171 Chapters
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Epilogue: Tell me your story

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

Epilogue

Tell me your story

The earliest humans understood the power of stories. Stories connect us with our fellow humans. They teach and inspire. And they move us to make a better world.

I encourage you to tell your stories. Telling my story in this book helped open up conversations with my children that deepened our relationships. It can do the same for you.

That’s the personal part. There’s also the political. For too long, reproductive health, sex, and sexuality have been taboo subjects. But the more we tell the personal stories that illuminate these social issues, the closer we will be to creating a society that respects our reproductive rights.

Just as the stories in Margaret Sanger’s Motherhood in Bondage helped advance the cause of birth control in 1928, so the brave individuals who shared their life-affirming stories in Behind Every Choice Is a Story are advancing reproductive rights today.

Telling our stories challenges the disconnect between our real lives and the restrictions set by our institutions. It’s easy for Congress or

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29: Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

29 

Nontuberculous Mycobacterial

Infections

Joseph O. Falkinham III*

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA

Introduction

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that share environments with animals, poultry and humans. The causative agent of Johne’s disease in cattle, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, is the only classic pathogen of the group; all other subspecies are opportunistic pathogens. For the opportunists, disease follows exposure to the portion of the population that is transiently susceptible. Quite possibly the major sources of

NTM infection for humans are drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing (Falkinham et  al., 2001; Falkinham, 2011). As NTM are natural inhabitants of soils (Iivanainen et al.,

1997; De Groote et al., 2006), soil is a source of infection for both humans and animals (via dusts). NTM are quite hardy; their wax-rich outer membrane contributes to their resistance to disinfection and antibiotics (Brennan and Nikaido, 1995). As the NTM are innately resistant to anti-tuberculosis agents, drug therapy is problematic, even in humans and companion animals. For agronomic animals, for example pigs, it is more cost effective to reduce levels of NTM in the animal’s environment.

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Chapter Five: Jelly woman to handsome princess

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Five

Jelly woman to handsome princess

Twenty-two. College graduation right around the corner. Having trouble with the pill, no steady boyfriend, decided to discontinue the pill. Old boyfriend renewed his interest and didn’t listen to “be careful, use a condom . . . ” I should have been more adamant. He didn’t stick around much longer after that anyhow. Never have I hesitated since to stand up for my own well being.

I strongly believe I made the right decision to discontinue the pregnancy. There was no way I could have appropriately provided for a child had the pregnancy continued. I must confess, however, that there are times I ponder just what that 15year-old would be like today . . . but only for a moment. Just long enough to know that I was lucky to have a choice in the first place and that making a mistake shouldn’t mean having a child out of guilt. It shouldn’t mean creating a situation where a child feels this guilt and possible resentment; or where a child does not receive all the care it deserves. Healthy adults are the by-products of healthy children. There is already enough

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Medium 9780253015969

5 Litigating the Revolution

Jo B. Paoletti Indiana University Press ePub

Fashion has had a legal side for centuries. Powerful rulers once set limits on who could or could not wear certain finery and decreed that colors, badges, or hats be used to set certain groups of people apart as “others”—Jews, for example, who were required to wear yellow badges or pointed hats in parts of thirteenth-century Europe.1 The umbrella term for these edicts is “sumptuary laws”; one of my favorites, from medieval Spain, begins with “the king may wear anything he wishes.” Sumptuary laws reveal a great deal about a society—for example, which goods are highly valued (and therefore reserved for the élites) and also which groups may be considered a threat to the status quo. Amid the social turbulence of the Renaissance, wealthy merchants and their wives were often singled out as needing to be reminded of their inferiority to their high-born betters. Economist Thorstein Veblen observed in 1899 that in modern capitalism, wealth could be freely displayed by nearly everyone who has it, as a sign of socioeconomic superiority. But we still face restrictions in the form of dress codes, usually in schools or in the workplace, that attempt to enforce a uniform appearance or suppress potentially disruptive elements. These modern regulations have elements of social class (public schools with uniform dress codes tend to be in poorer districts), race (local ordinances against “saggy pants”), or gender (laws against cross-dressing and public indecency, dress codes that enforce gender stereotypes). Sumptuary laws don’t come from out of the blue: they are a reaction by the powerful to undesirable behavior from their “inferiors.” The rampant and dramatic changes in gender expression that emerged in the 1960s met with just such resistance, leading in some cases to the courtroom and sometimes even to prison. The litigious heat generated by long hair, short skirts, and women in pants is strong evidence that these were far from trivial issues for the parties involved. The fact that we are still arguing about the same principles, though in different clothing, is part of the ongoing legacy of the 1960s.

