171 Chapters
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Medium 9780253015778

2 Heritage Folk Costume in Sweden

Pravina Shukla Indiana University Press ePub

FOLK COSTUMES IN EUROPE MATERIALIZE CULTURAL PRIDE AND resistance in the face of globalizing homogenization. Once worn as daily dress, beautiful garments have become symbols of heritage in many parts of Europe, particularly in the northwestern and eastern nations of the continent.1 Traditions of folk costume are especially robust in Scandinavia, with Norway and Sweden as the prime locations for exuberant displays of elaborate clothing, generally marked regionally by form, color, and motif.

Afro-Brazilian carnival costumes developed out of a historic clash of cultures in a new locale, a place of imperialistic expansion, colonialism, slavery, and prejudice. By contrast, regional costumes in Sweden are set comfortably in place. Their journey has carried them forward in time, most notably in the parish of Leksand in the province of Dalarna, which has become the core of Swedish resistance and preservation of folk costume. The goal has been the maintenance of heritage through the purposeful acts of committed individuals: artists, museum professionals, church authorities, craft teachers, musicians, and local culture brokers. Through willed actions, the costume communicates aesthetics, identity, and community. The tradition of Swedish folk costume in Leksand is spearheaded by one extraordinary individual: Kersti Jobs-Björklöf. In this chapter Kersti teaches us about her famous costume: white linen blouse, laced bodice, wool skirt, and an assortment of colorful aprons.

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6 Postcolonial Geographies: Being “Left Behind” in the New South Africa

Mark Hunter Indiana University Press ePub

In the last chapter we met Dudu, an “industrial woman” who found employment as a garment worker in Isithebe’s factories in the 1970s. With a regular income, however small, women like Dudu often shunned marriage to men—who, in turn, had become progressively less able to afford it. Yet in the 1990s, despite the joy of being able to vote for the first time in her life, Dudu faced declining personal, economic, and health fortunes, and her troubles were representative of the harsher circumstances women in the jondolo settlement faced.

In 1999, Jonathan, Dudu’s longstanding boyfriend who lived in her two-room home, was laid off from a large metal-industry firm. He cut a sad picture of an unemployed man battered by his inability to work. As is common with alcoholics, it was impossible to determine when he was drunk: his eyes were always bloodshot, his speech slurred, and his stare never fully engaged. Jonathan died in 2004.

In April 2006 I returned after a year away to find that Dudu herself had passed away and their son, in his early teens, was living alone. As was common in the area, rumors of AIDS followed the death of two lovers one after another.

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8: Immunopathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Cattle

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

8 

Immunopathogenesis of

Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Cattle

W. Ray Waters,1* Jayne C. Hope,2 Carly A. Hamilton,2 Mitchell V. Palmer,1

James McNair,3 Robin A. Skuce,3,4 Adrian R. Allen,3 Bryce M. Buddle,5

­Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos6 and H. Martin Vordermeier6

1

National Animal Disease Center, Ames, USA; 2University of Edinburgh,

Edinburgh, UK; 3Agrifood and Biosciences Institute, Belfast, UK; 4Queens

University, Belfast, UK; 5Hopkirk Research Institute, Palmerston

North, New Zealand; 6Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK

Introduction

Infection with the tubercle bacillus, and the ensuing immunopathogenesis, is a quintessential example of the complex and ancient interplay between host and pathogen (reviewed in Cooper and Torrado, 2012; Reece and Kaufmann, 2012). Upon entry into the host,

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a unique ability to delay onset of adaptive immune responses in mice or humans (reviewed in Ottenhoff,

2012). Likewise, adaptive responses are delayed with M. bovis infection of cattle (Vordermeier et al., 2009a; Waters et al., 2009). This delay in the adaptive response is likely to give the pathogen both a foothold for infection (a critical mass of tubercle bacilli) and a defined niche to dictate the ensuing response (Cooper, 2009). The tubercle bacillus is also armed with a multitude of immune evasion tactics enabling intracellular survival and persistence. Examples given by

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Medium 9781786392848

23 Sustainable and Healthy Gastronomy in Costa Rica: Betting on Sustainable Diets

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

23 

Sustainable and Healthy

Gastronomy in Costa Rica: Betting on Sustainable Diets

Marcela Dumani Echandi, Patricia Sedó Masis,

Randall García Viquez and Roberto Azofeifa Rodriguez

Abstract

Current consumption patterns in Costa Rica and in other countries are driven by misinformation and lack of knowledge concerning the nutritional value and sustainability of food products. Unhealthy diets are a major reason for health problems, environmental degradation and food biodiversity loss. To reverse this trend, in 2012

