Results for: “History”
|Donald L. Fixico||University Press of Colorado||ePub|
Indian communities in the Southwest have depended on water from the Rio Grande since prehistoric times. Called “the Great River” by the Spanish, the 445-mile Rio Grande is the second longest river in the United States and serves for a lengthy distance as the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. Following the Paleo-Indian cultural periods of Sandia, Clovis, and Folsom of the big game hunting tradition, later domestic traditions of Native Americans became dependent on the assured supply of water from the Rio Grande. In subsequent centuries, early Native Indians developed horticulture to advance their way of life, providing approximately twenty-five percent of their food supply.1 Descendants of these people developed in the Desert Archaic tradition commonly known as the Hohokam, Mogollon, and Anasazi as they became permanent settlers. These three peoples are credited with developing agriculture in the Southwest and introducing irrigation, thus freeing more time for developing art, philosophy, and civilization in general. Water was precious and essential for the descendants, enabling most of the Pueblo people to live in communities originally established along the San Juan River and its tributaries. The Pueblo Indians also had to learn to fight for their irrigated lands against other Indians, the Spanish, the Mexicans, and white settlers.See All Chapters
|Chuck Parsons and Norman Wayne Brown||University of North Texas Press|
“I was carefully guarded by Lieut. N. O. Reynolds, who commanded twenty-five well armed brave men; but I knew the power of the mob, the spirit that possessed them, and knew that my life hung on a tread.”
John Wesley Hardin
hile waiting the result of his appeal, Brown Bowen was placed in the Travis County jail with Hardin, sent there from Gonzales. Confined together in the Travis County jail they could not avoid each other. On January 29, 1878, Hardin wrote to Jane, pointing out that friend Bill Taylor’s conviction for killing Gabriel Webster
Slaughter back in March of 1874 had been remanded; hence there was hope Taylor would be somehow acquitted of the deed, and be released from Galveston jail. Cousin Mannen Clements was to go to Gonzales for a bond hearing, and Hardin was confident he was “Sure to Get out Soon.”
He encouraged her to keep her spirits up, reminding her that where “there is a will there is a way and that the darkest hours are Just before day [.]”
Of course Brown joined him “in Sending Love to all [.]”1See All Chapters
|Larry A Hickman||Indiana University Press||ePub|
Different moralists give different reasons as to why cruelty to animals is wrong. But about the fact of its immorality there is no question, and hence no need for argument. Whether the reason is some inherent right of the animal, or a reflex bad effect upon the character of the human being, or whatever it be, cruelty, the wanton and needless infliction of suffering upon any sentient creature, is unquestionably wrong. There is, however, no ethical justification for the assumption that experimentation upon animals, even when it involves some pain or entails, as is more common, death without pain,—since the animals are still under the influence of anaesthetics,—is a species of cruelty. Nor is there moral justification for the statement that the relations of scientific men to animals should be under any laws or restrictions save those general ones which regulate the behavior of all men so as to protect animals from cruelty. Neither of these propositions conveys, however, the full truth, for they are couched negatively, while the truth is positive. Stated positively, the moral principles relating to animal experimentation would read as follows:—See All Chapters
dunkerguide-history-complete35/27/104:56 PMPage 991908-1958Let’s go camping by Jane DavisOutdoor ministry blossomed in first half of 20th centuryLong recognized as an excellent teaching tool, camping began as early as1823 in Massachusetts. The Fresh Air Movement (1872) raised awareness for the nation’s poor in the ghettos and slums of the cities, while organized groups such as the YMCA began establishing campgrounds in rural areas. Soon, other religious groups considered camping and campgrounds.Brethren expansion across the United States by 1908 led to district organizations, and district meetings involved travel time and expense. Families looked forward to attending these meetings for the spiritual and social aspects as well as business. In an effort to strengthen ties among district churches, activities for youth and adults were offered in rented campgrounds. Edgar Rothrock and VirgilFinnell organized a summer assemblies family camp for the Nebraska District(1917) that became an annual event.See All Chapters
|James M. Gillispie||University of North Texas Press||ePub|
THE LOST CAUSE AND THE SOUTHERN SIDE OF THE POW DEBATE
In April 1865 the confederacy died for all intents and purposes when Generals Robert E. Lee and Joseph E. Johnston surrendered the South’s principle armies to Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman respectively. While white Southerners grieved for their lost cause, Northerners celebrated wildly. Their joy came not only from victory and the chance to finally return home to loved ones; it came also from the conviction that right had triumphed over wrong. The idea that the Confederate States of America had been a morally bankrupt society received official and public legitimacy during Andersonville commandant Henry Wirz’s trial and subsequent execution before the year was out.
