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24: Of Mice and Mycobacteria: Lessons from a Manipulatable Model

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

24 

Of Mice and Mycobacteria: Lessons from a Manipulatable Model

Andrea M. Cooper* and John E. Pearl

Trudeau Institute, Inc., Saranac Lake, USA

Introduction

While the mouse is not recognized as a natural host for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it has become a highly useful tool for investigating the interaction between M. tuberculosis and a mature vertebrate immune system. Unlike any other host, the mouse has been sculpted and probed over the decades and has provided extensive and in-depth knowledge of how the mammalian immune response handles this inflammatory yet slow-growing bacterium which is difficult to eradicate. The key features that have prompted the use of the mouse over the years are that it is easy to house humanely, it is relatively economical to use in significant numbers, it is highly tractable and it can be used to generate reproducible and definitive data sets. While there is resistance to the use of the mouse as a tool to select drugs and vaccines for human use, its capacity to define immune pathways and mechanisms is undeniable.

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4 - Habit Number One: Don’t Smoke

Tutino D.C., Andrew Basic Health Publications ePub

CHAPTER 4

Habit Number One: Don’t Smoke

I HAD AN INTERESTING CONVERSATION WITH A PATIENT THE OTHER DAY. She told me that she loves to smoke and that she’s been smoking for thirty-nine years. How does she justify that? She said she smokes “good quality” cigarettes and that somehow they’re clean, they don’t have the carcinogenic chemicals associated with smoking. That’s how she came to the conclusion that she was smoking “a healthy cigarette.” So, I said to her, “You want me to tell you that’s okay? I’m not going to do that. In fact, I’m going to tell you definitely, categorically, it’s not okay.” I gave her a lot of reasons why there’s no such thing as a “healthy” cigarette, and I’m going to give you those reasons too.

The number-one cause of preventable death in the United States is tobacco related. According to the U.S. Surgeon General, 440,000 people die each year from conditions that are due to tobacco use. Not only that, smoking-related health problems cost approximately $157 billion per year in economic losses. It is estimated that, since the first Surgeon General’s report on smoking was published in 1964, cigarette smoking has caused 12 million deaths.1 In spite of all the public awareness of the problems associated with smoking and recent declines in smoking rates, more than 46 million Americans still light up. And each day more than 4,000 young people smoke their first cigarette.2

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CHAPTER 7: Treating Mental Health Problems

Prousky M.Sc. N.D., Jonathan E. Basic Health Publications ePub

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is strongly associated with both depression and anxiety-related symptoms.1 The mental anguish and physical toll that anxiety and depression impose is tremendous, especially since people with CFS are already burdened by the inherent difficulties of their illness. Even though chronic fatigue is often misdiagnosed as depression, many sufferers do in fact suffer from low moods. I have also observed that there are a sizeable number of people with CFS who suffer from anxiety and feel further incapacitated by being chronically stressed, nervous, and tense.

Since it makes little sense for those with chronic fatigue to suffer needlessly from debilitating mental health symptoms, they should undergo a therapeutic trial using several of the numerous vitamin and other treatments that are available. These natural treatments usually improve quality of life and significantly reduce symptoms of chronic mental health problems.

In Chapter 3, I recommended that people with chronic fatigue consider following an oligoantigenic (elimination) diet followed by a challenge phase to pinpoint dietary intolerances (food allergies). Once all implicated dietary items have been identified, they should be strictly avoided or ingested only once every four days to limit ongoing allergic reactions. Since food allergies can be responsible for mental health symptoms like anxiety and depression, removing ongoing allergic reactions is a vital component of an effective plan to overcome CFS.

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2. Asthma Basics

M.D., Jonathan M., Berkowitz Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

chapter 2

Asthma Basics

“WHAT IS ASTHMA?” If you can answer this question to everyone’s satisfaction, you just may get a Nobel Prize. The most common definition considers asthma a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by episodes of reversible bronchospasm, commonly known as an asthma attack. If you pick up a standard medical dictionary and look up the word “asthma,” you’ll probably read something like this: “Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to a multiplicity of stimuli.”1

In less technical jargon, asthma is a medical condition that affects the lung’s airways, causing them to become smaller and thereby blocking airflow. This airway obstruction is reversible, meaning the blockage eventually goes away, either by itself or through the use of medication. Doctors call this airway constriction “bronchospasm” or “bronchoconstriction.” What causes this reversible bronchoconstriction varies from person to person and can range from allergies to exercise to emotions. Central to bronchospasm is a chronic inflammation of the airways that makes them more sensitive and more likely to constrict under the right circumstances. Why asthmatics have this chronic inflammation and why asthma varies from person to person are questions subject to intense controversy. Still confused? So are a lot of scientists and physicians. Perhaps the best way to view asthma is to consider it as several different problems rolled into one, with environmental, allergic, genetic, emotional, infectious, and nutritional factors, along with immune dysfunction, each playing a role.

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34. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

R.Ph., Ph.D, Earl L.. Mindell Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

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