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Dyer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Dyer

Prior to the war, Alexander B. Dyer was a junior ordnance officer in the U.S. Army.

Before the war he went to England and observed the performance of Britten projectiles being fired from Blakely rifles. Upon his return home, Dyer designed a very similar projectile. He soon was promoted to captain and became chief of ordnance at Fort Monroe.1

It was while he was in that post that the Union Army began purchasing projectiles of his design. The ordnance officer who recommended the purchase of Dyer shells stated that the Dyer design differed only slightly from the Dimick projectile2 and was almost identical to the design of John A. Dahlgren.3

The Dyer design, like Britten’s and Dahlgren’s, had a heavy lead cup sabot cast on to the shell base. For field caliber shells, Dyer used the same method for sabot attachment as Britten. The rounded shell base was tinned, then a lead cup sabot was cast on to the tinned shell base. For the large caliber projectiles, Dyer designed the shell body with a flat base and used notches in the side of the shell base to hold the sabot in place, differing from the Britten design.

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Wicker

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Blakely

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Blakely

Capt. Theophilus Alexander Blakely, a British inventor, designed a number of rifles and projectiles in a wide variety of calibers, which were sold before the war to individual

Southern states and later to the Confederacy. At least two batteries of Blakely rifles were also sold to Union units. It is well known that South Carolina had acquired a 3.5-inch

Blakely rifle before the war, which participated in the initial bombardment of Fort Sumter.1

Less well known is the fact that Virginia had acquired a 7.5-inch Blakely rifle just before or after hostilities began. That rifle fired some 900 rounds at Union forces at Shipping

Point at the mouth of the Potomac River before being abandoned by Confederate forces in mid-1862.2 It survives today and is located in the gun park at the Washington Navy Yard.

Most Blakely-designed rifles used projectiles designed by Sir Bashley Britten, who received a British patent on the design in 1855, but was unable to obtain a U.S. patent until after the war. Britten’s projectiles are described in the next section. The Blakely rifles firing Britten projectiles used conventional square land and groove rifling. Two other projectile designs—both flanged—were used in Blakely rifles that used the shunt system of rifling. Both are actually Blakely designs, but one is called the Preston-Blakely design and the other is known as the flanged Blakely. Battlefield recoveries of the PrestonBlakely design have been noted in 3.5-inch and 4-inch calibers. In addition, an 8-inch

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Books

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Tips, Tools, & Techniques

12

• Clean books with a vacuum dusting-brush attachment,

a shaving brush, or a soft paintbrush. Dust from the back binding to the front, not allowing dust to gather in the headcap.

Check books periodically for insect infestation. Bookworms, moths, and silverfish love to chew on pages and bindings. Remove any insect carcasses with a soft brush.

Wipe mold and mildew off the bindings and pages with a clean soft cloth. If the pages are still moldy, wipe with an alcohol-dampened cloth, then fan out the pages and brush off after a few hours.

Use a dry chemical sponge available from janitorial supply stores to clean soot from fire damage.

Press a lump of untinted modeling clay over the dirt on soiled pages. Knead the clay frequently to get a fresh surface.

DISPLAY

• When arranging books on shelves, be sure there is

plenty of room for each one to be lifted out easily.

Books should be held upright on shelves.

Use bookends on partially filled shelves so that books stand upright. Prevent books from sagging and spines from bending.

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Hotchkiss

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Hotchkiss

Andrew Hotchkiss of Connecticut developed the Hotchkiss family of projectiles and was granted his first patent on October 16, 1855. He improved the design and was granted subsequent patents on July 24, 1860, and May 14, 1861.1 The dates cast into many of his projectiles—October 9, 1855, and May 14, 1861—are somewhat confusing. The October

9 date is the date the first patent was applied for, not the date granted.2

The initial design was a smooth-sided projectile, now classified as Type I. Flame grooves were added for the Type II shells, which improved the performance of time fuzes, and for some unknown reason, they were also added to bolts. A flat-nose version with a rounded base cup was developed for case shot, identified as Type III. At the very end of the war, a flat base cup was added to the flat-nose case shot, a wooden disk was inserted between the cup and the shell, and the Wright 14-second or 16-second time fuze was added. This is known as Type IV.