Ex-Confederates did not want to be remembered as traitors or as members of a degraded society who were defeated by a righteous foe. Many, probably most, white Southerners feared that the victors’ history would become the official version of the Civil War—a concern not without precedent. Jefferson Davis expressed the concern many in his region harbored, warning, “Men live in the estimation of posterity not by their deeds alone, but by their historians also.” To make sure the victors’ history was not the only one that would be available, Davis wrote his massive version of events, The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. He made no claims about historical objectivity; this was going to be the pro-Confederate side of the story. By his own admission the project was undertaken to do “justice to the cause and add wherever I could another leaf to her crown of glory.”1See All Chapters
|Joyce Gibson Roach||University of North Texas Press|
It’s Hip to Be
Shakespeare said it—“All the world’s a stage”—but not in Turtle. Here, the square is the stage. You simply cannot trust a town that’s not built on a square. The square speaks of antiquity, stability, and the shape of a town’s personality.
When somebody says, “He’s a square,” or, “There go a couple of squares,” you know exactly what kind of folks they are.
But there’s also the idea of “shooting square” with someone, meaning that someone is being open, honest, telling everything the way it is with nothing hidden.
A lot of small Texas towns are linear—you know— built on both sides of the highway, usually called the Main
Road, and looking as if they were planted between long rows of something else—cotton, town, corn, town, peanuts, town, watermelon, town.
But Turtle’s not linear, it’s square. Since Turtle is the county seat of Middle County, it has a fine, fine courthouse. It too is square, built of stone with the corners and entrances faced with more stone and grand steps made out of I-talian marble that lead down to the street. ElmerSee All Chapters
|Edited and Annotated by Charles M. Robinson III||University of North Texas Press|
s noted in earlier volumes of this series, Bourke held many prejudices. He was contemptuous of blacks, and his comments on Jews sound chillingly like the dire predictions of
Joseph Goebbels in the twentieth century.1 In short, despite his
Irish heritage and Roman Catholicism, he was typical of mainstream white, Anglo-Saxon prejudices of his era. Some of his greatest vitriol was reserved for the Mormons. During a stopover in Salt Lake City in 1875, he went so far as to call Brigham Young’s wives “harlots” and “concubines,” and to question Young’s own faith. Believing that Mormonism could only exist in isolation and ignorance, he predicted that the Transcontinental Railroad would ultimately bring its downfall.2
Bourke’s route from the Hopi pueblos to Fort Apache carried him through Mormon settlements, where he and his party found it necessary to avail themselves of the hospitality of the Latter-day
Saints. In view of his earlier comments, his observations on these communities are remarkably mellow.See All Chapters
|Ssu-ma Ch'ien||Indiana University Press|
The Eastern Yüeh,1 Memoir 54 translated by William H. Nienhauser, Jr.
[114.2979] As for Wu-chu 無諸,2 the King of Min Yüeh 閩越王,3 and Yao 搖, the King of Tung-hai 東海王 in [the region of] Yüeh, their ancestors were both descendants of Kou-chien 句踐,4 the King of Yüeh, and had the cognomen Tsou 騶.5
In this chapter Eastern Yüeh refers alternately to those Yüeh people who traced their ancestry to the pre-Ch’in state of Yüeh and lived in the area that is now southern Chekiang and northern Fukien, to the state of Min Yüeh, and to the region itself. The translation of the title as “the Eastern Yüeh” attempts to bring out that pluresignation. See also the discussion of
Yüeh and its usages in the Shih chi in the translator’s note.
The Han shu parallel narrative runs from 95.3859–3863; it uses the graph Yüeh 粵 for the Shih chi’s 越.
