171 Chapters
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Medium 9781786392848

4 Climate Change and Sustainable and Healthy Diets

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

4 

Climate Change and Sustainable and Healthy Diets

Cristina Tirado von der Pahlen

Abstract

Promoting good nutrition, health and sustainable food systems in the context of population growth, dietary transition and a changing climate is a central challenge of our time. While climate change has an impact on our food systems and diets, our food systems and dietary patterns also affect climate change. This chapter presents an analysis of the interconnections of sustainable dietary patterns, health and nutrition in a context of climate-change mitigation. It outlines the global frameworks and agreements on climate change, food and nutrition, exploring the many, complex ways in which diet affects climate change, and vice versa. It looks at diets that boost health and are environmentally sustainable, as well as the measures needed to steer food production and consumption in that direction. The chapter identifies policies based on co-benefits to health and climate of dietary change and opportunities for joint action on nutrition, health, and climate policy. There are co-benefits of measures that reduce climate-altering emissions and, at the same time, improve health by shifting away from the overconsumption of meat from ruminant sources in high-meat-consuming societies. A general transition to more plant-based diets could lead to lower climate-altering emissions and likely reductions in diet-related non-communicable diseases. In this context, it is critical to promote demand-side climate mitigation options for the agriculture and food sector, such as changes in dietary patterns towards less emissions-intensive, healthier, more plant-based diets. From the health perspective, transitioning towards more plant-based diets in line with

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Medium 9780253355331

10 The Politics of Gender, Intimacy, and AIDS

Mark Hunter Indiana University Press ePub

“It is important that we all should recognize the fact that it was very deliberate that we chose this community of Mandeni,” Jacob Zuma told a Mandeni crowd in July 2001. “We do so to highlight our serious concern about the scale and ferocity that HIV/AIDS is engulfing our rural communities and youth in those communities.”1 Zuma, then the country’s deputy president, was speaking at the opening of Mandeni’s loveLife youth center, set up to stem the high HIV rates in the area. I stood next to the large function tent, admiring the pomp and ceremony. The center was a beaming, bright purple, postmodern building that couldn’t have contrasted more with the monotonous, apartheid-era, four-room houses in the adjacent Sundumbili township. That was precisely the aim: to create an island of positive sexuality and motivation in an area known to be badly affected by AIDS.

Established in 1999, loveLife quickly became the largest AIDS intervention program for youth in South Africa, and Mandeni’s youth center was one of sixteen it established. Running through loveLife’s institutional veins was a bold philosophy: it wanted to advance “a new lifestyle brand for young South Africans, promoting healthy living and positive sexuality.”2 In this spirit, loveLife argued that bland ABC programs (advocating abstinence, being faithful, and using condoms) had failed to appeal to its target group of twelve- to seventeen-year-olds.

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Medium 9781574412970

Secret 4: Don’t Take Labor Lying Down: Gravity Is Your Friend

Kalena Cook and Margaret Christensen, M.D. University of North Texas Press PDF

SECRET 4:

Don’t Take Labor Lying Down

Gravity Is Your Friend

Did you know that the most painful position in childbirth is lying on your back? Women in labor pain aren’t aware that lying supine restricts blood flow and makes contractions intolerable. Yet this is the position used in most U.S. labor and delivery hospitals.

Outside of pregnancy, women find themselves on their back with their feet in stirrups (known as the lithotomy position) only for their vaginal exams and pap smears.The main reason women are instructed to lie supine is because that position provides visibility for the caregiver during labor and for cutting an episiotomy. It provides hospital staff convenience for hooking the patient to a monitoring belt and an IV. Yet birthing supine hurts because the baby is actually born uphill. No wonder women want an epidural!

Before the advent of hospital births around 1900, women gave birth upright.The reason? Gravity is your friend.Ancient sculpture and art drawings depict women being upright for their labor and delivery.