In all four types, the base cup pushed into the lead band sabot, forcing it into the rifling. Because of this design, however, the base cup and the sabot often separated, creating major friendly fire hazards to forward troops. Nonetheless, in the 3-inch caliber, the Hotchkiss was the preferred projectile for the 3-inch Ordnance Rifle and saw widespread use through the end of the war and afterwards.

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Christmas Ornaments

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Enamel

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Glassware

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Glassware

65

PICKING UP BROKEN PIECES OF GLASS

• Never use your bare hands to pick up broken glass. Little

slivers are difficult to see and you could end up injuring yourself. Carefully sweep broken glass into a dustpan.

Wrap the shards in newspaper and throw them out.

• To pick up tiny shards of glass, wipe all around the breakage area with a paper towel smeared with moist bar or liquid hand soap. Rinse with a water-soaked paper towel and wipe the area dry.

CLOUDY GLASS

• Antique decanters or bottles are sometimes stricken

with a cloudy or frosty condition called glass sickness.

This occurs when a liquid has been left in the container too long.

• Mix fine clay or sand with either water or denatured alcohol. Swish it around in the container until the blur disappears. If this fails and your glass is valuable, consult an expert in glass repair.

• If the piece is not very valuable you may also try these other solutions:

- Fill the glass container with water. Add one or two

tablespoons of ammonia, let stand overnight. Wash and rinse.

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Metals: Identifying with a Magnet

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Lacquered Items

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Glue: How to Choose

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Glue: How to Choose

WOOD AND POROUS MATERIALS

Items made of wood, paper, leather, fabric, and other porous or absorbent materials are the ones most frequently in need of regluing. You have a choice of four main types of glue for use with these materials:

• White glue. This glue usually comes in plastic squeeze

bottles of various sizes. It is inexpensive, sets in about one hour, and washes off with water while the glue is still wet. The most popular brands of white glue are

Elmer’s Glue-All and Franklin Evertite White Glue.

• Yellow Glue. This glue is stronger, fast-setting, and tackier than white glue. It can be sanded smooth when dry.

The most readily available yellow glues are Elmer’s Carpenter Wood Glue and Franklin Titebond.

• Waterproof glue for long-lasting outdoor use, as in repairing lawn furniture or exterior trim, requires mixing. Labeled either plastic resin or resorcinol resin, these glues are packaged with the necessary ingredients and instructions for mixing. The most common brands of waterproof glue are Weldwood Plastic Resin, Elmer’s

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Coins

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Mildew Cleaner

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Medium 9781574411638

Stafford

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Stafford

Little is known of the designer of the Stafford family of projectiles. He was probably well connected politically, based on the political controversy highlighted below. The projectiles were sub-caliber projectiles, meaning that the bulk of the projectile was substantially smaller than the caliber of the rifle. This is similar in concept to the sabot rounds used in current models of Abrams tanks. The concept of sub-caliber projectiles is to achieve much higher velocities at short range than full-caliber projectiles can attain, enabling the shell or bolt to penetrate deeper in a narrower space.

Stafford projectiles had brass ring sabots. Some were encased in a wood sleeve, others had a brass ring, or an enlarged head to fit the rifle bore. The sabot was a brass ring type, which was held in place by iron pins or nails driven into the metal core, into the wood casing, or between the two.

Staffords were produced in several calibers, including 5.1-inch, 6.4-inch, and 8-inch.

No survivors are known in the 8-inch caliber. One hundred 8-inch Stafford projectiles were purchased by the Union Navy and tested by the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in 1863 off Charleston.1 They were reported on July 27, 1863, to have performed unsatisfactorily.2 Ironically, only five days before the navy test results were reported,

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Photography

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