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Medium 9781786392398

16: Antidiabetic Effects

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

16 

Antidiabetic Effects

Noriyuki Miyoshi*

University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease in which a person has chronically high blood sugar levels. There are various types of DM, but approximately 90% of the cases in Japan are type 2 DM caused by lifestyle factors stemming from eating and exercise habits. Long-term hyperglycemia can cause capillary disorders and lead to DM-related complications such as retinopathy, kidney diseases, and neuropathy. A number of studies have indicated that the ingestion of green tea or tea catechins is effective in preventing a rise in blood sugar levels. Several mechanisms of action are involved in this effect including:

(i) inhibition of α-amylase activity in the digestive juice, which is involved in producing sugar from starch, resulting in a reduction in glucose production and uptake in the digestive tract; (ii) promotion of the glucose intake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue; (iii) enhancement of sensitivity of insulin, a hormone that lowers blood glucose levels, and protection of pancreatic β cells; and (iv) suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis (e.g. glucose production from non-carbohydrates) to prevent a rise in postprandial blood glucose levels. Recent cellular and animal studies revealed molecular mechanisms underlying gluconeogenesis suppression by green tea catechins in which epigallocatechin gallate, a main constituent of green tea catechins, inhibits gene and protein expressions of transcriptional factors involved in the gluconeogenesis. In human studies, amelioration of insulin resistance by green tea and catechins is observed. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that the habitual drinking of green tea reduces the morbidity risk of DM. Although further detailed analyses are required to evaluate the beneficial effects on humans, drinking of green tea appears to prevent and improve DM through the multiple activities of its constituents. Because DM increases the risk of colon and liver carcinogenesis in addition to obesity and arteriosclerosis, habitual drinking of green tea would be a promising strategy for the primary prevention of not only DM but also these related disorders.

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Chapter Fifteen: Motherhood in freedom and fatherhood too

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

nancies are planned. Many more unintended pregnancies never occur.

There’s been a dramatic decrease in teen pregnancies. Many more children are born very wanted. More birth control options exist. Maternal and child health have dramatically improved. A whole generation of young women assumes it is their perfect right to get the education and jobs they want, and to have the family size they want when and if they want it. Not that all problems have been solved, not by a long shot.

But the social context in which I write Behind Every Choice Is a Story is very different than the world in which I grew up and had my children.

We speak today, literally, from a different reality.

Birth control became family planning became reproductive and sexual health. It’s not just about birth control and abortion any more, but also about desiring parenthood and being able to achieve it in freedom. It’s about the fullness of life for ourselves and our daughters and sons, now and into the future. It is still about wanted children, sexual pleasure, healthy mothers, and emancipated women to be sure.

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Foreword

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

Foreword

Green tea was introduced to Japan from China in the 8th century or earlier as a kind of medicine. In 1211, the Japanese Zen priest Eisai (Fig. 1) wrote the book Kissa Youjouki (Tea and Health Promotion) and described green tea as the “elixir of care and nostrum for a long-lasting life.” Green tea has been habitually consumed by the Japanese for many years and has occupied an honored place in Japanese life. Why has green tea been accepted as

Fig. 1.  The statue of Eisai in Makinohara, Shizuoka, Japan.

�xi

xii Foreword

Eisai’s saying? That’s because it contains a variety of ingredients which can give healthy effects with the astringency and bitterness, the charm, and the specific taste and aroma.

Indeed, recent scientific research revealed that the physiological function of each ingredient that prevents and cures sickness can be combined additively and/or synergistically with other ingredients to prevent disease and increase the immune response. Green tea also promotes the spiritual healing of humans. Drinking green tea offers a sense of good relief and relaxation. The population of Japan enjoys heathy longevity, and I believe that one reason for this is green tea.

