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Marble

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Lynall Thomas

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Lynall Thomas

Not much is known about Lynall Thomas, an Englishman credited with the design of complicated rifled shells of doubtful effectiveness supplied to the Confederacy. The shell consisted of a narrow shell body with a very large head. Behind the head a lead sleeve and lead disk were cast and a midshell thick iron band put on the outside of the lead sleeve. Another lead disk separated the midshell iron band from a thick rear iron band.

Upon firing, the iron bands were forced forward on the lead sleeve, squeezing the lead disks into the rifling.

Shells of this design have been recovered in three calibers: 4.62-inch, 5.82-inch, and

6.4-inch. Almost all the shells in each caliber come from only a single area. The 4.62inch shells come from Awendaw and Charleston, South Carolina. The single 5.82-inch shell is from the West Point collection, and all of the 6.4-inch Lynall Thomas shells come from the areas around Fort Fisher and nearby Fort Caswell.

Only one complete fired specimen has been noted (the 6.4-inch shell documented in this book). It appears to have taken the rifling effectively.

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Tennessee

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Tennessee

(Formerly Mullane)

Establishing proper credit for the design of Tennessee projectiles has been a challenge for decades. Period documents refer to them by a variety of names including, “Tennessee

Shell,” “copper saucer,” and “copper cup.” Even Cdr. John Brooke referred to the design as “Tennessee Sabot” in correspondence to the Confederate secretary of the navy and to

Catesby Jones at the Selma Foundry in 1863.1

In a postwar paper written in 1883, Gen. Edward P. Alexander, formerly Longstreet’s chief of artillery, gave credit to both Mullane and Read for the design of at least the fieldcaliber Tennessee projectiles. In the paper, Alexander stated:

This shell (with the saucer shaped copper sabot attached with bolts after the shell was cast), called the Mullane or Tennessee shell, was the invention of Dr.

Read of Tuscaloosa, Ala., the well known inventor of what are usually but improperly called Parrott shell. . . . A patent was refused the Mullane shell by the

Confederate Patent Office, on the ground that it was anticipated by this patent of

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The Role of Heavy Explosive Ordnance in Strategic Battles

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

The Role of Heavy Explosive Ordnance in Strategic Battles

The development of heavy explosive ordnance brought awesome destructive power to the battlefield never experienced before. But that power was not fully tested or understood before deployment under actual battle conditions, and could be destructive to the user as awell as to the enemy.

Every major engagement involving heavy explosive ordnance was a learning experience for both sides. However, a few represented historic “firsts” in warfare or turning points in tactics or strategy. Sometimes these “firsts” were accomplished only with great sacrifice. In a number of cases, the tactics and strategies used were wrong, and brought disastrous results. In other cases the “lessons learned” were incorrect and reversed when tested in later battles. Notwithstanding these failures and catastrophes, by the end of the war, the tactical and strategic landscape for the use of heavy explosive ordnance was changed forever.

Described in chronological order are highlights of seven major battles or attacks in which heavy explosive ordnance produced results that led to changes in the strategy or tactics of warfare.

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Chrome

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