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Medium 9781780643960

21: Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex spp. in Group-living African Mammals

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

21 Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Complex spp. in Group-living

African Mammals

1

Kathleen A. Alexander,1,2,* Claire E. Sanderson1,2 and Peter N. Laver3

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia; 2Center for African Resources: Animals,

Communities and Land Use, Kasane, Botswana; 3University of Pretoria,

Onderstepoort, South Africa

Introduction

Tuberculosis (TB) pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MtbC) are of global importance in human, domestic animal and wildlife health, and are currently a major concern in conservation, threatening wildlife populations, particularly rare and endangered species

(De Lisle et al., 2002; Dye, 2006; Renwick et al., 2007). Despite the antiquity of this disease

(~2700 bc; Galagan, 2014), TB remains a significant health threat with much of the biology of host–pathogen dynamics incompletely understood. In wildlife hosts, TB disease can vary importantly among species with some acting as significant reservoirs of infection while others appear to be only involved in occasional spillover infections. A comparative understanding of how the various MtbC pathogens interact with different wildlife hosts would provide critical insight into the circumstances that might support or reduce the likelihood of pathogen transmission and persistence, and the relative influence of respective pathogens, hosts and environmental characteristics on this process.

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Medium 9780253021311

Conclusion: Evidence and Substance

Kathryn A. Rhine Indiana University Press ePub

Conclusion: Evidence and Substance

There is substance in the gathering

of bodies battered by this disease.

There is evidence in the quiet promise

we make to be here again next week.

There is substance in the sweet taste

of coconut water, the scent of morning.

There is evidence in the songs a slim man

sings, healing as the balm of warmed oil.

There is substance in the expletives shattering

our peace, the tears, the lament, the fear.

There is evidence in the hum of recognition,

the comfort of hands held tightly.

There is substance in the streets walked

to tell people to hope for tomorrow.

Kwame Dawes, Faith

Throughout this book, I have documented the centrality of hope in HIV-positive women’s narratives of their lives: for health and wellbeing; for love, marriage, and children; for education, work, and economic prosperity; and for security and longevity. Through an ethnographic lens, I have located these dreams in women’s lived realities. Their aspirations for the future surface in scenes of youthful trysts and romantic encounters; in marriage celebrations and fearful wedding nights; in violent encounters with abusive husbands and futile pleas for help from family members; in hidden pregnancies and joyous presentations of baby pictures; in elaborate beauty regimens and conspicuous displays of generosity to relatives, neighbors, and researchers; in successful entrepreneurial businesses and uncompensated, arduous household labor. These women’s steadfast faith – in God, in the virtue of family, in a meaningful life, in a cure for their disease – grounds these hopes as they face formidable daily struggles. Amid the changes ushered in by global initiatives centered on increasing access to HIV treatment and medical services in Nigeria, theirs is a story of continuity.

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Medium 9781786392848

9 Consumer-level Food Waste Prevention and Reduction Towards Sustainable Diets

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

9 

Consumer-level Food Waste

Prevention and Reduction Towards

Sustainable Diets

Silvia Gaiani, Rosa Rolle and Camelia Bucatariu

Abstract

Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development is a global commitment that includes a set of 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) and 169 targets. Food systems are at the heart of this agenda. SDG 12 seeks to ‘ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns’. The third target under this goal, target 12.3, calls for reducing by half per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels, and reducing food losses along production and supply chains (including post-harvest losses) by 2030. SDG target 12.3 has the potential to embed prevention and reduction of food loss and waste in public and private sector strategies and to contribute to more sustainable diets and consumption patterns around the world. Food systems today are confronted with, among other issues, increasing non-communicable diseases linked to diets as well as socioeconomic and environmental concerns related to food waste. The macro- and micro-food environment within which consumers find themselves is multidimensional and they − alongside national governments and food supply chain stakeholders − can play a role in preventing and reducing food waste and contributing to sustainable diets. This chapter identifies six major challenges related to food waste prevention and reduction and sustainable food systems. Challenges range from recognition that the global food system is impacted by the attitudes and behaviours of local, national, regional and global food supply chain actors, to the definitions of food waste, measurement methodologies, data collection, and the need for agro-industry productivity and behavioural change thinking. A matrix policy analysis – based on a combination of initiatives at macro, meso and micro-level – is then recommended as a possible approach to successful food waste prevention and reduction.

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Medium 9781626560604

5 Heading into Summer: The Third Quarter

Blanchard, Ken Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

5

Ken: I look forward to June every year, but this June was especially sweet because it started out with my 50th reunion at Cornell. Margie and I both graduated from Cornell—she was a year behind me—so we developed many good Cornell friendships together. The reunion was a great excuse to get together with this group as well as a lot of other good people.

