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Guide to Using Data Sheets

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Guide to Using Data Sheets

For the convenience of users, the data sheets for projectiles and torpedoes use a standard format. Descriptions of the information in each category are provided below.

Users should read this guide before using the data sheets.

Projectile Photos

Most projectile data sheets have photographs of the side, top, and bottom of the projectile. The ruler scale applies only to the side view of the projectile. It is important to note that the scale does not include the height of the fuze, only the length of the projectile.

The torpedo data sheets normally have only a side view and a close-up photo of the fuze or detonator mechanism. Most torpedo data sheets do not include a scale bar, because the torpedoes are too long for the scale numbers to be legible.

Projectile or Torpedo Identification Title

The projectile identification provides several key pieces of information. It first identifies the origin of the projectile or torpedo. Origin defines who manufactured the projectile or torpedo: CS, British/CS, or US. Next it identifies the caliber (e.g., bore size) of the cannon that fires the projectile.

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Glossary

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Glossary

ANCHORED TORPEDO—a torpedo (mine) designed to float under the water or rest on the bottom of a body of water, anchored in place by a weight, cables, or ropes. A defensive weapon.

ARMY OFFICIAL RECORDS (“Army ORs” in footnotes)—officially named, War of the

Rebellion Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. A 128-volume set, published from 1880 to 1901, containing original reports and other documents prepared during the Civil War by government and military officials on both sides relating to

Union and Confederate Army actions. (See Bibliography)

ARTIFACT—a man-made object, usually associated with a period, as in Civil War artifact.

BANNERMAN’S—the major military surplus dealer who purchased huge quantities of leftover military ordnance after the Civil War, which they resold well into the twentieth century. Originally known as Francis S. Bannerman’s, later known as Bannerman and Sons.

BASE—the bottom of a projectile or torpedo.

BASE PLATE—a flat iron disk on the bottom of a canister, grape stand, or quilted grape.

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Sawyer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Sawyer

Sylvanus Sawyer and his brother Addison M. Sawyer developed and patented a system of rifles, projectiles, and fuzes that were highly regarded early in the war. They had a 5.86inch rifle and projectiles under test at Fort Monroe in Hampton Roads in 1859.1 It may have been the same rifle that in 1861 earned Sawyer that high regard. Sawyer’s rifle was the only cannon available to the Union Army that could hit the Confederate batteries defending

Hampton Roads from the Rip Raps, an island about 2,000 yards south of Fort Monroe.2

Three Sawyer shell designs are known. The most common is the flanged model.

Instead of a sabot, the iron shell body has six flanges and is covered completely with a lead sleeve. A second design has the lead sleeve cover only the flanged cylindrical sides of the shell body but not the base or ogive. The third design has a smooth sided shell body completely encased in lead. There are no known battlefield recoveries of this model in large calibers. All three designs are reported to have had a brass foil over the lead sheath to reduce the lead fouling the rifling. One flanged specimen has been documented in the West Point Museum collection with this brass foil largely intact.

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Appendix B Civil War Cannon Rifling

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix B

Civil War Cannon Rifling

The rifling found on the sabots of fired Civil War rifled artillery projectiles provides important information to the artillery student. Usually, it indicates which type of cannon fired the projectile. This in turn often allows a person to identify the specific cannon and perhaps the battery or ship that fired the projectile.

Listed below are the known types of rifling for all the calibers of rifled cannons thought to have been used in the Civil War. Obviously the list is not complete. Projectiles are still being recovered with rifling on their sabots that have not been previously documented. Some of the rifling documented for this appendix are from actual projectiles with rifling that are not recorded in reference books. The reference column indicates the source of the information.

Additions that can be documented by actual projectiles or cannon or from authoritative reference books are welcomed. See “Notes” at the end of this appendix.

Caliber

(Inches)

Type Rifle

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Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

For both smoothbore and rifled artillery, grape stands and quilted grape served a different purpose from case shot and canister. Quilted grape and grape stands were designed to damage ships’ rigging and spars or fortification equipment, with the fragments from this damage causing major casualties to gun crews.