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23: Effects of High-molecular-weight Polyphenol (Mitochondria Activation Factor) Derived from Black Tea and Oolong Tea on Mitochondria Function

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

23 

Effects of High-molecular-weight

Polyphenol (Mitochondria Activation Factor)

Derived from Black Tea and Oolong Tea on

Mitochondria Function

Osamu Numata*

University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan

Abstract

Mitochondria activation factor (MAF) is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from oolong and black teas that increases mitochondrial membrane potential. MAF increases aerobic metabolic capacity in murine skeletal muscle, activates exercise training-induced intracellular signaling pathways that involve AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), and improves endurance capacity. MAF also increases swimming velocities in sea urchin sperm by up to 8%, to the same extent as sperm-activating peptides secreted by the egg. These findings suggest that MAF is associated with the activation of glycolysis and lipolysis, which provide fuels for energy metabolism in mitochondria. The anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of MAF were evaluated in severe type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice. The results indicated that oral administration of MAF for 10 weeks reduced increases in fasting blood glucose levels, and it also reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids and plasma lipids, even though these mice had greater food intakes than the control mice. In addition, MAF was found to be more effective than epigallocatechin gallate. Thus, MAF derived from oolong and black teas promotes glycolysis and lipolysis in hepatocytes and dramatically improves fatty liver.

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5. Hope

Kathryn A. Rhine Indiana University Press ePub

5

Hope

Because of global donors’ increasing investment in HIV treatment programs over the past decade, the number of support groups across the country has multiplied exponentially.1 In Kano city alone, there are at least seven, comprising several hundred HIV-positive men and women. On the wall of one of the offices where I conducted interviews, there was a framed document outlining the vision of the support group. In line with the expectations of these donors, it stated that their central mission was to “promote a self-sufficient society, the alleviation of poverty, and the reduction of stigma.” The nongovernmental organizations that sponsor support groups also assist them by serving as venues for programs that address “social care.”2 HIV-positive men and women may access resources, such as legal services, linkages to food support, and income-generating programs, primarily through enrollment and involvement in these groups. In addition, clinicians, public health workers, and researchers, like me, recruit people in these sites for different kinds of studies, interventions, and public events.3

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Conclusion: Evidence and Substance

Kathryn A. Rhine Indiana University Press ePub

Conclusion: Evidence and Substance

There is substance in the gathering

of bodies battered by this disease.

There is evidence in the quiet promise

we make to be here again next week.

There is substance in the sweet taste

of coconut water, the scent of morning.

There is evidence in the songs a slim man

sings, healing as the balm of warmed oil.

There is substance in the expletives shattering

our peace, the tears, the lament, the fear.

There is evidence in the hum of recognition,

the comfort of hands held tightly.

There is substance in the streets walked

to tell people to hope for tomorrow.

Kwame Dawes, Faith

Throughout this book, I have documented the centrality of hope in HIV-positive women’s narratives of their lives: for health and wellbeing; for love, marriage, and children; for education, work, and economic prosperity; and for security and longevity. Through an ethnographic lens, I have located these dreams in women’s lived realities. Their aspirations for the future surface in scenes of youthful trysts and romantic encounters; in marriage celebrations and fearful wedding nights; in violent encounters with abusive husbands and futile pleas for help from family members; in hidden pregnancies and joyous presentations of baby pictures; in elaborate beauty regimens and conspicuous displays of generosity to relatives, neighbors, and researchers; in successful entrepreneurial businesses and uncompensated, arduous household labor. These women’s steadfast faith – in God, in the virtue of family, in a meaningful life, in a cure for their disease – grounds these hopes as they face formidable daily struggles. Amid the changes ushered in by global initiatives centered on increasing access to HIV treatment and medical services in Nigeria, theirs is a story of continuity.

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24: Of Mice and Mycobacteria: Lessons from a Manipulatable Model

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

24 

Of Mice and Mycobacteria: Lessons from a Manipulatable Model

Andrea M. Cooper* and John E. Pearl

Trudeau Institute, Inc., Saranac Lake, USA

Introduction

While the mouse is not recognized as a natural host for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it has become a highly useful tool for investigating the interaction between M. tuberculosis and a mature vertebrate immune system. Unlike any other host, the mouse has been sculpted and probed over the decades and has provided extensive and in-depth knowledge of how the mammalian immune response handles this inflammatory yet slow-growing bacterium which is difficult to eradicate. The key features that have prompted the use of the mouse over the years are that it is easy to house humanely, it is relatively economical to use in significant numbers, it is highly tractable and it can be used to generate reproducible and definitive data sets. While there is resistance to the use of the mouse as a tool to select drugs and vaccines for human use, its capacity to define immune pathways and mechanisms is undeniable.