It was hard to imagine that 50 years had gone by since we graduated. Tim and I have mentioned a few times that I was starting to get a number of “You’re looking good” comments. That phrase was originated by Frank Rhodes, who was president of Cornell when I was getting my doctorate. Frank used to say, “There are three stages of life: youth, adulthood, and ‘You’re looking good.’” At the opening cocktail party, just for the fun of it, Margie and I went in different directions to see how many “You’re looking good” comments we would get. After about a half hour, we found each other and compared notes. I beat her by one—I had eight “You’re looking good” comments to Margie’s seven. So for me, that was an important mission accomplished. The reunion was a ball. I probably drank a little too much beer, but I was grateful to be alive and getting more fit week by week and month by month.

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Medium 9781786392398

1: Efficacy of Tea in Human Health

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

1 

Efficacy of Tea in Human Health

Isao Tomita*

University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan

Abstract

Recent scientific findings on the effects of tea (Camellia sinensis) on human health are reviewed. Some mechanistic explanations are discussed in relation to the special nature of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate which works not only as an antioxidant but also as pro-oxidant. Though there are still some discrepancies between the results in animal models and those of epidemiological studies, the reasons will be uncovered in the near future.

Keywords: antioxidant, chronic disease prevention, health effects, pro-oxidant, tea catechins

1.1  How the Physiological

Effects Caused by Tea Drinking

Attracted Humans

There are many legends which told us to explain why the people in ancient China began to drink tea. One of the stories told is about

Wan Tu, the ancient Chinese emperor. He was banished to a remote southern part of

China (Yunnan province) due to his cruel and tyrannizing governance. One day, he was sitting in the shade of a large bush in the area where Camellia sinensis grew and drank hot water. There, he found that some leaves were floating in the hot water. After he drank the brewed tea with the leaves, he felt excited and freed from fatigue (Wild, 1994).

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Medium 9781574413335

SECRET 6: LEARN HOSPITAL STRATEGIES BUY TIME AND LET GO

Kalena Cook, Margaret Christensen University of North Texas Press ePub

SECRET 6:
Learn Hospital Strategies
Buy Time and Let Go

I advised Lisa to stay at home until she couldn’t talk through a contraction, because once you go to the hospital, your arrival time is documented. “It’s like punching in on a clock,” I told her. “Your progress becomes measured by the hour. Even with your husband at your side, bring a female doula or a friend to support you because the nurses will be in and out. Keep upright as much as possible during active labor— don’t take labor lying down. You can do it.”

As Lisa sat on my patio sipping her iced tea that sunny day, I shared with her the benefits of natural childbirth. She didn’t think her doctor would support it. At thirty weeks into her pregnancy, she switched to another doctor who was known for delivering natural births. Lisa shares her successful birth of Jacob.

Stretching Time

Lisa’s Story

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Medium 9781574411584

Chapter Eleven: Whose conscience counts?

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

We had testified that Congress should not practice medicine and that reproductive health decisions should be made by women with their families and physicians, not by government. In my testimony, I told the stories of several women and their experiences with tragic and catastrophic pregnancies that had necessitated wrenching choices. My testimony concluded with the following:

This bill trivializes women who must make difficult decisions under circumstances that, quite frankly, would soundly defeat many of us here today. In the quarter century since Roe v. Wade,

American women have not had a moment’s rest—not from legislative attempts to restrict their rights, not from violent protesters willing to use any means to interfere with their private and personal decisions. I have personally worked to promote and protect women’s health for all those years, and I am still amazed at those who would say to a woman, “We are not your doctors, we are not your family, but we are going to tell you what to do.”

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7 The Global Distribution of Mycobacterium bovis

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

7 

The Global Distribution of

Mycobacterium bovis

Noel H. Smith*

Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK

Introduction

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mtb complex) of bacteria includes an ever-­growing number of named species of pathogenic bacteria all causing a very similar pathology (tuberculosis) in many different mammals (Smith et al., 2006a). The most important member of the Mtb complex is M. tuberculosis which is, both currently and historically, responsible for high morbidity and mortality in humans.

M. bovis, however, is the commonest cause of tuberculosis (bovine tuberculosis, bTB) in bovids. The preferred host of M. bovis is domesticated cattle, although this pathogen can also be isolated from man and many other mammals (Smith et al., 2006a). The sequence divergence within the Mtb complex is minimal; around one change in 2000 bp (0.05%), and many different species have been ‘shoehorned’ into this complex based on differences in the host they were initially isolated from. Because the definition of ‘species’ is controversial in general (Mallet, 2010), and more so within the Bacteria and Archaea

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Medium 9781574411584

Chapter Ten: Rights v. access

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

I hope this writer’s commitment continues, because the reproductive rights and health movement needs her passion and her advocacy.

