92 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9781574414516

Glue: How to Choose

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Glue: How to Choose

WOOD AND POROUS MATERIALS

Items made of wood, paper, leather, fabric, and other porous or absorbent materials are the ones most frequently in need of regluing. You have a choice of four main types of glue for use with these materials:

• White glue. This glue usually comes in plastic squeeze

bottles of various sizes. It is inexpensive, sets in about one hour, and washes off with water while the glue is still wet. The most popular brands of white glue are

Elmer’s Glue-All and Franklin Evertite White Glue.

• Yellow Glue. This glue is stronger, fast-setting, and tackier than white glue. It can be sanded smooth when dry.

The most readily available yellow glues are Elmer’s Carpenter Wood Glue and Franklin Titebond.

• Waterproof glue for long-lasting outdoor use, as in repairing lawn furniture or exterior trim, requires mixing. Labeled either plastic resin or resorcinol resin, these glues are packaged with the necessary ingredients and instructions for mixing. The most common brands of waterproof glue are Weldwood Plastic Resin, Elmer’s

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Books

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Tips, Tools, & Techniques

12

• Clean books with a vacuum dusting-brush attachment,

a shaving brush, or a soft paintbrush. Dust from the back binding to the front, not allowing dust to gather in the headcap.

Check books periodically for insect infestation. Bookworms, moths, and silverfish love to chew on pages and bindings. Remove any insect carcasses with a soft brush.

Wipe mold and mildew off the bindings and pages with a clean soft cloth. If the pages are still moldy, wipe with an alcohol-dampened cloth, then fan out the pages and brush off after a few hours.

Use a dry chemical sponge available from janitorial supply stores to clean soot from fire damage.

Press a lump of untinted modeling clay over the dirt on soiled pages. Knead the clay frequently to get a fresh surface.

DISPLAY

• When arranging books on shelves, be sure there is

plenty of room for each one to be lifted out easily.

Books should be held upright on shelves.

Use bookends on partially filled shelves so that books stand upright. Prevent books from sagging and spines from bending.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Appendix C Rifled Projectile Sabot Designs

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix C

Rifled Projectile Sabot Designs

Correct identification of rifled projectiles often requires accurate identification of sabot designs. This appendix provides specific information to assist the student of projectiles in identifying sabot designs of both field and large caliber rifled artillery projectiles used in the war.

The three steps to accurate sabot identification are to identify: (1) the material the sabot is made of: iron, brass, copper, lead, or papier-maché; (2) the form or shape of the sabot: ring, cup, disk, or band; and (3) the distinguishing characteristics of different sabot designs. Each step is described in more detail in the rest of this appendix.

Sabot Materials

Sabots were made of four types of materials during the war: wrought iron, lead, copper or brass, and papier-maché. Each is described below.

• Wrought Iron. Wrought iron can usually be identified by its appearance. In battlefield-recovered projectiles, the wrought iron sabot is often more corroded than the projectile body. When preserved with electrolysis, it takes on the same black color as the cast iron shell body. Wrought iron sabots were made separately and the projectile was cast around the sabot.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Lynall Thomas

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Lynall Thomas

Not much is known about Lynall Thomas, an Englishman credited with the design of complicated rifled shells of doubtful effectiveness supplied to the Confederacy. The shell consisted of a narrow shell body with a very large head. Behind the head a lead sleeve and lead disk were cast and a midshell thick iron band put on the outside of the lead sleeve. Another lead disk separated the midshell iron band from a thick rear iron band.

Upon firing, the iron bands were forced forward on the lead sleeve, squeezing the lead disks into the rifling.

Shells of this design have been recovered in three calibers: 4.62-inch, 5.82-inch, and

6.4-inch. Almost all the shells in each caliber come from only a single area. The 4.62inch shells come from Awendaw and Charleston, South Carolina. The single 5.82-inch shell is from the West Point collection, and all of the 6.4-inch Lynall Thomas shells come from the areas around Fort Fisher and nearby Fort Caswell.