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SECRET 11: GO CONFIDENTLY WITH EXPERT ENCOURAGEMENT

Kalena Cook, Margaret Christensen University of North Texas Press ePub

SECRET 11:
Go Confidently with
Expert Encouragement

Ina May Gaskin, C.P.M.

Founder and Director of The Farm Midwifery Center, Author and Founding Member of Midwives Alliance of North America

Spiritual Midwifery, by midwife Ina May Gaskin, inspired the collecting of natural birth stories from women of today for this book.

The Farm’s Midwifery Center delivered 1723 births over a nineteen-year period with an outstanding safety record: zero maternal mortality and only ten neonatal mortalities, three of which being lethal abnormalities. The majority were home births with 4.2 percent in a hospital. Only 1.4 percent of the births were C-sections.

So far, Ina May Gaskin is the only midwife that a birth maneuver has been named after. The Gaskin Maneuver is a position of the mom on all fours—hands and knees—for assisting shoulder dystocia. If a baby’s shoulder becomes stuck during delivery, moving the mom into this positioning allows gravity to open the way for the gentle birth.

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22: Rabbit Model of Mycobacterial Diseases

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

22 

Rabbit Model of Mycobacterial

Diseases

Selvakumar Subbian,1* Petros C. Karakousis2 and Gilla Kaplan1,3

1

Rutgers University, Newark, USA; 2Johns Hopkins

University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA; 3Bill and Melinda

Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA

Introduction

Understanding host–pathogen interactions is an important step in developing efficient intervention strategies to eliminate infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), in humans. Due to significant ethical and practical considerations associated with studying infectious diseases in humans, cost-effective and tractable surrogate animal models that can produce similar disease pathology have been developed and evaluated. Early approaches to the systematic selection and evaluation of animal models of human infectious diseases started during the early 19th century with the development of bacteriological research, including the pathogenesis and transmission of

TB. In fact, one of Robert Koch’s postulates mandates that ‘inoculation of the isolated human pathogen to animals must reproduce the same disease conditions’ to prove that a pathogen is the cause of an infectious disease

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21 Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS): a Legacy for Food and Nutrition Security

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

21 

Globally Important Agricultural

Heritage Systems (GIAHS): a Legacy for Food and Nutrition Security

Parviz Koohafkan

Abstract

In many countries specific agricultural systems and landscapes have been created, shaped and maintained by generations of farmers and herders based on diverse species and their interactions and using locally adapted, distinctive and often ingenious combinations of management practices and techniques. Globally important agricultural heritage systems (GIAHS) represent a unique sub-set of these agricultural systems, which exemplify customary use of globally significant agricultural biodiversity and merit to be recognized as a heritage of mankind.

Agricultural heritage systems throughout the world testify to the inventiveness and ingenuity of farmers in their use and management of the finite resources, biodiversity and interspecies dynamics, and the physical attributes of the landscape, codified in traditional but evolving knowledge, practices and technologies. However, GIAHS are rapidly shrinking victims of globalization, urbanization and unsustainable technological and economic changes.

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Medium 9780253015778

6 Art Costume and Collaboration on the Theater Stage

Pravina Shukla Indiana University Press ePub

THE EXAMPLES OF HALLOWEEN, CARNIVAL, FOLK DRESS, AND historic reenactment offer a clear correlation: as costumes become more elaborate and professional, so do the events and the performances of the people wearing them. We end our exploration of costume use with a consideration of performances in which costumes are made to convey specific stories to an audience while moving the spectators emotionally and transforming the actors psychologically.

The case studies in this book teach us about the roles of creation, of individual satisfaction in the midst of collaboration, of personal pleasure in a socially cooperative endeavor. As in organized sports, collaborating in costumed events allows people to become part of a team of specialists, to relax into their own roles knowing that all the other aspects of creation lie in the domains of other competent players. The division of labor does not necessarily hinder individuality, or inhibit freedom of expression. The collaborative nature of theater grants the stage director, the costume designer, and the actor great leeway in the execution of his or her creative work within a web of excellence. All instances of costume use entail a performative dimension, but the presentation of personal identity through collaboration is most obvious on the theater stage.

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