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Introduction: Minority Nationalism and Zionists’ Politics of Belonging

Tatjana Lichtenstein Indiana University Press ePub

IN TODAYS PRAGUE, TOURISTS AND LOCALS EAGER TO EXPLORE the city’s Jewish past trek through the streets of the old Jewish quarter, Josefov, in the inner city. Here a handful of synagogues, a sixteenth-century town hall, and a mysterious old cemetery wedged in between towering fin-de-siècle apartment buildings and glossy luxury stores embody what most visitors experience as Jewish Prague. Some also venture further afield to the Strašnice neighborhood to visit Franz Kafka’s grave in the New Jewish Cemetery. Across from the cemetery is an area known as Hagibor. It houses several tennis courts, the sports club TJ Bohemians, and the headquarters of Radio Free Europe. Besides a Jewish seniors’ home, little remains to suggest to the visitor that this was once a Jewish space.

The name Hagibor has insinuated itself into the city’s topography, all but divested of its Jewish origins. The fact that Hagibor is Hebrew for “the hero” escapes most, as does the Jewish history of the area. Toward the end of the Second World War, the sporting ground served as an internment camp and forced labor site for people of mixed ancestry, for Jews married to so-called “Aryans,” and for some non-Jews who resisted the pressures to divorce their Jewish spouses. Earlier in the war, it was used as a playground for Jewish children and youths excluded from the city’s public spaces by German racial laws. Yet, its origin as a Jewish space dates back before the war to the mid-1920s, when Hagibor was synonymous with the well-known Jewish sports club Hagibor Praha/Prag. The club was part of a network of Zionist institutions that emerged across Czechoslovakia, a testament to the significance of Zionism as a cultural and political force in Jewish life in the two decades between the World Wars.

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Medium 9780253016249

15 Poet’s House and Beyond

Jane Blaffer Owen Indiana University Press ePub

That which is most perfect and most individual in each man’s life is precisely the element in it which cannot be reduced to a common formula. It is the element which is nobody else’s but ours and God’s. It is our own, true, uncommunicable life, the life that has been planned for us and realized for us in the bosom of God.

—Thomas Merton, The Sign of Jonas

 

In the summer of 1958 the first Magi to arrive bearing gifts for the Poet’s House, the third of my rescued Harmonist dwellings, were my Irish friend Professor Walter F. Starkie and his lively Italian wife, Ita, who came for a month’s residence (29 on town map). Walter had grown up largely near Dublin because his father had served there as the last resident commissioner of national education for Ireland under British rule at the turn of the century. Walter often stole time from his studies to explore less frequented paths and the brightly colored wagons where Tinkers lived. (Tinker was the Irish name for Gypsy.) He was more attracted to their music, however, than to the pots and pans the Tinkers made and sold for a living. From them he learned how a fiddle could cast a glamour, or spell, upon whatever needed recovery or repair, be it a lost sheep or a broken heart. Romanichals also taught an eager Walter the folk songs of middle Europe while he remained in Italy following World War I. He once made a bet with a former Trinity College classmate that he would be awarded free meals and lodging from Gypsies outside Budapest or Prague once he had played for them the old songs and tunes that he still remembered. Starkie won his wager.

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Medium 9781574416527

Chapter 1 - Texas Prisons: A Pattern of Neglect

Mitchel P. Roth University of North Texas Press ePub

Like a horrid nightmare.

—Edward King, 1874

DURING the years of the Texas Prison Rodeo, spectators came not just to watch the rodeo activities but also to observe a prison demimonde that seemed dangerous if not exotic, giving rodeo goers the chance to interact with inmates, though safely separated by a wire mesh fence. But as will be described below, this was just the latest flourish in a legacy of “prison tourism” as old as America's first prisons. The inauguration of the Texas Prison Rodeo in 1931 would introduce a new form of prison tourism that allowed free-world spectators to pay a small fee to vicariously participate in the prison experience, albeit with the expectation of leaving through the gates they had just entered when the tour was over. However, no matter what visitors witnessed at the Texas Prison Rodeos, or for that matter any other prisons, it was mere window dressing, since like all prisons, Huntsville's walls were meant not just to “keep prisoners in,” but to “keep the public out.”1

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Medium 9781574414349

14 The Fall of Military Region One

Lam Quang Thi University of North Texas Press PDF

14 the fall of military region one

WHILE AWAITING A NEW NVA offensive in the two northern provinces of Military Region I, I followed with increasing concern the developments in other Military Regions. On January 1, 1975, NVA’s

3rd and 7th Divisions, supported by T-54 tank units, launched a powerful attack on the provincial capital of Phuoc Long in MRIII,

115 kilometers north of Saigon. The Phuoc Long garrison consisted of 3,000 ARVN troops and about 1,000 RF and PF forces.