Only one complete fired specimen has been noted (the 6.4-inch shell documented in this book). It appears to have taken the rifling effectively.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Colorfast Fabrics

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

For both smoothbore and rifled artillery, grape stands and quilted grape served a different purpose from case shot and canister. Quilted grape and grape stands were designed to damage ships’ rigging and spars or fortification equipment, with the fragments from this damage causing major casualties to gun crews.

Some confusion exists about the use of grape stands and quilted grape. As general antipersonnel weapons, grape stands and quilted grape in field calibers had been largely replaced by canister by the time the war began. It appears that early in the war grape stands replaced quilted grape for calibers below 8 inch. Quilted grape were used in all calibers above 8 inches, including the 15-inch size, which has been documented aboard

Monitor-type gunboats1 and in postwar Bannerman catalogs.2 However, the Confederates captured a large supply of 32-pounder quilted grape when the Southern states seceded and had others manufactured during the early years of the war. These were deployed to river and coastal gun positions. A number of these 32-pounder quilted grape were excavated near Fort Huger, North Carolina, some years ago, and others reportedly were recovered in gun positions along the Mississippi and elsewhere over the years.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Absterdam

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Absterdam

John Absterdam patented a number of projectile designs in 1862 and 1864. The Union

Army Absterdam shells were made in the 3-inch and 4.5-inch calibers. Two of these 4.5inch designs are included in the book, having been used in the 1864-65 RichmondPetersburg siege.

There are three designs of Absterdam projectiles: Type 1 has a lead cup sabot and two lead bourrelets; Type 2 has a lead cup sabot and one (upper) lead bourrelet; and Type 3 has a brass ring sabot with no bourrrelets. A hybrid Type 2/3 is documented in this book, with a brass ring sabot and one upper lead bourrelet.

Absterdam had contracts with at least three foundries in addition to his own foundry to manufacture his projectiles: Dickson & Zane of Philadelphia; Chase, Sharp & Thompson of Philadelphia; and A.J. Smith.1 The first 3-inch Absterdam shells were ordered by the

Union Ordnance Department from Chase, Sharp & Thompson on July 28, 1863, and delivered on February 8, 1864.2 The first 4.5-inch Absterdam projectiles were ordered by the Union Ordnance Department through Dickson & Zane on March 17, 1864, and delivered on September 27, 1864.3

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Jewelry

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Tips, Tools, & Techniques

76

- Fill a small bowl with any liquid soap and a teaspoon

-

or more of clear ammonia. The ammonia adds luster to the gold and brilliance to any encrusted stones.

Immerse the pieces in the bowl. Let stand for a few minutes.

Remove one piece at a time. Using a soft toothbrush, gently brush the piece.

Rinse the piece in a bowl of hot water. Be sure to close the drain if you rinse jewelry in a sink basin.

Dry the piece carefully.

• Another method to clean gold without the liquid soap

is to soak the jewelry in equal parts ammonia and lukewarm water for ten minutes. Rub with a soft brush and let dry without rinsing.

JADE

• Jade is cold to the touch. The term “Jade” is used generi-

cally for two materials: Nephrite and Jadeite. Nephrite comes from China and is softer than true Jadeite. Jadeite comes from Burma, Japan, Guatemala, California,

Hawaii, Russia, and Switzerland.

• Jadeite comes in various colors—green, yellow, orange, and lavender—and has a greater translucent quality.

• To test for real jade, carefully rub the tip of a knife across the bottom of the item. If the mark is white, the item is not jade. If it leaves a black mark, it may be jade.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Tennessee

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Tennessee

(Formerly Mullane)

Establishing proper credit for the design of Tennessee projectiles has been a challenge for decades. Period documents refer to them by a variety of names including, “Tennessee

Shell,” “copper saucer,” and “copper cup.” Even Cdr. John Brooke referred to the design as “Tennessee Sabot” in correspondence to the Confederate secretary of the navy and to

Catesby Jones at the Selma Foundry in 1863.1

In a postwar paper written in 1883, Gen. Edward P. Alexander, formerly Longstreet’s chief of artillery, gave credit to both Mullane and Read for the design of at least the fieldcaliber Tennessee projectiles. In the paper, Alexander stated:

This shell (with the saucer shaped copper sabot attached with bolts after the shell was cast), called the Mullane or Tennessee shell, was the invention of Dr.