Under the Ch’in dynasty, this region had been part of Min-chung Commandery 閩中郡 with the commandery seat at Tung-chih 東治 (modern Foochow–see text below); at the start of the Han dynasty, Wu-chu had been enfeoffed as King of Min Yüeh and, under Emperor HuiSee All Chapters
|Virginia McConnell Simmons||University Press of Colorado||ePub|
Sherman’s Solution: Freeze and Starve (1859–1867)
Persistent waves of newcomers had washed into New Mexico and Utah since 1846–1847. They continued to arrive throughout the 1850s, with Utes gradually losing ground to white intrusions. This pattern continued in Utah in the later 1850s, while a tidal wave was bearing down on the Eastern Ute country that became Colorado.
Utah’s experiment with Indian farms was meeting with little success except at Corn Creek, where some Pahvants had already had some experience as farmers for several years. Chief Kanosh, a moderating influence there, was baptized by Mormons in 1858 and later became an elder in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In 1859 a Mormon settlement was begun on Lower Corn Creek and apparently met no resistance. In contrast to Corn Creek, so little food was produced at the Spanish Fork and Twelve Mile Farms that Timpanogots and Sanpits Indians would have starved if Mormons had not provided food during the winters of the decade’s closing years, especially since, with government funds unavailable, other provisions were not to be had.See All Chapters
|Nile Green||Indiana University Press||ePub|
From the medieval Divisament dou monde of Marco Polo to the modernist prose of Robert Byron’s The Road to Oxiana, Central Asia has been made known to the wider world through the medium of travel writing.1 At a time when Central Asia is increasingly drawn into global political affairs, such travel writings allow us to map the cultural dimensions of an earlier geopolitics that ranges from Qing Chinese empire builders to Russian missionaries and Japanese archaeologists. By reading the polyglottal prose written at the crossroads of Asia, the following chapters trace distinct stages of global connectivity by joining the early modern age of camel caravans and horsemen with the modern age of railroads and motorcars. Focusing on little-known travel writings of literary and ethnographic no less than historical interest, the chapters explore the different meanings given to Central Asia in the far corners of the world during the region’s most intensive periods of globalization between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries. By framing Central Asia as a cultural contact zone between different peoples and polities as much as a transit zone for material commodities such as silk, cotton, and oil, this book aims to connect Central Asia to the larger field of global history. The aim here is to add new layers to our understanding of both Central Asia and globalization, giving due recognition to the shifting politics and fluctuating trade patterns of the region but asking how these “hard” developments were inseparable from the cultural productions of the travelers who were globalization in human terms—and vice versa, for as we will see in the following chapters, neither the commerce nor politics of Central Asia can be fully understood in isolation from the travel accounts that so often formed the basis of mercantile and military action.See All Chapters
|Chuck Parsons||University of North Texas Press|
McNelly and the Rangers Arrive
“This is also a family feud, and they are arrayed against each other in the opposing parties, from children of the same parents down to fourth cousins and step-neighbors-inlaw, there are a great many strangers, too, among them, …”
—“Pidge,” October 13, 1874, from Clinton
he June lynching of the three young men in Clinton, as well as the double killing of William E. Sutton and com panion Gabriel Webster Slaughter on the deck of the Clin ton in March, brought statewide attention to the feud. The death of Sutton should have marked the end of the feud, allowing the Taylors to claim victory, but such was not the case as now
Cuero’s City Marshal Reuben H. Brown replaced the deceased
Sutton as leader of the opposing party. Brown was the son of
P. T. and Miriam Keneday Brown, both Tennessee natives who had migrated to Texas sometime in the mid-1840s. Their first three children were born in Tennessee, the oldest, Jesse K., in
1834; daughter Josephine followed in 1841; Basil J., in 1845.See All Chapters
|Joyce Gibson Roach||University of North Texas Press|
“But Ask Now the
Beasts, and They
Shall Teach Thee”
The Bible says these words in the Old Testament: “But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee.” It never says which beasts, so one might conclude that any beast will do.
In West Texas even mules can teach us lessons.
In rural areas, elections of the past were big business and grand social occasions. Local elections for sheriff got more heated than national elections for president. On election eve, everybody gathered on the square where an enormous black board was put up—you know, to tally the precincts as they were phoned in. Yes, I said phoned in.
