92 Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Sawyer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Sawyer

Sylvanus Sawyer and his brother Addison M. Sawyer developed and patented a system of rifles, projectiles, and fuzes that were highly regarded early in the war. They had a 5.86inch rifle and projectiles under test at Fort Monroe in Hampton Roads in 1859.1 It may have been the same rifle that in 1861 earned Sawyer that high regard. Sawyer’s rifle was the only cannon available to the Union Army that could hit the Confederate batteries defending

Hampton Roads from the Rip Raps, an island about 2,000 yards south of Fort Monroe.2

Three Sawyer shell designs are known. The most common is the flanged model.

Instead of a sabot, the iron shell body has six flanges and is covered completely with a lead sleeve. A second design has the lead sleeve cover only the flanged cylindrical sides of the shell body but not the base or ogive. The third design has a smooth sided shell body completely encased in lead. There are no known battlefield recoveries of this model in large calibers. All three designs are reported to have had a brass foil over the lead sheath to reduce the lead fouling the rifling. One flanged specimen has been documented in the West Point Museum collection with this brass foil largely intact.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Metals: Identifying with a Magnet

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Fabrics and Textiles

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Fabrics and Textiles

See the section on Upholstery, Rugs, and Carpet Cleaning for tips on fabric used on furniture. Also see Vintage Clothing and Textiles for information about especially delicate items.

Before taking steps yourself to preserve and care for antique fabrics, you should seek professional advice about specific conservation, cleaning, storage, and exhibition problems. Each fabric is unique and requires individual consideration. With that warning in mind, follow these general rules for fabric care.

CARE OF OLD FABRICS

• Provide a stable environment for the textile. Protect it

from rough handling, light, extreme changes of temperature and humidity, and insects. For each of these problems there is a simple remedy.

• Handling. When you must handle fabrics, clean your hands first. Remove sharp jewelry to prevent snags and tears. Do not eat, drink, or smoke near the article. Keep article away from unclean surfaces, and do not place any objects on top of it.

• Light. Light is harmful to textiles. Many older fabrics are made of cellulose (cotton and linen) and animal

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Hooked Rugs

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Whitworth

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Whitworth

Sir Joseph Whitworth designed a family of rifles and projectiles generally recognized as the most accurate and longest range of any used in the war. In a Union Army test reported in 1864, a 2.75-inch Whitworth bolt was fired 10,000 yards.1

The design was unique among Civil War projectiles. All Whitworth projectiles regardless of caliber had six concave sides with a twist matching the twist of the hexagonal rifle bore. The windage on these projectiles is smaller than that in any other period projectile: no more than about 2/1000 inch. Normal windage on large caliber projectiles ranged from 5/100 to 10/100 for rifled projectiles to as much as 20/100 for large smoothbores.2

Both Union and Confederate forces used Whitworth rifles and projectiles. The

Confederates obtained the rifles in several calibers and used the field calibers much more frequently than the Union did. Wartime provenance has been established for large caliber use by Confederates in 3.75-inch calibers. They almost received a shipment of 6.4-inch

See All Chapters

See All Chapters