On January 5, 500 Rangers were heliborne to an area east of the city, but the Rangers were unable to link up with the besieged garrison. Although the fall of Phuoc Long would put the enemy at striking distance to the capital of South Viet Nam, President Thieu and the Joint General Staff decided not to inject an adequate force to save the garrison. A major concern at that time was that the rescuing forces might be trapped inside Phuoc Long and be destroyed by

NVA’s superior forces.

Phuoc Long, abandoned to its fate, fell to the enemy after a heroic, desperate fight. I was saddened by the news that Col. Nguyen

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Medium 9780253339638

10. “But what do you think? is the Enemy in Large Force?”

Brian K. Burton Indiana University Press ePub

“But What Do You Think? Is the Enemy in Large Force?”

JOHN MAGRUDER DID NOT sleep the night of June 28–29. Still suffering from indigestion, and perhaps also suffering somewhat from the medication given by his doctor, he was troubled by his position—just his troops and those of Benjamin Huger, fewer than twenty-four thousand men, facing the entire Union army. Lee’s notes on the night of the twenty-eighth repeating commands to remain vigilant, even to the point of making the men sleep on their arms, could only have increased his anxiety. He knew that the Yankee entrenchments were occupied as late as 3:30 A.M. It must have been with great relief, then, that Prince John got word around dawn on the twenty-ninth that those entrenchments were being abandoned. Major Meade and Lieutenant Johnston, James Longstreet’s engineers, had reported back from their reconnaissance, and Lee himself knew that the Yankees had begun their retreat in earnest. Chilton had been sent to tell Magruder and bring him to Lee, who by then would have formed a plan for the pursuit.

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Medium 9781576337868

Cold War - 1960s: SAT US History

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9780870818004

2 THE FIRST COLORADANS

Stephen J. Leonard University Press of Colorado ePub

In the beginning the creator made first the earth, then the trees
and the grass, and afterward he made the animals and people and put
them on the earth.1

—CHEYENNE CREATION ACCOUNT

For much of their history Anglo-Americans have contemplated the westward movement of their frontier. From their eastern perspective, they have often characterized the West as a relatively empty space, a vast land of scattered, often nomadic peoples. That view has changed as scholars have recognized that Anglo-Americans were late arrivals in the American West. Hundreds of years before Missouri traders trekked westward to reach the Rockies, Hispanic Americans had moved from Mexico northward into New Mexico. For more than 11,000 years before any European set foot on the plains or in the mountains, Native Americans had shaped the region’s history.

Archaeologists speculate about the origins of people in the Americas. One respected theory suggests that hunters from Siberia crossed into North America around 15,000 years ago and over many generations worked their way south, reaching Colorado at least 11,000 years ago. Evidence supporting that theory was unearthed in 1932 at Dent, a rail stop forty miles northeast of Denver. There the Reverend Conrad Bilgery, S.J., and a group of his Regis College students found a spearhead along with the bones of the long-extinct woolly mammoth. A few years before the Dent discoveries, Denver archaeologist Jesse D. Figgins had excavated spear points near Folsom, New Mexico, that led him and other archaeologists to conclude that people had lived in North America for thousands of years. The Dent finds confirmed that view. E. Steve Cassells in The Archaeology of Colorado noted that Dent put “Colorado on the map for the first site in the New World with firm evidence for the association of man and mammoth.”2 Eventually, scientists dated the bones as around 11,000 years old. They concluded that the spearhead, a type called Clovis, was equally ancient, making it older than the Folsom artifacts and among the oldest evidence of people in North America.3

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Medium 9781574411737

2. 1819

Robert D. Wood University of North Texas Press PDF

2. 18192

N

ote: Of the forty-four ranches mentioned, thirty-seven of them are deserted because of the devastating war that the barbarian nations to the north wage on us, and the seven remaining have people only at great cost and risk at the times of sowing, cleaning, and harvesting, which are unpredictable since the fields are on the banks of the Rio