She understands what so many others who think we can’t go back to the bad old days don’t yet get: the bad old days are here.

Rights without access are meaningless

All right, Roe v. Wade hasn’t been overturned; abortion isn’t illegal. Griswold v. Connecticut, which legalized birth control and established the precedent of a right to privacy in reproductive decisions, stands. But our state and federal lawmakers, our courts, and our society’s lack of respect for women and children have ensured that many of us do not have the information, resources, or access to make those rights real. And rights without access are meaningless. If present trends continue, “Access Denied” may as well be stamped on the door of reproductive health centers.

If you’re poor, or young, or are in the military, or live in rural

America, you technically have the right to a legal abortion. But you’ll have to climb over barriers of distance, judicial review, transportation, money, waiting periods, mandated biased propaganda that encourages childbirth over abortion, and more to try to get one. The result might be a more expensive, more difficult, delayed abortion or one like Becky

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Medium 9781626560604

3 Great Beginnings: The First Quarter

Blanchard, Ken Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

3

Ken: We were off and running after the evaluation process. I was excited because it was December, not February, and I had a highly committed partner in Tim. Our sessions three times a week really got me going on my strength and balance training with Tim providing an appropriate S1—Directing leadership style. He told me what to do and how to do it, and closely supervised my performance. With my flexibility, I was a D2—disillusioned learner, so Tim provided the S2—Coaching style I needed, with lots of direction and support. I looked forward to being around Tim. Besides being an expert in the field, he’s a fun guy. His studio is only a couple of miles from our house, so it’s really convenient. The time to drive back and forth, plus our session, takes less than an hour.

Having Tim work on my flexibility and balance, in addition to strength training, really helped. In addition, I went to the Egoscue clinic. Since I hadn’t been there in a while, they started me off with an evaluation.

They take pictures of clients from the front, back, and both sides and that way can tell if and how a client is out of alignment—which has a lot to do with flexibility and balance. Based on that analysis, they give you an S1—Directing style menu with a series of yoga-like exercises for you to do to regain alignment. For years, the Egoscue Method® was key in saving Jack Nicklaus’s back.

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Medium 9781786392848

6 Agroecology and Nutrition: Transformative Possibilities and Challenges

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

6 

Agroecology and Nutrition:

Transformative Possibilities and Challenges

Rachel Bezner Kerr, Maryam Rahmanian,

Ibukun Owoputi and Caterina Batello

Abstract

Agroecology is a holistic approach to agriculture, which takes into account the ecological, social, political and economic dimensions of producing food in order to build sustainable and resilient food systems that ensure food security and nutrition. It is thus an approach that resonates closely with sustainable diets. Positive nutritional outcomes should be one important outcome of such an approach; however, there has been limited research to date on the relationship between agroecology and nutrition. Building on a series of dialogues on agroecology hosted by the Food and Agriculture Organization, as well as relevant scientific literature, this chapter presents several dimensions of agroecology that seem to be relevant for nutrition. On the technical side of agroecology, some promising studies point to the role that biodiverse farming systems and agroforestry have in ensuring positive nutritional outcomes. Other studies contend that agroecology, when linked to questions of social inequality such as gender or class, can lead to improvements in nutrition. Areas of interest and further investigation are outlined in this chapter: biodiverse production systems, social empowerment, local knowledge, culture and diets, livelihoods and rights.

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22: Rabbit Model of Mycobacterial Diseases

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

22 

Rabbit Model of Mycobacterial

Diseases

Selvakumar Subbian,1* Petros C. Karakousis2 and Gilla Kaplan1,3

1

Rutgers University, Newark, USA; 2Johns Hopkins

University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA; 3Bill and Melinda

Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA

Introduction

Understanding host–pathogen interactions is an important step in developing efficient intervention strategies to eliminate infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), in humans. Due to significant ethical and practical considerations associated with studying infectious diseases in humans, cost-effective and tractable surrogate animal models that can produce similar disease pathology have been developed and evaluated. Early approaches to the systematic selection and evaluation of animal models of human infectious diseases started during the early 19th century with the development of bacteriological research, including the pathogenesis and transmission of

TB. In fact, one of Robert Koch’s postulates mandates that ‘inoculation of the isolated human pathogen to animals must reproduce the same disease conditions’ to prove that a pathogen is the cause of an infectious disease

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