Costa Rica launched The National Plan on Healthy and Sustainable Gastronomy as a multi-stakeholder initiative with participation of public and private sectors. In the framework of the plan and in collaboration with international partners, Costa Rica also promotes the initiative ‘Healthy and Sustainable Gastronomy’ as a key driver for sustainable food systems. It is an innovative paradigm for the sustainability of natural resources based on the consumers’ decision to prepare and enjoy food to be healthy. Sustainable and healthy gastronomy is alluded to by considering social, environmental and economic aspects along the entire production, marketing, service and consumption chain; and healthy in terms of the greatest concern for the nutritional situation of the population and the quality of food, whether prepared at home or offered in gastronomic establishments. In a country where nature is a key part of its brand and identity, a healthy and sustainable gastronomy is part of a new paradigm of sustainable development based on agroecology and the efficiency of agri-food systems.

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16: Tuberculosis in Badgers (Meles meles)

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

16 

Tuberculosis in Badgers

(Meles meles)

Mark A. Chambers,1* Eamonn Gormley,2 Leigh A.L. Corner,2

Graham C. Smith1 and Richard J. Delahay1

1

Animal and Plant Health Agency, UK; University of Surrey,

Guildford, UK; 2University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Badger Ecology

The European badger (Meles meles) is a social mustelid (related to stoats, otters and mink) within the Order Carnivora. It is distributed throughout Europe and parts of the Middle

East, but population density varies widely across its range. In Great Britain, where badgers have been associated with M. bovis for the last 40  years, they can achieve densities of up to 38 animals per km2. In the British

Isles badgers tend to live in social groups of between 2 and up to 23 adults (Neal and

Cheeseman, 1996). They are nocturnally active and spend most daylight hours in their underground burrows (setts) which can be extensive structures. Social groups typically defend a territory which usually contains a single main sett plus a number of less extensive and less frequently used outlier setts

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3 Play The Society for Creative Anachronism

Pravina Shukla Indiana University Press ePub

HISTORICAL COSTUMES ENABLE THEIR WEARERS AND BEHOLDERS to travel in time, to imagine or inhabit the past. During historical reenactments, accuracy and authenticity are valued, for meticulous costumes grant their wearers the right to represent the past, often in critique of the present.

The next three chapters examine distinct categories of historical reenactment: first, the Society for Creative Anachronism, an amateur association whose primary focus is in-group entertainment with no spectators in attendance; second, several groups of American Civil War reenactors, semiprofessional historians who strive for both personal enjoyment and public education; and finally, the Colonial Williamsburg living history museum, a professional institution whose mission is to educate a paying audience of visitors.

Each example of historical costuming centers on the premise of time travel, of transporting oneself and spectators to another time and place. The specificity of time and place vary, as do the degree of authenticity, the levels of tolerance of inaccuracy, and the skills of performance. All three examples of living history involve people impersonating others—nobility from the Middle Ages, Civil War soldiers, or residents of Williamsburg in the eighteenth century. Unlike our examples from Sweden and Brazil, in which history was gathered into the costumed individuals, in historical reenactment the individual is gathered into history, as these studies consider the expression of identity through the clothing of someone from another time and place. Personal heritage, however, remains a major motivation. In each of these examples we find historical costumes used as a means of social commentary. In each, dedicated individuals combine artistry and a notion of accuracy to make, wear, and perform historical costumes, achieving personal fulfillment while working toward the creation of community.

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20 Traditional Foods at the Epicentre of Sustainable Food Systems

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

20 

Traditional Foods at the Epicentre of Sustainable Food Systems

Antonia Trichopoulou

Abstract

Patterns of food production and consumption have changed in ways that profoundly affect ecosystems and human diets. The accelerated speed of loss of food biodiversity and degradation of most ecosystems forces us to examine the role of traditional foods in sustainable food systems, since the notion of a food system generally focuses on food. Local traditional foods are an important component of a sustainable diet in many areas of the world, and consequently of a sustainable food system. The general concept of traditional foods includes the preservation of traditional farming knowledge, local crop and animal varieties, and native forms of sociocultural organization. Importantly, for the production of traditional foods, local products are generally used, thus their cultivation contributes to the employment of local people. Traditional foods, apart from being vehicles of our culture, may also possess health qualities, since tradition rarely honours foods that are not palatable and healthy.