Some confusion exists about the use of grape stands and quilted grape. As general antipersonnel weapons, grape stands and quilted grape in field calibers had been largely replaced by canister by the time the war began. It appears that early in the war grape stands replaced quilted grape for calibers below 8 inch. Quilted grape were used in all calibers above 8 inches, including the 15-inch size, which has been documented aboard

Monitor-type gunboats1 and in postwar Bannerman catalogs.2 However, the Confederates captured a large supply of 32-pounder quilted grape when the Southern states seceded and had others manufactured during the early years of the war. These were deployed to river and coastal gun positions. A number of these 32-pounder quilted grape were excavated near Fort Huger, North Carolina, some years ago, and others reportedly were recovered in gun positions along the Mississippi and elsewhere over the years.

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Archer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Archer

Credit for the design of the Archer projectiles and the Archer safety fuzes is being changed in this book. Cdr. John Brooke’s papers and Charles Dews’ authoritative book on the Tredegar Foundry clearly indicate that credit for the design of both the Archer projectiles and the Archer safety fuzes should go to Dr. Robert Archer. The confusion that arose in earlier books about whom to credit is the result of three Dr. Archers being associated with Confederate cannon manufacturing: Dr. Junius Archer of Bellona Foundry, near Richmond; Dr. Edward Archer, a superintendent at the Tredegar Foundry; and Dr.

Robert Archer, a partner of Joseph Anderson in the Tredegar Foundry.

Brooke identified Dr. Robert Archer as the designer of both projectiles and fuzes.1

Charles Dew indicated that Dr. Robert Archer was an inventor of some distinction, having designed rifle shot for Tredegar cannon and a safety device to prevent premature explosion of cannon shell.2

The Archer shells and bolts have a lead band sabot placed just behind the center of the shell body as it tapers towards the base. Used at the very beginning of the war at First

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Maury

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Maury

General Abbot attributes two designs of large caliber bolts to Maury.1 This probably refers to Matthew F. Maury, a Confederate naval officer involved in the design and construction of Confederate gunboats.2 However, the author has not found a definitive connection between him and the design of the projectiles, except for General Abbot’s description and similar descriptions of a Maury bolt in other period documents. The

Maury bolts were first ordered for production in 1863 and orders continued to be placed until 1864, so they must have seen some action, probably along the James River.3

Both designs documented by Abbot are for smoothbore cannons and do not have sabots. One has a smooth side surface. The other has bourrelets. They have the form of a rifled bolt, and were probably intended for use in smoothbores by navy forces at short range where rifling would not be critical to flight stability. Both designs have a sizable hole from the base through the nose of the bolt. Its purpose can only be to reduce the chamber pressure on the bolt to prevent the cannon from exploding.

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Broun

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Broun

Lt. Col. William L. Broun became commander of the Richmond Arsenal in June

1863. It appears that he soon began to work on the redesign of rifled bolts and shells with copper ring sabots to improve their performance (and to reduce the consumption of scarce copper). Shells attributed to Broun’s designs appear on 1864 battlefields.

These designs simplified the manufacturing process by eliminating the lower bourrelet on the shell body, replacing it with a copper sabot that was wider than the shell base diameter. He attempted to improve the sabot effectiveness with lugs that were cast about one-half inch into the shell to hold the sabot firmly to the body. There is some evidence that these changes produced better performance, and manufacturing was simplified.

Large-caliber Broun shells have been recovered from two areas. The 4.2-inch caliber

Brouns have been recovered from late war Richmond-Petersburg lines and from Mobile

Bay. The larger calibers, 6.4-inch and 7.0-inch, are known to have been recovered only from the Mobile Bay area.

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Label Removal

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Label Removal

• Products such as rubber cement solvent, Bestine sol-

vent, and Goo Gone will remove sticky labels, masking tape, and sticky residue left from labels on glass, pottery, and china.

Be very cautious when using any product on paper. Test a small area before applying the product to a label to be sure that it will not leave a greasy spot. You can easily ruin a paper collectible by using these products. I have had great luck with Goo Gone, but I still test each time I use it on paper.

For glass or china, peel away as much paper as you can.

Next, soften the residue by applying vinegar, hairspray, nail polish remover, mayonnaise, or peanut butter.

On painted surfaces, apply a hot rag or heat with a hairdryer. Be careful not to pull off the painted surface by working too quickly. You can reduce the value of a collectible item by removing the original paint.

On plastic, apply a hot rag, rub gently with a dab of peanut butter, or heat with a hairdryer set on warm.

On metal, rub gently with a dab of peanut butter.

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Lacquered Items

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Christmas Ornaments

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Wicker

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Bronze

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Enamel

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Pewter

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

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