171 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9780253355331

6 Postcolonial Geographies: Being “Left Behind” in the New South Africa

Mark Hunter Indiana University Press ePub

In the last chapter we met Dudu, an “industrial woman” who found employment as a garment worker in Isithebe’s factories in the 1970s. With a regular income, however small, women like Dudu often shunned marriage to men—who, in turn, had become progressively less able to afford it. Yet in the 1990s, despite the joy of being able to vote for the first time in her life, Dudu faced declining personal, economic, and health fortunes, and her troubles were representative of the harsher circumstances women in the jondolo settlement faced.

In 1999, Jonathan, Dudu’s longstanding boyfriend who lived in her two-room home, was laid off from a large metal-industry firm. He cut a sad picture of an unemployed man battered by his inability to work. As is common with alcoholics, it was impossible to determine when he was drunk: his eyes were always bloodshot, his speech slurred, and his stare never fully engaged. Jonathan died in 2004.

In April 2006 I returned after a year away to find that Dudu herself had passed away and their son, in his early teens, was living alone. As was common in the area, rumors of AIDS followed the death of two lovers one after another.

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Medium 9781626560604

Understanding Exercise and Fitness: Tim’s Toolbox

Blanchard, Ken Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Resources II

This appendix gives you a more in-depth overview of the components of fitness that I’ve shared throughout this book. Even if you already have a good knowledge of fitness, you may want to review this section anyway.

—Tim Kearin

Because the qualifications to be a fitness trainer do not require a license, there are many different approaches and philosophies to fitness. Just because some people look lean and muscular doesn’t necessarily mean they know what they are doing. The industry has numerous trainer certification courses where the basics of physiology and anatomy are taught along with safety concerns and CPR. Most universities and colleges offer bachelor’s, master’s and even Ph.D. degrees in many sports science areas, including kinesiology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, and several other exercise disciplines. When seeking out a trainer, it is always a good idea to check the résumé, which should include at least a bachelor’s degree and several years of experience working with individuals in your age group. It is also a good idea to check a reference or two.

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Medium 9781574413335

SECRET 3: TURN SCARED INTO SACRED

Kalena Cook, Margaret Christensen University of North Texas Press ePub

SECRET 3:
Turn Scared into Sacred

One of the most daunting hurdles facing women before birth is fear. Especially for the first time, some expectant mothers may burden themselves with concerns that may never happen. Sometimes negative feelings from a previous labor linger. Whereas animals rely on instinct or whether they can see, smell or hear danger, women tend to worry needlessly. Negative thoughts can grow into a dragon with several heads—anxiety, panic, and dread.

But hope exists. By looking at the ways you get scared, you can learn how to turn that energy into the sacred.Turn Scared into Sacred is the third natural birth secret: taking your darkest fears and facing them with faith in your own way. Frances Moore Lappe, co-author of You Have the Power: Choosing Courage in a Culture of Fear, says fear is an energy— an energy you can use to your advantage. Instead of freezing up, you can move through the stages of birth naturally by designing your “shield of courage” ahead of time.

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Medium 9781786392848

9 Consumer-level Food Waste Prevention and Reduction Towards Sustainable Diets

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

9 

Consumer-level Food Waste

Prevention and Reduction Towards

Sustainable Diets

Silvia Gaiani, Rosa Rolle and Camelia Bucatariu

Abstract

Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development is a global commitment that includes a set of 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) and 169 targets. Food systems are at the heart of this agenda. SDG 12 seeks to ‘ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns’. The third target under this goal, target 12.3, calls for reducing by half per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels, and reducing food losses along production and supply chains (including post-harvest losses) by 2030. SDG target 12.3 has the potential to embed prevention and reduction of food loss and waste in public and private sector strategies and to contribute to more sustainable diets and consumption patterns around the world. Food systems today are confronted with, among other issues, increasing non-communicable diseases linked to diets as well as socioeconomic and environmental concerns related to food waste. The macro- and micro-food environment within which consumers find themselves is multidimensional and they − alongside national governments and food supply chain stakeholders − can play a role in preventing and reducing food waste and contributing to sustainable diets. This chapter identifies six major challenges related to food waste prevention and reduction and sustainable food systems. Challenges range from recognition that the global food system is impacted by the attitudes and behaviours of local, national, regional and global food supply chain actors, to the definitions of food waste, measurement methodologies, data collection, and the need for agro-industry productivity and behavioural change thinking. A matrix policy analysis – based on a combination of initiatives at macro, meso and micro-level – is then recommended as a possible approach to successful food waste prevention and reduction.