Read of Tuscaloosa, Ala., the well known inventor of what are usually but improperly called Parrott shell. . . . A patent was refused the Mullane shell by the

Confederate Patent Office, on the ground that it was anticipated by this patent of

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Baskets

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Pewter

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Section 3 Torpedoes and Mines

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Section 3

Torpedoes and Mines

Note: during the war, the term “torpedo” was generally used to describe both mines and torpedoes as we know them today. Following that tradition, the torpedoes and mines described in this section will be referred to as “torpedoes.”

The Confederates were forced to invest heavily in the development and deployment of torpedoes to protect their extensive ports and riverways. Confederates could not deploy enough ships, artillery, and men to defend the extensive river and coastal areas in the

South. Even in heavily defended areas such as Mobile, Charleston, and Wilmington, torpedoes added significantly to the threat to exposed Union ships and gunboats.

Initial efforts to develop Confederate torpedo capabilities were headed by Matthew

Maury,1 who is also credited with the design of several smoothbore bolts. After he went to England, Hunter Davidson was appointed as his successor and headed the program until the end of the war.2 It was a high enough priority that Lt. John M. Brooke, later famous for his cannon and projectile designs, designed several types of torpedoes and even a torpedo boat design. He designed an anchored swaying spar torpedo and a fixed bottom torpedo called a “turtle,” that was convex, so antitorpedo boats could not grapple it off the bottom.3 It was deployed together with his swaying spar torpedo, which was said to be one of the deadliest encountered by Union ships.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Glossary

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Glossary

ANCHORED TORPEDO—a torpedo (mine) designed to float under the water or rest on the bottom of a body of water, anchored in place by a weight, cables, or ropes. A defensive weapon.

ARMY OFFICIAL RECORDS (“Army ORs” in footnotes)—officially named, War of the

Rebellion Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. A 128-volume set, published from 1880 to 1901, containing original reports and other documents prepared during the Civil War by government and military officials on both sides relating to

Union and Confederate Army actions. (See Bibliography)

ARTIFACT—a man-made object, usually associated with a period, as in Civil War artifact.

BANNERMAN’S—the major military surplus dealer who purchased huge quantities of leftover military ordnance after the Civil War, which they resold well into the twentieth century. Originally known as Francis S. Bannerman’s, later known as Bannerman and Sons.

BASE—the bottom of a projectile or torpedo.

BASE PLATE—a flat iron disk on the bottom of a canister, grape stand, or quilted grape.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Shot, Shell, and Case Shot

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Section 1

Large Smoothbore Projectiles

Shot, Shell, and Case Shot

Smoothbore projectiles are generally classified in six categories, according to their design and proposed use. Shot, shell, and case shot are discussed in this section. Canister, grape stands and quilted grape will be discussed in the sections that follow.

Characteristics

Shot—are usually spherical in shape. These projectiles were designed to crush the target by the momentum of impact. As ships and fortifications became more formidable in their defenses, shot became more important projectiles for damaging or destroying them. Some shot were elongated, to increase the weight of the projectile being fired.

Almost all of these were proof shot, fired to ensure the ability of the cannon to withstand the pressures of firing. A few (almost all Confederate) were elongated and designed for use at very short ranges against ironclad targets before the shot started to tumble. Maury and Brooke shot are the best known of this type. (Maury shot are covered in the rifled projectile section because of their traditional association with rifled projectiles.) Bar and chain shot were not used in large caliber guns.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Rust

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Load more