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Medium 9781780643960

24: Of Mice and Mycobacteria: Lessons from a Manipulatable Model

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

24 

Of Mice and Mycobacteria: Lessons from a Manipulatable Model

Andrea M. Cooper* and John E. Pearl

Trudeau Institute, Inc., Saranac Lake, USA

Introduction

While the mouse is not recognized as a natural host for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it has become a highly useful tool for investigating the interaction between M. tuberculosis and a mature vertebrate immune system. Unlike any other host, the mouse has been sculpted and probed over the decades and has provided extensive and in-depth knowledge of how the mammalian immune response handles this inflammatory yet slow-growing bacterium which is difficult to eradicate. The key features that have prompted the use of the mouse over the years are that it is easy to house humanely, it is relatively economical to use in significant numbers, it is highly tractable and it can be used to generate reproducible and definitive data sets. While there is resistance to the use of the mouse as a tool to select drugs and vaccines for human use, its capacity to define immune pathways and mechanisms is undeniable.

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Medium 9781591201977

115. Emergency Water Disinfection

Klatz M.D. D.O., Ronald Basic Health Publications ePub

In the event of a natural disaster, which may compromise your access to water from your tap or bottle source, follow these techniques to purify water for drinking:

• Boiling: Vigorously, for ten minutes

• Bleaching: Add 10–20 drops of household bleach per gallon of water, mix well, and let stand for thirty minutes. A slight smell or taste of chlorine indicates water is good to drink. (Note: do not use scented or color-safe bleaches, or ones with added cleaners.)

• Tablets: Commercially available purification tablets

• Solar disinfection, known as SODIS: A new technique developed by researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology. Clear plastic bottles are filled with water and left in the sun. The heat warms the water and the combination of warm water and ultraviolet radiation kills most microorganisms. The Institute’s tests showed that 99.9 percent of the E. coli bacteria in a sample of contaminated water were killed when the sun heated the water beyond 122°F (50°C). At that temperature, disinfection takes about an hour, but placing a corrugated metal sheet under the bottle can shorten the time. Additional tests demonstrate SODIS as an effective approach for killing the cholera bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, and that it could inactivate parasites including the diarrhea-causing Cryptosporidium.

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Medium 9781591201496

Resources

Michael P. Zimring Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

 

 

Some of these resources have been mentioned in this book, others come highly recommended from travelers, and some are just quirky web sites about traveling and related topics that you might find helpful or interesting.

www.caribbean-on-line.com/cruise-lines

www.cdc.gov/nceh/vsp/scores/legend.htm CDCs Green Sheet for Cruises

www.cruisediva.com CruiseDiva

www.cruise-links.com/CruiseMagazines.htm

www.cruisereviews.com

www.raynorshyn.com/cruises

www.aaos.org American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

www.acefitness.org American Council on Exercise

www.AmericasHealthiestMom.com Americas Healthiest Mom Jyl Steinback

www.antijetlagdiet.com/index.asp Argonne Anti-Jet Lag Diet

www.cdc.gov/travel Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

www.diabetes.org American Diabetes Organization

www.drweil.com Dr. Andrew Weil

www.efit.com

www.elainepetrone.com stress-reduction expert Elaine Petrone

www.fearlessflying.net Institute of Psychology for Air Travel

www.fitforbusiness.com

www.fitnesszone.com

www.healthclubs.com

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Medium 9781591202578

2. Habit’s Role in Health

Hennessy M.D., Tim Basic Health Publications ePub

What reason weaves, by passion is undone …
On life’s vast ocean diversely we sail,
Reason the card, but passion the gales…

—ALEXANDER POPE, AN ESSAY ON MAN

I first set foot on a golf course when I was sixteen years old. My dad was entered in a tournament and needed another person to complete his foursome. Considering myself fairly athletic, I thought I could surely compete with a bunch of old guys. Well, needless to say, I was wrong. During the game, I lost close to a dozen golf balls, there were several holes I didn’t even bother finishing, and I frequently lost count of how many strokes were taken because I had taken so many strokes. I did win a trophy that day for “Worst in Tournament.” If you’re going to be bad, be really bad became my face-saving mantra.

