure “that justice be established, public order maintained, and liberty perpetuated.”1 Carrying out those lofty goals proved to be both a noble and an exasperating undertaking.

Nineteenth-century Hoosiers earned a well-deserved reputation as an intensely political people. From the ninety-two county courthouses to the Statehouse, they showed their enthusiasm for the game of politics and their suspicion of government power. By the last half of the twentieth century, that enthusiasm moved on to new issues, and government became more powerful than ever.

The federal government expanded its reach in the New Deal and the Great Society, and on into the twenty-first century. State government grew more forceful in education, economic development, health, and the general well-being of Hoosiers. New interest groups and campaign methods changed the traditional political parties. And always there were taxes, a subject that most Hoosiers tried to avoid, other than to complain that they were too high. None of these late twentieth-century changes was rapid or radical. All were resisted by tradition-minded Hoosiers; all were less pronounced in Indiana than in most other states; all occurred in ways that evidenced the tendency to seek moderation and to adjust the pace of change to traditions embedded in the Hoosier state.

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3. Work Experiences

Jeffrey Marcos Garcilazo University of North Texas Press PDF

Jeffrey Marcos Garcilazo various duties that trackmen performed: unloading rails, ties and tamping the roadbed. And, of course, it reflects the physical exhaustion and hard-core vernacular that often accompanied heavy masculine work. Indeed, the most salient issue emerging from this corrido is the collective experience of Mexican trackmen in cooperation with one another in one of the largest employment sectors in the country. And as such, these workers derived overwhelmingly from the Mexican working-class. According to the late Ernesto Galarza,

“as a group [the Mexican immigrant worker] they represent the most authentic transplant of Mexican working-class culture in the

United States.”2

This chapter examines the work experiences of Mexican track workers (primarily men) based upon both the attitudes of railroad managers about Mexicans and Mexican attitudes about their backbreaking work on el traque. It describes what they did off the job, i.e., during lunch, evenings, weekends, holidays, as well as how they coped during down-times, unemployment. Specifically this chapter discusses the concept of common labor, working conditions, the effects of Americanization and Taylorism. Finally, it reconstructs the recreational and casual activities of Mexican track workers. In so doing, this chapter shows how traqueros shaped the world of track work within the context and limitations of industrial capitalism through their bonds and relationships with one another as well as with the institution of the railroad.

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Medium 9781574416411

Chapter 16: Chicanos at War

Richard J. Gonzales (author) UNT Press PDF

Chapter 16

Chicanos at War

From the American Revolution to the Afghanistan engagement,

Chicanos have fought alongside Anglos and Blacks in their country’s wars. A review of Chicanos’ military service will forge a deeper understanding of their claim to first class citizenship status. The Félix Longoria story dramatizes the treatment that many Mexican American soldiers faced after returning from fighting for their country.

Beatrice Longoria longed for her husband, Private Félix Longoria, to come home from the war. She yearned to see again his broad, handsome face, his dark hair and eyes, his winsome smile highlighted by a thin mustache. He had left her and their four-year-old daughter in Three

Rivers, Texas, when his country called him and thousands of other young men during World War II to make the world safe for democracy. Men like thirty-two-year-old US Representative Lyndon B. Johnson enlisted in the Navy the day after the Pearl Harbor attack in December 1941.

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