Grande whose unforeseen and excessive floods can ruin them, and this is one of the main occupations of most of the inhabitants who live here, even though before the revolution in the Kingdom and the barbarian Indians began their hostilities which they carry out so frequently, they were employed in taking care of their animals of all kinds. Since these have been exterminated many have no other means of livelihood than to join the troops which guard this place since their presence here brings some money. While the corral for horses has 150 tame harness mules which are not organized since they belong to many owners, they are useful for bringing seeds from the Province of Coahuila, which is done in convoys guarded by the troops and to which the inhabitants here owe their subsistence; nevertheless the hunger the troops and people have experienced has been severe, obliging me to call this to the attention of the Governor of this Province in a communication of

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Medium 9780253014184

1. Governing the Cleveland Era

Ballard C. Campbell Indiana University Press ePub

AMERICANS FACED A PERIL, Grover Cleveland warned in his annual message of 1887. This danger, the president continued, threatened widespread disaster and a “brood of evil consequences.” Phrased in such foreboding terms, the peril must have seemed formidable. The modern mind envisions horrors on the scale of a 9/11 attack or the unchecked spread of a virulent flu. But those were not the kind of hazards that Cleveland saw. His menace was surplus revenue, and the source of the problem was a tariff, which the president repudiated as a “vicious, inequitable, and illogical source of unnecessary taxation.”1

Viewed from our own time, Cleveland’s alarm seems quaint and a bit puzzling. Chronic deficits have been government’s normal way of operating since the 1930s. Modern critics complain about excessive spending and mounting debt. Cleveland fretted about government having a surplus of cash. He recognized that government had to collect some revenue, for no public regime can survive without a reliable income. Benjamin Franklin captured the essence of this truism long ago in his observation that “nothing is certain but death and taxes.”

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Medium 9781574413205

Fishing for Whoppers

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF

7978-ch05.pdf

10/6/11

8:17 AM

Page 307

FISHING FOR WHOPPERS by Henry Wolff, Jr.

Whoppers come in many forms, everything from a hamburger to a big fish, but I happen to be particularly fond of the kind that are measured not by taste or size but in the telling, such as the stories that can be heard around a table on a lazy afternoon in a country tavern—or at a fish camp like the one at Indianola that the old fisherman Ed Bell operated for many years.

Known in his time as one of the best tall tale tellers on the

Texas Coast, one example would be a story that Bell always credited to a friend, Tex Wilson. It seems that Wilson and his wife had been fishing in some fairly deep water when their boat bogged down.

“It had to be four feet of water for it not to kick up any mud,” Bell explained in telling the story. “All at once it just stalled and ol’ Tex couldn’t figure it out since there weren’t any logs or anything there to stop a boat. That was when his wife looked over the bow of the boat and said, ‘Good Lord, Tex, cut that thing off and come here and look a minute.’ He did and there was a big ol’ flounder with his back just flush with the top of the water.

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Medium 9780253012838

3. The Gruesome Period from the Beginning of the Ghetto to the Great Action

Anonymous members of Indiana University Press ePub

The fast pace of the evacuation, and the approach of the deadline when ghetto life would begin, required the rapid development and expansion of committee activities. To bring order to the life of the Kovno Jewish community, which had been suddenly uprooted and transplanted into the cramped, fenced-in area of the Slobodka ghetto, required the speedy establishment of various municipal offices.

From the very beginning of the ghetto, the first and most urgent task was to create and maintain order in the ghetto. The Jewish ghetto police started its work on the first day.

As early as July 9, while the committee was still in Rotushke, besieged by thousands of people in connection with the forthcoming evacuation, the pressing need to create an entity for maintaining order in the offices of the committee had become clear. The reserve officer M. Bramson was assigned to organize a group of young men for this purpose. The same group maintained order in the committee on Daukshios Street, in the Housing Office and in the refuge.1

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Medium 9780253333605

II. From Njahe to Nyayo: Beans and the Evolution of Agricultural Imperialism in Kenya

Claire Cone Robertson Indiana University Press ePub

 

 