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Medium 9781780643960

24: Of Mice and Mycobacteria: Lessons from a Manipulatable Model

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

24 

Of Mice and Mycobacteria: Lessons from a Manipulatable Model

Andrea M. Cooper* and John E. Pearl

Trudeau Institute, Inc., Saranac Lake, USA

Introduction

While the mouse is not recognized as a natural host for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it has become a highly useful tool for investigating the interaction between M. tuberculosis and a mature vertebrate immune system. Unlike any other host, the mouse has been sculpted and probed over the decades and has provided extensive and in-depth knowledge of how the mammalian immune response handles this inflammatory yet slow-growing bacterium which is difficult to eradicate. The key features that have prompted the use of the mouse over the years are that it is easy to house humanely, it is relatively economical to use in significant numbers, it is highly tractable and it can be used to generate reproducible and definitive data sets. While there is resistance to the use of the mouse as a tool to select drugs and vaccines for human use, its capacity to define immune pathways and mechanisms is undeniable.

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Medium 9781574413335

SECRET 7: FIND OUT HOW BIRTH CENTERS BRIDGE THE CHOICE

Kalena Cook, Margaret Christensen University of North Texas Press ePub

SECRET 7:
Find Out How Birth Centers
Bridge the Choice

Free-standing birth centers offer a bridge between home and a hospital. You have the comforts of home—a bedroom, kitchen, bathroom, sitting area—to gather family and friends without tidying up. The environment feels more relaxing than a bustling hospital. But there’s oxygen, resuscitation equipment, and a baby warmer tucked discreetly inside an armoire.

In addition to being as safe as a hospital,1 the main advantage in using a birth center is the personalized, one-on-one care. Your midwife gets to know you—your concerns and preferences. Prenatal visits cover more in-depth information than an obstetrician may have time for. Over a cup of tea, your midwife might review your nutrition regimen, or if you have other children with you, let them listen to their sibling’s heartbeat. All of which provides greater relaxation, so important in natural birth.

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Medium 9781780643960

1: Introduction and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Humans

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

1 

Introduction and Epidemiology of

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in

Humans

Isdore C. Shamputa,1 Sang Nae Cho,2 Janette Lebron1 and Laura E. Via1*

1

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA; 2Yonsei University

College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea

History of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is arguably one of the most devastating diseases that have afflicted mankind from time immemorial. Known by many different names throughout history, such as phthisis, scrofula, consumption, King’s Evil, lupus vulgaris, the white plague and ‘captain of all these men of death’, the scourge remains a significant public health concern. Perhaps the earliest evidence of TB comes from skeletal remains from burial sites from the latter part of the last Stone Age. Both macroscopic as well as microscopic evidence of TB, using modern scientific methods, has been found from excavations of mummified bodies from tombs from ancient Egypt dating as far back as 2400 bc (Allison et al., 1961; Nerlich et al.,

1997; Zink et al., 2003). Drawings, pottery and statues of ancient Egypt that date up to 3000 bc have shown physical deformities that appear to show typical characteristics of TB of the spine (Vasiliadis et al., 2009; Dyer, 2010).

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Medium 9781574413335

SECRET 5: KNOW THERE’S A REASON FOR THE SQUEEZIN’

Kalena Cook, Margaret Christensen University of North Texas Press ePub

SECRET 5:
Know There’s a Reason
for the Squeezin’

Why do the majority of women in this country now choose to give birth under an epidural? The reasons are complex. We live in a culture of instant gratification where pain isn’t tolerated for many reasons. We have been taught from the time we are little girls to distrust our bodies, and to view its many functions with disdain and dread. There is also a certain cultural taboo against women complaining about their pain and physical issues. Fear of loss of control and anxiety about the unknown, as well as the need for “civilized”ladylike behavior make it difficult in our society for women to surrender to the physical and emotional feelings of labor.

Dr.Christensen explains the historical and religious influences of pain management. Epidural information and the alternatives—the midwife’s epidural or waterbirth,and the use of Nitrous Oxide gas—blend this chapter with two waterbirth stories.

