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Medium 9781574411638

Preston-Blakely

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Preston-Blakely

Credit for sorting out the confusing story of the so-called “Preston” shells goes to

Warren Ripley. In his classic book, Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, Ripley traces the history of the Preston name.

“Preston” is painted on several shells photographed at the Charleston Arsenal in

1865, undoubtedly by Union Army officers who recovered them and labeled them as such. The label probably relates to the use of the shells in Blakely rifles. The particular ones with the flanged rifling were made in the Fawcett, Preston and Co. foundry in

Liverpool, England.1 Ripley diligently checked surviving Confederate records, but could find no references to Preston in the 3.5-inch and 4-inch caliber. He did find a reference to

Blakely in those calibers in the records, and confirmed that the 4-inch Blakely rifle had 6groove rifling that matched the “Preston” shape.

Subsequent research has confirmed that the patent for the “Preston” design of rifle and projectile was actually awarded to Blakely in 1863.2

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Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

For both smoothbore and rifled artillery, grape stands and quilted grape served a different purpose from case shot and canister. Quilted grape and grape stands were designed to damage ships’ rigging and spars or fortification equipment, with the fragments from this damage causing major casualties to gun crews.

Some confusion exists about the use of grape stands and quilted grape. As general antipersonnel weapons, grape stands and quilted grape in field calibers had been largely replaced by canister by the time the war began. It appears that early in the war grape stands replaced quilted grape for calibers below 8 inch. Quilted grape were used in all calibers above 8 inches, including the 15-inch size, which has been documented aboard

Monitor-type gunboats1 and in postwar Bannerman catalogs.2 However, the Confederates captured a large supply of 32-pounder quilted grape when the Southern states seceded and had others manufactured during the early years of the war. These were deployed to river and coastal gun positions. A number of these 32-pounder quilted grape were excavated near Fort Huger, North Carolina, some years ago, and others reportedly were recovered in gun positions along the Mississippi and elsewhere over the years.

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Audio Materials

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Audio Materials

The field of audio materials has been developing and changing over the last 134 years since Thomas A. Edison developed his phonograph and cylinders to convey the spoken word and music. Edison invented the first machine that could record sound in 1877 using a tinfoil cylinder. In 1886,

Alexander Graham Bell obtained several patents for a commercial talking machine called a graphaphone. He replaced

Edison’s tinfoil with wax cylinders. By 1888, Edison had perfected his phonograph using a wax cylinder.

Some definitions of audio materials are in order. Audio records include 78s, 45s, and LPs (which are long-playing phonograph records designed to be played at 33 1/3 rpm).

CD is a compact disc that is a plastic-fabricated, circular medium for recording, storing, and playing back audio, video, and computer data. DVDs used to be known as digital video discs until they became more versatile, thus the name change to digital versatile discs.

CLEANING AUDIO RECORDS, CDS,

AND DVDS

• To clean really dirty or smudged records, CDs, or DVDs,

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Photography

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Dolls

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Dolls

43

Gently wash garment in a mild detergent.

Add a tablet of Efferdent to 1½ cups of hot water in a large, open plastic container Allow to cool slightly.

Place laundered garment in the solution.

Gently agitate with a wooden spoon. Soak for 15 minutes. Rinse with tepid water and equal parts of white vinegar. Soak for three to five minutes. The vinegar will neutralize the chlorine in the Efferdent. Roll garment loosely in a towel. Gently reshape garment and dry away from sunlight and heat.

For various problem stains, follow some of the stain removal tips located under the Fabric and Textiles section of this book. Use caution when dealing with doll clothes, because the little girls who played with them probably did not handle the clothes too gently.

IRONING DOLL CLOTHES

• Use the lowest temperature possible that will still pro-

duce steam. Cover the garment with a thin pressing cloth. Test a small area before your start. Work slowly.

Be sure garment is dry and cool before you handle it.

• When pressing very small garments, use a curling iron wrapped in a thin pressing cloth.

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