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Pewter

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Absterdam

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Absterdam

John Absterdam patented a number of projectile designs in 1862 and 1864. The Union

Army Absterdam shells were made in the 3-inch and 4.5-inch calibers. Two of these 4.5inch designs are included in the book, having been used in the 1864-65 RichmondPetersburg siege.

There are three designs of Absterdam projectiles: Type 1 has a lead cup sabot and two lead bourrelets; Type 2 has a lead cup sabot and one (upper) lead bourrelet; and Type 3 has a brass ring sabot with no bourrrelets. A hybrid Type 2/3 is documented in this book, with a brass ring sabot and one upper lead bourrelet.

Absterdam had contracts with at least three foundries in addition to his own foundry to manufacture his projectiles: Dickson & Zane of Philadelphia; Chase, Sharp & Thompson of Philadelphia; and A.J. Smith.1 The first 3-inch Absterdam shells were ordered by the

Union Ordnance Department from Chase, Sharp & Thompson on July 28, 1863, and delivered on February 8, 1864.2 The first 4.5-inch Absterdam projectiles were ordered by the Union Ordnance Department through Dickson & Zane on March 17, 1864, and delivered on September 27, 1864.3

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Framing

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Framing

• An image or object should be matted with equal space

on top and sides and an extra 1/8 to ½ inch at the bottom for proper alignment.

• When using glass, place a mat board or spaces between the glass and the artwork to prevent humidity damage.

Special glass is available to protect art against harmful ultraviolet rays.

• Matting, adhesives, and other framing materials should be acid-free. Non acid-free materials can cause deterioration of the artwork and unsightly brown rims at the edges of the mat and everywhere adhesives are used.

FRAMING NEEDLEWORK.

• Needlework should be framed with thought given to

permanence. Avoid irreversible mountings, such as adhesives.

The English Royal Academy of Needlework studies revealed that the most damage occurs when needlework is framed under glass. Far from protecting it from dust and pollution, the glass actually speeds up fiber deterioration.

They found that non-glare glass is more damaging than regular glass, which is more damaging than no glass at all.

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Mildew Cleaner

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Cedar Aroma Renewal

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

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