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Medium 9781780643960

5: Development of Next-generation TB Vaccines: Comparative Approaches in Humans and Animals

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

5 

Development of Next-generation TB

Vaccines: Comparative Approaches in

Humans and Animals

Michael J. Brennan,1* Salma Samad1 and R. Glyn Hewinson2

Aeras, Rockville, USA; 2Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK

1

Although BCG vaccine remains useful for neonatal vaccination in human populations and for veterinary control of mycobacterial diseases in cattle and other animals, its inability to prevent global TB in adults (Kaufmann,

2006) has inspired a decades-long effort to discover new, more effective TB vaccines for human disease. There has been considerable progress in many aspects of TB vaccine development but many challenges remain. Mice, guinea pig and non-human primate TB challenge models are commonly used for testing

TB vaccine candidates (McShane et al., 2012), but cattle and other animals have also been used to investigate the host immune responses and effectiveness of certain vaccine candidates (see Chapter 10, this volume; Waters et al., 2012; Buddle et al., 2013). The development and use of animal challenge models for

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Medium 9781786392848

22 Sustainability Along All Value Chains: Exploring Value Chain Interactions in Sustainable Food Systems

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

22 

Sustainability Along All Value Chains:

Exploring Value Chain Interactions in Sustainable Food Systems

Allison Marie Loconto, Pilar Santacoloma, Roberto Azofeifa Rodríguez,

Emilie Vandecandelaere and Florence Tartanac

Abstract

The value chain, as an analytical tool, has been used for more than 50 years as a way to better understand how agri-food products move and gain value from the farm gate to the table. Over the past 20 years, increasing attention has been paid to questions of sustainability within value chains and even more recently there has been a push to try to better understand how the way through which food is provisioned can deliver diets that are also sustainable. In this chapter, we explore the recent advances in value chain theories and we illustrate how taking a horizontal network, systemic and territorialized approach to food provisioning systems contributes to this literature. We argue that by looking both within and across value chains, we can better identify innovations in actor arrangements that are bringing new values (particularly sustainability) into food systems. By refocusing our analytical lens away from specific commodities and towards new forms of organization – such as short supply chains, circular economies, gastronomy and geographical indications – we can better capture how they might contribute to promoting sustainable consumption and production in local food systems.

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Medium 9781786392848

17 Costs and Benefits of Sustainable Diets: Impacts for the Environment, Society and Public Health Nutrition

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

17 

Costs and Benefits of Sustainable

Diets: Impacts for the Environment, Society and Public Health Nutrition

Adam Drewnowski

Abstract

The four domains of food sustainability are nutrition, economics, society and the environment. Sustainable diets need to be nutritionally adequate, safe, affordable, acceptable and appealing, while sparing of both human and natural resources. Those multiple demands are contradictory and can be hard to satisfy at the same time. First, the most nutrient-rich diets are not necessarily the most affordable or environmentally friendly. It is empty calories of minimal nutritional value that are cheap. Second, the most nutrient-rich diets require more land, water and energy use; empty calories are more sparing of the environment. Third, some foods that are nutrient rich, affordable and environmentally friendly may not be socially or culturally acceptable. As a result, assessing the likely impact of sustainable diets on economic equity, food security and population health is a continuing challenge. Cost–benefit analyses rely on multiple inputs. Diet quality is measured through a variety of indices, both food- and nutrient-based. Affordability is measured in terms of calories and nutrients per penny. Cultural acceptance can be based on purchases and consumption frequencies across population groups. Environmental impact is measured in terms of land, water, and energy use, notably greenhouse gas emissions. However, relevant input data are scarce, especially at the local and regional level. Mainstream public health nutrition needs to pay more attention to food production and cost, sensory and cultural acceptance of foods, and the environmental impact of the recommended diets. The way forward is through multi-sector engagement and through sustainable food-based dietary guidelines.

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Medium 9781786392398

13: Effects of Tea Galloyl Catechins on the Reduction of Body Fat

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

13 

Effects of Tea Galloyl Catechins on the

Reduction of Body Fat

Takami Kakuda*

Research Center of Composite Materials, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan

Abstract

Obesity due to the accumulation of abdominal visceral fat causes hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and lipid profile abnormalities and it increases the risk of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. A 12-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled interventional study was conducted to evaluate the effect of consumption of tea catechins with a galloyl moiety on body fat in subjects with borderline high body mass index (BMI). The groups that consumed the beverage containing galloyl catechins showed significantly decreased BMI at 4, 8, and 12 weeks compared with the initial values.

