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James

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

James

Charles T. James was a retired general in the Rhode Island Militia and a former U.S. senator from Rhode Island. In 1856 he patented the famous “bird-cage” projectile, currently designated as Type I. The sabot of this projectile was made of three layers: an inner layer of lead cast on to the shell body; a thin tin sheet middle layer; and a rough canvas outer covering. James’ second design was patented in 1862, and purchased only in the 3.8inch caliber. The sabot of the Type II design was a lead band sabot cast onto a heavily ribbed shell body.1

In December 1860, James was awarded a contract to rifle half the smoothbore cannon in U.S. Army forts and arsenals, and as many bronze smoothbore cannon as the U.S.

Army delivered to him in Chicopee, Massachusetts.2 Based on the list of “guns fit for service” attached to that letter agreement, James was to rifle 922 cannon, of which 91 would be 42-pounders, 427 would be 32-pounders, and 335 would be 24-pounders. This contract was underway at the time of the outbreak of hostilities. James benefited enormously from this contract, gaining other contracts for the manufacture of thousands of his projectiles for use in those rifles. The Union Army also awarded James a contract to produce bronze cannons in the 3.67-inch and 3.8-inch calibers. At least 158 of these rifles still survive.3

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Tools to Keep on Hand

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

xii

Tips, Tools, & Techniques

Georgia co-authored three Denton history books during her tenure as museum director. She writes a monthly column for the Denton Record-Chronicle, and has had articles on collecting and caring for antiques in the Antique Almanac, Antique

Prime, and the Latino Times magazines. She was an appraiser for Antiques Roadshow and currently teaches courses on antiques and collectibles and owns enVogue & Vintage at the

Antique Gallery in Denton, Texas. For more information on her classes, contact georgiacaraway@aol.com.

TOOLS TO KEEP ON HAND

• Acid-free paper and boxes (available from craft stores

and library and museum suppliers). Protects photographs, prints, and textiles.

Black light. A device that emits ultraviolet radiation

(UV) light and can detect cracks in pottery and glue repairs in paper items.

Brushes. Soft-bristled baby brushes (try saying that quickly!) are great for cleaning the delicate fabric on lampshades. Makeup brushes are great for cleaning Christmas ornaments and dusting delicate items with crevices.

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Rust

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Appendix B Civil War Cannon Rifling

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix B

Civil War Cannon Rifling

The rifling found on the sabots of fired Civil War rifled artillery projectiles provides important information to the artillery student. Usually, it indicates which type of cannon fired the projectile. This in turn often allows a person to identify the specific cannon and perhaps the battery or ship that fired the projectile.

Listed below are the known types of rifling for all the calibers of rifled cannons thought to have been used in the Civil War. Obviously the list is not complete. Projectiles are still being recovered with rifling on their sabots that have not been previously documented. Some of the rifling documented for this appendix are from actual projectiles with rifling that are not recorded in reference books. The reference column indicates the source of the information.

Additions that can be documented by actual projectiles or cannon or from authoritative reference books are welcomed. See “Notes” at the end of this appendix.

Caliber

(Inches)

Type Rifle

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Archer

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Archer

Credit for the design of the Archer projectiles and the Archer safety fuzes is being changed in this book. Cdr. John Brooke’s papers and Charles Dews’ authoritative book on the Tredegar Foundry clearly indicate that credit for the design of both the Archer projectiles and the Archer safety fuzes should go to Dr. Robert Archer. The confusion that arose in earlier books about whom to credit is the result of three Dr. Archers being associated with Confederate cannon manufacturing: Dr. Junius Archer of Bellona Foundry, near Richmond; Dr. Edward Archer, a superintendent at the Tredegar Foundry; and Dr.

Robert Archer, a partner of Joseph Anderson in the Tredegar Foundry.

Brooke identified Dr. Robert Archer as the designer of both projectiles and fuzes.1

Charles Dew indicated that Dr. Robert Archer was an inventor of some distinction, having designed rifle shot for Tredegar cannon and a safety device to prevent premature explosion of cannon shell.2

The Archer shells and bolts have a lead band sabot placed just behind the center of the shell body as it tapers towards the base. Used at the very beginning of the war at First

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