Between watching results, folks played dominoes or 42, listened to a country band, and heard speeches and stories. One story never changed. It was the one about Tandy, the mule, and how the animal got mixed up in the sheriff ’s race. It went like this:
Seems there was this widow-woman who lived out a piece from town a few miles from Turtle. She had an awful sick mule, bloated and suffering terrible. She called the vet to come take a look. The vet said he was having hisSee All Chapters
|Manuel G. Gonzales||Indiana University Press||ePub|
The decade comprising the midsixties to the midseventies was a period of extraordinary ferment in the Mexicano communities of the United States. Fateful social changes were in the air. Immigration from Mexico, for example, increased markedly, a trend that tended to push many of the older residents of the Southwest into other parts of the country. The most memorable changes, though, were political and psychological.
Following the lead of the African American community, which initiated a far-reaching movement for civil liberties in the fifties, many Mexicanos, now calling themselves Chicanos and Chicanas, embarked on their own campaign to improve socioeconomic conditions and win full recognition of their rights as U.S. citizens.1 While these concerns had been articulated before, notably by the Mexican American Generation of the post–World War II period, after the midsixties a new aggressiveness developed in the barrios. Socioeconomic gains made in past years seemed woefully inadequate. Many Mexicanos began to demand immediate reform. Some called for revolution. Convinced that changes of whatever kind could be instituted only through the acquisition of power, they emphasized political action as never before. Moreover, in contrast to their postwar predecessors, the leaders of the so-called Chicano Generation stressed pride in their ethnic roots while deemphasizing assimilation into the American mainstream. “A Chicano,” Rubén Salazar, a journalist on the periphery of the movement, once said, “is a Mexican-American with a non-Anglo image of himself.”2 Tired of apologizing for their ethnic origins, Chicanos looked to Mexico, especially indigenous Mexico, for inspiration. While there was much disagreement on specific methods—indeed, a substantial minority stood on the sidelines—most of the community was in general agreement with the goals formulated by barrio leaders: cultural regeneration and political power. Since these twin objectives are the crux of the emerging Chicano movement, also called Chicano Power or Brown Power, the struggle for Mexican American civil rights, it seems reasonable to see this decade in terms of Chicanismo.See All Chapters
|Richard Westwood||Utah State University Press||ePub|
For the first few months after her swim with Harry Aleson in 1945, no one could have talked Georgie into swimming that river again. She and Harry still went hiking in and around the Grand Canyon, checking out old mines and other interesting places. Georgie wrote:
I knew there were a lot of questions about my relationship with Harry. After all, I was married and spending weeks and months out on the desert with another man. The truth was that after seeing Harry’s pictures I became determined to explore the desert and the canyon country for myself. I couldn’t hike alone (at least I didn’t think I could at the time) and Harry was the only person who would go with me.
After awhile I came to admire his determination and drive, but I was never romantically attracted to him, nor was our relationship physical. Harry simply needed someone to hike with him and be on hand in case of an emergency—so did I.1
As time passed Georgie and Harry began to look back and glorify the swim down the Colorado River of the year before. They had a tendency to forget the pain and remember only the good parts. By winter they had decided to tackle the river from farther up and to try a different method. They spent the winter months planning another expedition.See All Chapters
|Richard Wunderli||Indiana University Press||ePub|
The Virgin Mary, Mother of the Holy Church, charges us today at the beginning of Lent to recall how our captain, Jesus Christ, fought against the Enemy of the human race and how he conquered the three great evils. He is our Teacher and Instructor and we give Him our complete trust that today we also will begin to fight against—and conquer—our three great enemies: our own flesh and blood, the world, and the Evil Spirit. Whichever of you good Christians will conquer these three enemies, you must observe the teachings of our Captain.
So began the series of Lenten sermons by Ulrich Kraft in the late fifteenth century. Lent was just the opposite of Carnival. No more feasting, no more pleasures of the flesh, no more wallowing in the joys of the world. Now was the time to fast. Christians all over Europe were told to conquer the three great enemies, “our own flesh and blood, the world, and the Evil Spirit.” The obese, flesh-eating, sausage-wielding voluptuary of the Carnival dramas was now replaced by the emaciated old hag with a fish about her neck. Forty grim, soul-cleansing weekdays and six Sundays awaited believers until the joyful arrival of Easter.See All Chapters