Measurement of abdominal fat area by using X-ray computed tomography at 12 weeks revealed significantly reduced total and visceral fat areas in the catechin group compared with those in the placebo group. Furthermore, elevated postprandial plasma triacylglycerol levels in subjects with mild and borderline hypertriacylglycerolemia were inhibited by consumption of these tea catechins when consumed along with fat. These tea catechins may suppress postprandial plasma triacylglycerol by slowing triacylglycerol absorption through the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. Elevated postprandial serum triacylglycerol levels are currently believed to cause insulin to promote the accumulation of body fat. Therefore, suppression of the absorption of postprandial triacylglycerols by these tea catechins may be one of the mechanisms underlying their anti-obesity effects.

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Medium 9781574411584

Chapter Fifteen: Motherhood in freedom and fatherhood too

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

nancies are planned. Many more unintended pregnancies never occur.

There’s been a dramatic decrease in teen pregnancies. Many more children are born very wanted. More birth control options exist. Maternal and child health have dramatically improved. A whole generation of young women assumes it is their perfect right to get the education and jobs they want, and to have the family size they want when and if they want it. Not that all problems have been solved, not by a long shot.

But the social context in which I write Behind Every Choice Is a Story is very different than the world in which I grew up and had my children.

We speak today, literally, from a different reality.

Birth control became family planning became reproductive and sexual health. It’s not just about birth control and abortion any more, but also about desiring parenthood and being able to achieve it in freedom. It’s about the fullness of life for ourselves and our daughters and sons, now and into the future. It is still about wanted children, sexual pleasure, healthy mothers, and emancipated women to be sure.

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7 Independent Women: Rights amid Wrongs, and Men’s Broken Promises

Mark Hunter Indiana University Press ePub

In 2000, the U.S.-based band Destiny’s Child released the song “Independent Women.” The R’n’B track quickly became a hit in South Africa: the music of the African-American female band seemed to especially resonate with African women to whom democracy had brought new rights. The song demanded confidently, “All the women who are independent, throw your hands up at me.”

But in the following year the South African male music stars Mandoza and Mdu released a strong musical response. Their hit song “50/50” deliberately mimicked the rhythm and tune of “Independent Women,” but its chorus went “Wonke umfazi oindependent, let’s go 50/50” (Every woman who is independent, let’s go 50/50). The two male artists’ lyrics warned women that if they want equality, then they must not rely on men financially—they must split all costs 50/50.

If the optimistic beat of “Independent Women” accorded with the new liberal democracy, Mandoza and Mdu’s retort illustrates how notions of gender equality quickly became a heated point of contention. And it was “rights,” as I show in this and the next chapter, that often became a lightning rod for these tensions. In the new era of freedom, all citizens had “rights,” and it was often debated whether women had gained too few or too many.

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19 The Med Diet 4.0 Framework: a Multidimensional Driver for Revitalizing the Mediterranean Diet as a Sustainable Diet Model

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

19 

The Med Diet 4.0 Framework: a Multidimensional Driver for Revitalizing the Mediterranean Diet as a

Sustainable Diet Model

Sandro Dernini, Denis Lairon, Elliot M. Berry, Gianluca Brunori, Roberto

Capone, Lorenzo M. Donini, Massimo Iannetta, Dalia Mattioni, Suzanne

Piscopo, Lluis Serra-Majem, Andrea Sonnino and Milena Stefanova

Abstract

The Mediterranean diet (MD), despite the fact that it is acknowledged as one of the healthiest diets in the world, is paradoxically becoming less the diet of choice in most Mediterranean countries. This process of erosion of the

MD is alarming as it has undesirable impacts not only on health, but also on social, cultural, economic and environmental domains in the Mediterranean area. The Med Diet 4.0 has been developed as a multidimensional framework to revitalize the MD. It characterizes the MD as a sustainable diet model, through four interdependent sustainable benefits, with country-specific variations: (i) well-documented nutrition and health advantages, preventing chronic and degenerative diseases and reducing public health costs; (ii) low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, reducing pressure on natural resources and climate change; (iii) positive local economic returns, reducing rural poverty; and (iv) high social and cultural food values, increasing appreciation, mutual respect and social inclusion. All these elements interact and feed into each other synergistically, contributing to holistic well-being of individuals and communities. The Med Diet 4.0 has the broader scope to catalyze a renewed multi-stakeholder interest in the MD as a sustainable driver connecting food consumption to production towards more Mediterranean sustainable food systems. It will allow a new awareness among Mediterranean people of the multiple sustainable values and benefits of the MD, thereby facilitating its revitalization. The Med

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