After taking a good amount of ribbing from my dad, I was determined I would do better. But, to my surprise, despite practicing every day, reading golf books, and listening to my dad’s advice, I improved only marginally. I soon came to realize that the golf swing is a very difficult swing to master. It involves a whole series of unnatural body contortions that must be coordinated into one graceful motion. This motion must be done while simultaneously focusing on a little white ball. For best results, the ball needs to be struck perfectly with the sweet spot of the club. It can be, and often is, an absolute nightmare.

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Medium 9781591200253

1. Obesity and Its Causes

Schauss Ph.D., Alexander G. Basic Health Publications ePub

Patients with an abdominal predominance of fat tissue have
more complications than those with a predominance
of fat tissue in the buttock and thigh region.

W. MAYO-SMITH, ET AL. RADIOLOGY, 1989

The causes of obesity are complicated. It is not as simple as reducing energy (caloric) intake and increasing energy expenditure (exercise). Age, gender, height, weight, waist circumference, metabolism, diet, genetics, fat cells, fat distribution, physical activity, stress, and possibly many chemicals in the environment are all related to some degree to whether a person struggles with a weight problem or notparticularly a potbelly.

This chapter begins a journey of discovery as to why a man gets a potbelly and what can be done to eliminate it, with the hope that by getting rid of the potbelly the health consequences related to it will be dramatically reduced.

HOW THE BODY PROCESSES FOOD

Energy intake within the body is synonymous with the term caloric intake. Just as the energy from electricity is measured in watts, the energy from food is measured in calories, also known as chemical energy. A calorie is a measure of heat, specifically the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram (g) of water 1C. The term kilocalories is also used when talking about caloric intake. Thus, 1 kilocalorie is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram (kg) of water 1C. Technically, 1 kilocalorie is equal to 1,000 calories.

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Medium 9781770905665

CHAPTER 4: The Art of Seeing

Dr. Herbert Ho Ping Kong ECW Press ePub

CHAPTER 4

The ART of SEEING

Medicine is learned by the bedside and not in the classroom. Let not your conceptions of disease come from words heard in the lecture room or read from the book. See, and then reason and compare and control. But see first.

— Sir William Osler

WHEN WE FIRST ARRIVED IN MONTREAL, my wife and I initially planned to stay for three years, and then assess our professional situation. As it happened, our third anniversary in 1976 roughly coincided with the surprise election of the separatist Parti Québécois, led by the mercurial journalist-turned-politician René Lévesque.

The election results sent the anglophone community in Quebec into a state of shock. I vividly recall walking into Royal Victoria Hospital, at the north end of the McGill University campus, at 9 a.m. on the morning after the election and finding it virtually deserted. The corridors, coffee shops — completely empty. It was as if an official order had been issued to vacate the entire premises.

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Medium 9781591201984

5. The Biology of Belief: What You Believe Can Make a Difference—Whether You Believe It or Not

Giampapa M.D., Vincent C. Basic Health Publications ePub

The Biology of Belief: What You Believe Can Make a Difference— Whether You Believe It or Not

Man’s mind, once stretched around a new idea, never returns to its original shape.

—OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES

In Chapter 4 we noted that the power of our beliefs can change our environment so profoundly that it alters how our genes actually produce proteins and, therefore, create positive and negative effects on every cell in our body. Now we need to look at the effects beliefs can have on two levels of health:

1. The surface or tangible effects of beliefs; that is, how beliefs affect our actions.

2. The subsurface or intangible effects of beliefs, or effects of energy and thoughts, on matter, specifically our DNA.

In Chapter 4 we defined the tangible effects of beliefs with the equation:

Genes + Environment = Positive or negative health and aging + longevity

Our environment is composed of or affected by three interrelated factors:

1. Our beliefs and emotions   2. Stress   3. Lifestyle habits

THE POWER OF BELIEFS

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Medium 9781574412970

Secret 5: Know There’s a Reason for the Squeezin’

Kalena Cook and Margaret Christensen, M.D. University of North Texas Press PDF

SECRET 5:

Know There’s a Reason for the Squeezin’

Why do the majority of women in this country now choose to give birth under an epidural? The reasons are complex.We live in a culture of instant gratification where pain isn’t tolerated for many reasons.We have been taught from the time we are little girls to distrust our bodies, and to view its many functions with disdain and dread. There is also a certain cultural taboo against women complaining about their pain and physical issues. Fear of loss of control and anxiety about the unknown, as well as the need for “civilized”ladylike behavior make it difficult in our society for women to surrender to the physical and emotional feelings of labor.

