171 Chapters
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26: Radioprotective Effects of Green Tea

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

26 

Radioprotective Effects of Green Tea

Shuichi Masuda* and Yuko Shimamura

University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan

Abstract

Green tea mainly contains four catechins, namely epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate, and non-polyphenol compounds such as vitamins that are known to be strong antioxidants. Biological adverse effects induced by radiation are caused by radicals and active oxygens from water radiolysis in vivo. In some scientific reports, the radioprotective activity of green tea and its components against the adverse effects induced by ionizing radiation have been demonstrated. In vitro tests with green tea and its components (e.g. catechins and vitamins) show protective effects against adverse damage (e.g. DNA breakage and lipid peroxidation) to irradiated cells or DNA samples. In vivo tests on experimental animals administered catechins, gallic acid, vitamins, and caffeine exhibit various radioprotective effects, such as inhibitory activities against DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, a protective effect of hematological parameters, and a rise in effectiveness of antioxidant defense systems. Some reports have demonstrated the inhibitory effects of tea on the absorption of radioactive materials and their action mechanism to be associated with the astringent action of green tea tannins in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. From these reports it appears that green tea might be a useful candidate for reduction of radiation damage. This chapter provides evidence of the biological effects induced by radiation exposure and the radioprotective activity of green tea.

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7: Bioavailability and Biotransformation of Tea Polyphenols

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

7 

Bioavailability and Biotransformation of Tea Polyphenols

Chung S. Yang* and Mao-Jung Lee

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA

Abstract

Tea, a popular beverage worldwide, has been reported to have many beneficial health effects. Most of these biological effects have been attributed to the tea polyphenols: (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate

(EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC). Of these,

EGCG is the most abundant and most biologically active constituent. Its biological activity is limited by its relatively low systemic bioavailability because of efflux mechanisms. In comparison to gallated catechins (EGCG and ECG), the bioavailability of EGC and EC are much higher. These catechins are mainly methylated, glucuronidated, and sulfated before elimination. The rather large molecular weight black tea polyphenols, theaflavins, and theasubigim, appear to have very low or no bioavailability, but this topic remains to be further investigated. On the other hand, the low molecular weight microbial metabolites in “dark tea” are expected to have good bioavailabilities. The unabsorbed green and black tea polyphenols can be degraded by microbes in the intestine and may affect health through modifying the intestinal microbiota. These subjects remain to be further studied.

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19: Tuberculosis in Wild and Captive Deer

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

19 

Tuberculosis in Wild and

Captive Deer

Mitchell V. Palmer,1* Daniel J. O’Brien,2 J. Frank Griffin,3

Graham Nugent,4 Geoffrey W. de Lisle,5 Alastair Ward6 and Richard J. Delahay6

1

National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa; 2Michigan Department of Natural

Resources, Lansing, Michigan; 3University of Otago, Dunedin,New Zealand;

4

Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand; 5National Centre for

Biosecurity and Infectious Disease, Upper Hutt, New Zealand; 6Animal and Plant Health Agency, York, UK

Introduction

Bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium are Gram-­ positive, acid-fast organisms that include several major human and animal pathogens.

Although human tuberculosis is generally caused by M. tuberculosis, indistinguishable clinical signs and disease can be caused by

M. bovis. The range of susceptible hosts to

M. bovis is extremely broad and includes humans, cattle, swine, carnivores and deer.

Deer have played an important role in human history. Excavations of early prehistoric sites in Europe indicate that both deer and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were important sources of meat for early humans. Red deer

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Chapter Six: This month’s bills or this month’s pills

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

Lydia told me that what this American hero knew, and passed on to her children, is that poverty and too much pregnancy are as inextricably linked as the ability to control one’s fertility and economic well-being.

The priest who introduced me to Planned Parenthood

For five years, in the 1960s and early ’70s, I taught in the Odessa,

Texas, Head Start program. I started out as a volunteer teacher’s aide one day a week, and quickly became enthralled with early childhood education and obsessed with learning about every stage my own children were going through. I read every book on child development that I could get my hands on and my children became the victims of my desire to practice these new skills. The program was named Greater

Opportunities of the Permian Basin, in keeping with the optimism of the era, as we set about lifting the economic status of all Americans, thereby eradicating many other injustices. Fittingly, the same War on

Poverty also tiptoed gingerly into providing the first federal funding for family planning.

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Chapter Nine: Viagra® yes, birth control no

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Nine

Viagra® yes, birth control no

My first awareness of racial injustice came at age three, when I became morally outraged that Juanita, my favorite babysitter, couldn’t go to the high school on “our” side of town. I was a child of the South, and racial discrimination suffused the culture so completely that most people couldn’t even see it. I’ll admit that my outrage was fueled by the knowledge that when school started, she would have to go live with her grandmother across town and therefore wouldn’t be available to play with me. Even so, this incident stayed with me. I am sure that

Juanita’s plight shaped my sensibilities about fairness and justice, or the lack of it, in this world.

Like racial injustice in the South fifty years ago, other injustices are so pervasive that many don’t see them until somebody points them out. That’s exactly what happened with the pervasive gender inequities in women’s health care, not the least of which is the absence of insurance coverage for contraception under many plans. But unlike the complex issues of race, religion, and culture, once this injustice was pointed out, people “got” it very quickly.

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