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11 Highlighting Interlinkages Between Sustainable Diets and Sustainable Food Systems

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

11 

Highlighting Interlinkages Between

Sustainable Diets and Sustainable Food

Systems

Alexandre Meybeck and Vincent Gitz

Abstract

Sustainable food systems and sustainable diets are increasingly being called upon as ways to orient action ­towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of the sustainable development goals. This chapter explores the links between the two notions and how these links can orient policies and consumption choices. To do so, it first considers the relationships between food systems and diets, how food systems condition the availability and accessibility of foods that can be part of a diet, and also how demand determines the foods that are made available and accessible. Diets are thus both the results and the drivers of food systems. A sustainable food system can be defined as a food system that ensures food security and nutrition for all in such a way that the economic, social and environmental bases to generate food security and nutrition of future generations are not compromised. The concept of a sustainable diet combines two totally different perspectives: (i) a nutrition perspective, which is person focused; and (ii) a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions – environmental, economic and social. Understanding the links between these two notions can help design policies and incentives to improve the sustainability of food systems and diets, building upon the motivation of various actors, consumers and private actors, which are often related to very different dimensions (health, environment, social and cultural).

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10: Vaccination of Cattle Against Tuberculosis

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

10 

Vaccination of Cattle Against

Tuberculosis

H. Martin Vordermeier,1* Bryce M. Buddle,2 Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos,1

Gareth J. Jones,1 R. Glyn Hewinson1 and W. Ray Waters3

1

Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK; 2Hopkirk Research

Institute, Palmerston North, New Zealand; 3USDA-ARS-NADC, Ames, USA

Introduction

Bovine TB (bTB), mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a significant economic burden to agricultural industries worldwide. It has been estimated that 50 million cattle are infected with M. bovis worldwide resulting in around US$3 bn losses annually and this is despite attempts to control the disease. For example, over the last two decades the (tuberculin) test and slaughter strategy failed to prevent a dramatic rise in the incidence of bTB in cattle in England and Wales (https://www. gov.uk/government/statistics/incidence-of-­ tuberculosis-tb-in-cattle-in-great-britain). Development of new and improved cattle vaccines and diagnostic reagents for cattle as well as other domestic animal species and wildlife has therefore emerged as a research area that could contribute to improved disease control. However, a number of challenges need to be overcome, some scientific, others legal or regulatory.

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22: Rabbit Model of Mycobacterial Diseases

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

22 

Rabbit Model of Mycobacterial

Diseases

Selvakumar Subbian,1* Petros C. Karakousis2 and Gilla Kaplan1,3

1

Rutgers University, Newark, USA; 2Johns Hopkins

University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA; 3Bill and Melinda

Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA

Introduction

Understanding host–pathogen interactions is an important step in developing efficient intervention strategies to eliminate infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), in humans. Due to significant ethical and practical considerations associated with studying infectious diseases in humans, cost-effective and tractable surrogate animal models that can produce similar disease pathology have been developed and evaluated. Early approaches to the systematic selection and evaluation of animal models of human infectious diseases started during the early 19th century with the development of bacteriological research, including the pathogenesis and transmission of

TB. In fact, one of Robert Koch’s postulates mandates that ‘inoculation of the isolated human pathogen to animals must reproduce the same disease conditions’ to prove that a pathogen is the cause of an infectious disease

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10 The Politics of Gender, Intimacy, and AIDS

Mark Hunter Indiana University Press ePub

“It is important that we all should recognize the fact that it was very deliberate that we chose this community of Mandeni,” Jacob Zuma told a Mandeni crowd in July 2001. “We do so to highlight our serious concern about the scale and ferocity that HIV/AIDS is engulfing our rural communities and youth in those communities.”1 Zuma, then the country’s deputy president, was speaking at the opening of Mandeni’s loveLife youth center, set up to stem the high HIV rates in the area. I stood next to the large function tent, admiring the pomp and ceremony. The center was a beaming, bright purple, postmodern building that couldn’t have contrasted more with the monotonous, apartheid-era, four-room houses in the adjacent Sundumbili township. That was precisely the aim: to create an island of positive sexuality and motivation in an area known to be badly affected by AIDS.

Established in 1999, loveLife quickly became the largest AIDS intervention program for youth in South Africa, and Mandeni’s youth center was one of sixteen it established. Running through loveLife’s institutional veins was a bold philosophy: it wanted to advance “a new lifestyle brand for young South Africans, promoting healthy living and positive sexuality.”2 In this spirit, loveLife argued that bland ABC programs (advocating abstinence, being faithful, and using condoms) had failed to appeal to its target group of twelve- to seventeen-year-olds.