Dr. Christensen explains the historical and religious influences of pain management. Epidural information and the alternatives—the midwife’s epidural or waterbirth, and the use of Nitrous Oxide gas—blend this chapter with two waterbirth stories.

Agony and Ecstacy:

Understanding the Paradox of Pain

Underlying these cultural attitudes is a Judeo-Christian belief system, handed down through thousands of years of church patriarchy, that claimed the pain of childbirth was retribution for Eve’s sin, and it was visited on all women. Current theological interpretations debunked this as myth, but the age-old belief remains lodged in the minds of many women.1

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Medium 9781591203155

Chapter 1. Modern Research Confirms Ancient Wisdom

Mindell R.Ph. Ph.D., Earl Basic Health Publications ePub
Medium 9781591200772

22. Relationships

Joseph J. Sweere Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

22. Relationships

   

Realize then: When there is love in the heart, there is beauty in the character.

When there is beauty in the character, there is harmony in the home.

When there is harmony in the home, there is order in the nation.

When there is order in the nation, there is peace in the world.

Surely, those who love and are loved, are the happiest,

healthiest, and most powerful beings in the world.

—J. EMMET FOX

he previous chapter briefly emphasized the importance of positive, nurturing relationships in maintaining good health. Certainly, the Golden Rules would not be complete without devoting a chapter to this very important issue.

By now you are familiar with the concept of minimum daily requirements for nutrients in maintaining physical health. But what about minimum daily requirements of affection, appreciation, gratitude, and praise? How long can you feel okay about yourself and know your worth in society without positive feedback from others? Health practitioners have long understood the importance of meaningful relationships in health maintenance. Being in love and being involved in loving, nurturing relationships are among the most significant factors in strengthening the immune system and increasing longevity. So it makes sense that feelings of rejection, isolation, and loneliness have the opposite effect.

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Medium 9781591202004

Chapter 3. The Ticking Clock: Top Ten Biological Processes That Decline in Aging

Klatz M.D. D.O., Ronald Basic Health Publications ePub

As we age, changes take place in our body systems. Cellular processes slow down, and our organs and tissues become less robust in performing their tasks and functions.

From head to toe, and beginning as early as the second decade of life, our body systems begin to demonstrate senescencesigns of old age. An understanding of these age-related declines enables us to better grasp the potential for contemporary medical discoveries and applications of biomedical technology to retard or reverse the otherwise inevitable process of senescence. In other words, we will, in this chapter, obtain an idea of just how we age if we choose to sit back and do nothing about it, if we let the process of aging engulf and, ultimately, end our lives long before necessary.

Therefore, let us take a look at ten key systems in the body and how each ages. Let us also see how the aging process of one system intertwines with that of another, as senescence descends.

1. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

The endocrine system is made up of a number of glands including the adrenals, ovaries, testes, thyroid, parathyroid, and pituitary. They are known as the ductless glands. Each of these secretes a hormone or hormoneschemical messengers that influence the function of organs throughout your body. Too much or too little of any of these hormones will cause an imbalance that can have serious consequences to your overall system.

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Medium 9781591201700

3. How Metabolism Works in Skeletal Muscle, Heart Muscle, and the Brain

Addis Ph.D., Paul Basic Health Publications ePub

3. How Metabolism Works in Skeletal Muscle, Heart Muscle, and the Brain

Skeletal muscles, those connected to bone, constitute the organ system that is responsible for activity, movement, and work, and they need the greatest amount of energy by far. A second type of muscle tissue is the cardiac muscle that powers the heart. On a pound-for-pound basis, the energy needs and the energy-producing capacity of the heart are simply astonishing (see Chapter 4). A third type are the smooth muscles of the blood vessels and digestive tract, which also use ATP to do work, but in less impressive amounts.