Beans are intimately associated with women in central Kenya.1 The symbolism associated with njahe, a variety especially important for the Kikuyu, was no less important than the trade in beans. Dried beans are a women’s crop, a women’s trade commodity, and preeminently a women’s food. The study of beans and their trade turned out to be subversive of established orthodoxies in some ways and requires serious attention to women. Moreover, beans serve as symbolic articulators of women’s labor in both their expropriation and their connection to the soil. In this chapter I will describe the history of beans as a crop, in which women struggled to control their own produce as a part of resistance to the impact of agricultural imperialism, defined as the expropriation of land, labor, profits, and plant genetic materials, and the imposition of alien priorities upon farmers in central Kenya.2 Women have asserted themselves in the matter of crop choice and in so doing foiled some ill-judged export attempts and fostered multi-purpose hardy crops suited to Kenyan conditions. They have also, however, yielded to agricultural imperialism under the pressure of preferential pricing and high labor demands to the detriment of their diet and wellbeing. Given the limitations of the data, I will pay most attention to Kikuyu beans and symbolic systems, but include information about the Kamba where available. The fullest picture was gained by combining oral, linguistic, secondary and archival sources.

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Medium 9781626564213

CHAPTER 8 Confronting Culture Clash

Edmondson, Amy Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

There are two ways you encounter things in the world that are different. One is everything that comes in reinforces what you already believe and everything that you know. The other thing is that you stay flexible enough or curious enough and maybe unsure of yourself enough, or maybe you are more sure of yourself—I don’t know which it is—that the new things that come in keep reforming your worldview.

Jane Jacobs

Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.

Anonymous

BY THE SPRING OF 2014, IT WAS CLEAR TO ALL THAT LIVING PLANIT’S CITY building was not unfolding as initially envisioned. Why had PlanIT Valley failed to materialize, at least by that point? Big Teaming was required: With all its genius, IT could not go it alone in the smart-city space, and Living PlanIT’s employees were predominantly from IT backgrounds. They saw the corporate world as stodgy and unimaginative. They saw real estate development companies as slow, antiquated, and anchored in the past. In IT anything seems possible—like creating a multi-billion-dollar company out of a PhD dissertation.

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Medium 9781574412925

Chapter 6. Operations Hines and Putnam Paragon

James T. Gillam University of North Texas Press PDF

6.

Operations Hines and

Putnam Paragon

February 16 to May 18, 1970

From mid-January to the first week of February 1970, B Company was assigned to Operation Putnam Power. The objective was to find and destroy the NVA’s Base Area 226. As a unit, we failed. As an individual soldier, I saw and participated in the Vietnam War on all its levels. I saw the air war carried out by B-52 aircraft of the Strategic Air Force when they performed their Arc

Light missions. I also saw the after-effect of the chemical rain of death called Operation Ranch Hand. It was the kind of warfare

America went to war in Iraq to prevent: the use of chemicals as weapons of mass destruction. The chemical agent 2,4,5-T, known as Agent Orange, defoliated thousands of acres of land and spread a poison over the Central Highlands and its people.

We polluted the environment for decades and caused cancers and birth defects for a generation.

I also continued my part in the ground war searching out enemy supply caches and hunting their troops in vicious smallunit actions, but finally, and most frighteningly, there was my part of the war that was fought in the ground. I beat and strangled an enemy to death in a tunnel. After that, I thought I had seen it all, done it all, and things would get no worse for me before I left

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Medium 9780253017314

Norms of Responsible Behavior in Cyberspace? U.S. Cyber Operations

David P Fidler Indiana University Press ePub

Norms of Responsible Behavior in Cyberspace?
U.S. Cyber Operations

The third Snowden disclosure occurred on June 7, 2013, when the Guardian revealed Presidential Policy Directive/PPD-20, a top secret document under which President Obama established U.S. policy for cyber operations not involving foreign intelligence collection. The media focused on the provision instructing the government to identify potential targets for offensive cyber operations. But the directive also included guidance on defensive cyber operations, making it a comprehensive attempt to establish policy for cyber activities not involving intelligence. The Obama administration developed the directive in response to concerns that “rules of engagement” for U.S. cyber operations were not clear. The directive declared that all U.S. offensive and defensive cyber operations shall comply with U.S. and international law. The directive contains no information about specific U.S. cyber operations, but disclosures in August 2013 included information that the U.S. government conducted 231 offensive cyber operations in 2011 against government targets in China, Iran, North Korea, and Russia—the year before PPD-20 was adopted. This disputed information, along with PPD-20, connected these disclosures with alleged U.S. involvement in the Stuxnet cyber attack on Iranian nuclear centrifuges discovered in 2010. Fidler’s chapter in this volume analyzes the foreign policy implications of PPD-20’s disclosure, which include questions about how U.S. offensive cyber operations relate to the U.S. government’s desire for “norms of responsible behavior in cyberspace.”

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