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Medium 9781786392398

20: Protective Effects of Catechins on Hepatitis and Liver Fibrosis

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

20 

Protective Effects of Catechins on

Hepatitis and Liver Fibrosis

Takuji Suzuki*

Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan

Abstract

Severe and sustained inflammation may induce liver fibrosis, which precedes cirrhosis and liver

­cancer. Cellular and animal experiments have shown that green tea catechins inhibit the biosynthesis of inflammatory proteins and collagen, suppressing the onset and development of hepatitis and liver fibrosis. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver causes cellular damage, which leads to hepatitis. The antioxidant effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) reduce ROS and prevent hepatitis. Thus, green tea and catechins may have hepatoprotective effects. Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated the protective effects of green tea against liver diseases, although some studies have not found the same effect. A clinical trial of nine patients with intractable chronic hepatitis C suggested that a combination of green tea powder and interferon/ribavirin is a useful therapeutic regimen. However, the ingestion of excessive amounts of catechins may result in hepatotoxicity. Therefore, excessive amounts of green tea components should be avoided.

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Medium 9780253015969

2 Feminism and Femininity

Jo B. Paoletti Indiana University Press ePub

I turned thirteen in 1962. Before I graduated from middle school, three books hit the best-seller lists, each offering a completely different, competing view of what sort of woman I should try to be. Let the authors speak for themselves:

When a man thinks of a married woman, no matter how lovely she is, he must inevitably picture her greeting her husband at the door with a martini or warmer welcome, fixing little children’s lunches or scrubbing them down because they’ve fallen into a mudhole. She is somebody else’s wife and somebody else’s mother.

When a man thinks of a single woman, he pictures her alone in her apartment, smooth legs sheathed in pink silk Capri pants, lying tantalizingly among dozens of satin cushions, trying to read but not very successfully, for he is in that room—filling her thoughts, her dreams, her life.

—HELEN GURLEY BROWN, SEX AND THE SINGLE GIRL, 1962

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9 All You Need Is Love? The Materiality of Everyday Sex and Love

Mark Hunter Indiana University Press ePub

When I began living in Mandeni in 2000 I was struck by an apparent paradox: everybody I knew discussed the close connection between money and sex, and yet they said that few “prostitutes” lived in the area. In my attempt to explore the materiality of everyday sex, I talked to factory managers and unions about job losses and declining wages. I looked at how rents had increased relative to wages and how migration to the area had increased despite job losses. I probed census data and found that only 14 percent of “Africans” living in the municipality were married. I searched for a way to describe the material relationships I saw, and found that scholars called them “transactional sex.”

But there was something missing. I became frustrated with the inertia of the concept of “sex” and the way it framed my emerging questions, such as, how had sex become “commodified”? And how had “sexual culture” changed? Over time I began to think that a better set of questions emerged from stepping back and exploring how resource flows, embodied emotions, and social meanings transformed in a shifting political economy. Doing so yielded insight into how the gendered labor market coincided with, and influenced, far-reaching demographic shifts, including rising population mobility and falling marriage rates—but it also took me into the realm of love. Indeed, in everyday conversations, narratives of sex’s materiality coexisted with the widespread celebration of love. In turn, love’s normative value as “good” made it a powerful symbolic anchor for a cultural politics of intimacy.

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Medium 9781574412970

Secret 3: Turn Scared into Sacred

Kalena Cook and Margaret Christensen, M.D. University of North Texas Press PDF

SECRET 3:

Turn Scared into Sacred

One of the most daunting hurdles facing women before birth is fear.

Especially for the first time, some expectant mothers may burden themselves with concerns that may never happen. Sometimes negative feelings from a previous labor linger.Whereas animals rely on instinct or whether they can see, smell or hear danger, women tend to worry needlessly.

Negative thoughts can grow into a dragon with several heads—anxiety, panic, and dread.

But hope exists. By looking at the ways you get scared, you can learn how to turn that energy into the sacred. Turn Scared into Sacred is the third natural birth secret: taking your darkest fears and facing them with faith in your own way. Frances Moore Lappe, co-author of You Have the

Power: Choosing Courage in a Culture of Fear, says fear is an energy— an energy you can use to your advantage. Instead of freezing up, you can move through the stages of birth naturally by designing your “shield of courage” ahead of time.

According to a study1 of fears among 329 pregnant women attending childbirth classes, their foremost fears include:

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