In addition, one other tissue, the brain, requires a surprising amount of energy and its energy metabolism is very similar to that of muscle. With few exceptions, all other tissues, such as the liver, are sluggish with respect to energy metabolism because they do not use ATP to the extent that muscle does.

Large semi trucks that haul big loads for long distances have two very large fuel tanks. Similarly, muscle, heart, and even the brain, have storage forms of ATP to help out when necessary.

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Medium 9781591203193

18. Medium-Chain Triglycerides and Ketones

Mary T. Newport Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

T

he terms medium-chain fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides are somewhat interchangeable. In fats and oils, such as coconut oil and medium-chain triglyceride oil, three molecules of a particular fatty acid join together with a glycerol molecule to form a triglyceride. Thus, medium-chain fatty acids join together with glycerol to form medium-chain triglycerides. Medium-chain triglyceride oil, also called MCT oil, is usually a combination of several different types of medium-chain triglycerides. The medium-chain triglycerides found in MCT oil are usually derived from coconut or palm kernel oil.

MCT OIL AND KETONES

The fact that medium-chain triglycerides are metabolized to ketones in the liver is not new information. When I read this in the Accera patent application, I recalled learning this in my medical school biochemistry class in 1974.

In 1906, scientists G. Embden and F. Kalberlah reported that when tri-caprylic acid, one of the medium-chain fatty acids, was pumped through the circulation of dog liver there was a prompt increase in the livers output of acetoacetate, one of the ketone bodies. In 1959, H. Schn and others fed medium-chain triglycerides (C:8 through C:12) to a group of people and found an increase in blood and urine levels of ketones; they also found that this did not occur when they were given long-chain fatty acids.

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Medium 9781591202189

17. Putting It All Together

Fichera M.S., Salvatore Basic Health Publications ePub

17

Putting It All Together

Now that I have covered the underlying principles of fitness and nutrition and have detailed the the nuts and bolts of proper technique, it’s time to put all the pieces of the fitness puzzle together. Randomly performing a series of separate, unconnected exercises is inefficient and even counterproductive—the same way that having all the parts to an unassembled bicycle with no assembly instructions would be. This chapter is about designing fitness routines—program options.

The previous six chapters presented numerous exercise options, demonstrating a variety of exercises for each major muscle group. Fear not. It is not intended for you to do them all in each workout. (If that were the case, then instead of lasting thirty to forty-five minutes, each workout would last about three to four days.) Those chapters, particularly Chapters 11–15, serve as menus. From those menus, you may pick and choose various blends of exercises.

Be aware, however, that not just any combination would be suitable. What is needed is the right combination of exercises working together in a proper sequence that yields the safest and most effective results. This sequencing is a major component for program options. A series of program options are offered to help accommodate your level of fitness, as well as your workout schedule. Additionally, there is a separate section devoted to people with various health problems (arthritis, bad knees, heart disease, low back pain, and so on).

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Medium 9781591203155

Chapter 18. Diabetes

Mindell R.Ph. Ph.D., Earl Basic Health Publications ePub

T

he World Health Organization has declared diabetes to be the worlds fastest growing disease, describing it as the silent epidemic. There are 194 million people worldwide with diabetes more than 18 million people in the United States alone, of which nearly one-third are undiagnosed. This can be devastating, as diabetes is the main cause of kidney failure, limb amputation, and new onset blindness in American adults. People with diabetes are also two to four times more likely than people without diabetes to develop heart disease. In fact, 65 percent of diabetics die from a heart attack or stroke.

Diabetes is a disorder that affects the way your body deals with the foods you eat. Normally, carbohydrate foods are broken down into the sugar glucose, which travels in the blood (hence the name blood sugar) until it reaches your cells, where it is taken in and used for growth and energy. For this to happen, however, the hormone insulin must be present. Produced by the pancreas, insulin acts as a key that unlocks cells so that they can receive blood glucose. In diabetes, either the pancreas may produce insufficient insulin, or the body has lost its ability to use it effectively (insulin resistance). Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body without fulfilling its role as the bodys main source of fuel.

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