171 Chapters
Medium 9781786392848

1 Sustainable Diets: a Bundle of Problems (Not One) in Search of Answers

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

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Sustainable Diets: a Bundle of

Problems (Not One) in Search of Answers

Tim Lang and Pamela Mason

Abstract

This chapter reflects on the status of policy debate about sustainable diets. That the scientific case for shifting the population’s diet into a more sustainable direction is now as certain as science can be. The effect of food on ecosystems, health, the economy and society has turned what could be positive into too negative effects. Yet a policy approach to the food system has remained largely in place, which perpetuates these impacts, seemingly unaffected by the evidence. The policy approach to food centres on output, maximizing consumer choice and cheaper prices.

A gap has thus been created between what the evidence suggests needs to be addressed and what society actually delivers, eats and aspires to. The chapter uses the Nuffield Council of Bio-Ethics’ Ladder of Interventions to gauge why action on sustainable diets is relatively so weak. The ladder posits that the lowest rung one is minimal intervention, and rises higher to invoke tough measures such as fiscal and legal action, and at the top of the ladder on rung eight, choice is totally reframed. The chapter argues that attention needs to be given to how to move up the ladder, so that policy on sustainable diets encourages the radical change suggested by the evidence. Attempts to create international and national policy frameworks for sustainable diets have been few. The reluctance even to step onto the ladder’s first rung is remarkable. While the majority of politicians and food system actors seem reluctant to change, the chapter outlines developments tried by a number of countries and actors at various policy levels. These suggest that the ‘business-as-usual’ policy framework may be fraying at the edges. The chapter concludes by outlining policy arguments that have emerged in what it describes as a process of democratic experimentation, and proposes that policymakers should adopt multicriteria approaches to sustainable diets.

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Medium 9781786392398

4: Studies by Japanese Scientists on the Health Effects of Green Tea

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

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Studies by Japanese Scientists on the Health Effects of Green Tea

Koichi Saeki,1* Takeshi Minami,2 and Mamoru Isemura3

ID Pharma Co. Ltd, Tsukuba, Japan; 2Gifu University of Medical Science, Gifu, Japan;

3

Tea Science Center, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan

1

Abstract

Green tea was brought as a remedy from China to Japan by Buddhist priests about 1200 years ago; since that time, the Japanese have paid attention to its health effects. Japanese researchers have had a great deal of interest and have published scientific evidence on the health-promoting effects of green tea. A comparison of the number of papers from different countries on green tea catechins (GTCs) in the PubMed electronic database reveals profound contributions from Japanese scientists. This chapter ­reviews studies on the isolation and structural determination of GTCs as well as the beneficial effects of green tea on diseases including cancer, hypercholesterolemia and related disorders, infectious diseases, and dental diseases.

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Medium 9781780643960

6: The Continuing Co-evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Homo sapiens

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

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The Continuing Co-evolution of

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and

Homo sapiens

Clifton E. Barry III*

National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease, Bethesda, USA

Introduction and Historical Context

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of antiquity, with evidence of human disease extending through most, if not all, of recorded human history. The oldest human remains to show evidence of disease were found in Turkey and dated to approximately 500,000 bp (Before

Present) (Kappelman et al., 2008). This specimen of Homo erectus displayed pathology consistent with TB meningitis on the endocranial surface of a frontal bone; although molecular evidence of infection was not obtained, leading other authors to question this diagnosis

(Roberts et al., 2009). Numerous studies have more conclusively identified TB DNA from somewhat more recent human remains from, for example: Egyptian mummies from 2050 bc to 500 bc (Zink et al., 2001, 2003); Peruvian mummies from 1000 bp (Salo et al., 1994);

Lithuanian skeletal remains from the 15th to

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Medium 9781574411584

Chapter Fifteen: Motherhood in freedom and fatherhood too

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

nancies are planned. Many more unintended pregnancies never occur.

There’s been a dramatic decrease in teen pregnancies. Many more children are born very wanted. More birth control options exist. Maternal and child health have dramatically improved. A whole generation of young women assumes it is their perfect right to get the education and jobs they want, and to have the family size they want when and if they want it. Not that all problems have been solved, not by a long shot.

But the social context in which I write Behind Every Choice Is a Story is very different than the world in which I grew up and had my children.

We speak today, literally, from a different reality.

Birth control became family planning became reproductive and sexual health. It’s not just about birth control and abortion any more, but also about desiring parenthood and being able to achieve it in freedom. It’s about the fullness of life for ourselves and our daughters and sons, now and into the future. It is still about wanted children, sexual pleasure, healthy mothers, and emancipated women to be sure.

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Medium 9781786392848

4 Climate Change and Sustainable and Healthy Diets

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

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Climate Change and Sustainable and Healthy Diets

Cristina Tirado von der Pahlen

Abstract

Promoting good nutrition, health and sustainable food systems in the context of population growth, dietary transition and a changing climate is a central challenge of our time. While climate change has an impact on our food systems and diets, our food systems and dietary patterns also affect climate change. This chapter presents an analysis of the interconnections of sustainable dietary patterns, health and nutrition in a context of climate-change mitigation. It outlines the global frameworks and agreements on climate change, food and nutrition, exploring the many, complex ways in which diet affects climate change, and vice versa. It looks at diets that boost health and are environmentally sustainable, as well as the measures needed to steer food production and consumption in that direction. The chapter identifies policies based on co-benefits to health and climate of dietary change and opportunities for joint action on nutrition, health, and climate policy. There are co-benefits of measures that reduce climate-altering emissions and, at the same time, improve health by shifting away from the overconsumption of meat from ruminant sources in high-meat-consuming societies. A general transition to more plant-based diets could lead to lower climate-altering emissions and likely reductions in diet-related non-communicable diseases. In this context, it is critical to promote demand-side climate mitigation options for the agriculture and food sector, such as changes in dietary patterns towards less emissions-intensive, healthier, more plant-based diets. From the health perspective, transitioning towards more plant-based diets in line with

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