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Preston-Blakely

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Preston-Blakely

Credit for sorting out the confusing story of the so-called “Preston” shells goes to

Warren Ripley. In his classic book, Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, Ripley traces the history of the Preston name.

“Preston” is painted on several shells photographed at the Charleston Arsenal in

1865, undoubtedly by Union Army officers who recovered them and labeled them as such. The label probably relates to the use of the shells in Blakely rifles. The particular ones with the flanged rifling were made in the Fawcett, Preston and Co. foundry in

Liverpool, England.1 Ripley diligently checked surviving Confederate records, but could find no references to Preston in the 3.5-inch and 4-inch caliber. He did find a reference to

Blakely in those calibers in the records, and confirmed that the 4-inch Blakely rifle had 6groove rifling that matched the “Preston” shape.

Subsequent research has confirmed that the patent for the “Preston” design of rifle and projectile was actually awarded to Blakely in 1863.2

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Cochran

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Cochran

J. Webster Cochran was a longtime inventor of weapons and projectiles.1 He designed

2 and was granted patents on projectiles and fuzes from the 1850s through at least 1863.

His only success in terms of government purchases appears to be the family of Cochran projectiles and fuzes purchased and used very early in the war by the Union Navy. These were produced in navy calibers only, except for a 3.8-inch bolt that is in the West Point collection. The navy calibers documented for Cochrans were 3.4-inch, 5.1-inch and 6inch. There are no known surviving specimens in the 5.1-inch caliber.

Cochran designed a convex brass ring sabot that screwed on to the projectile. The sabot contained a grease ring and had numerous small holes around it. As the sabot squeezed into the rifling upon firing, grease was squeezed out to lubricate the barrel.

Fired specimens appear to have taken the rifling well and retained their sabots. It is not clear why Cochran failed to get follow-on contracts with the navy, but the complicated design probably made the Cochran shells too costly.

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Paper Collectibles

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Paper Collectibles

95

• Use a bone folder to remove creases from paper docu-

ments. Begin in the center of the document and press the bone folder lightly along the back of the crease in a outward direction and toward the edge of the paper.

Frame the document when it is flat and clean.

To clean a document, put on cotton gloves and sprinkle Opaline on the soiled document. Opaline is a nonabrasive, light cleaning agent that can be obtained at art supply stores. Rub erasures lightly in a circular motion, and brush away soiled particles with a softbristle artist’s brush.

Do not glue or tape paper collectibles in an album or scrapbook. Adhesives leave permanent stains on paper.

Use paper or photo mounting corners.

Common items should be repaired with ordinary household white glue applied carefully with a toothpick. For easier application, thin the glue with water before applying. Blot any excess glue with a paper towel.

If paper collectibles become infested with bugs, seal them in plastic bags and store them in the freezer for three days.

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Leather

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Leather

85

• Massage saddle soap into scuff marks with a clean, dry

cloth. Work in circles until the scuff mark is gone. Gently buff with a soft cloth.

• The best way to preserve leather is by controlling its environment rather than altering the object itself. Avoid storing leather in excessively humid areas where mold and bacteria thrive. Likewise, leather stored in a dry area may crack or split.

• Keep leather away from heat sources, which deteriorate its protein content.

TREATING LEATHER

• Clean the leather first. Apply a small amount of castor

oil with a soft cloth pad or with your fingertips. Rub the area well and remove the excess oil carefully with a clean cloth.

• If you get an oil or grease stain on leather, quickly blot up as much of the stain as possible. Then rub pure unscented talcum powder into the stain. Work it well into the leather. Remove the talc with leather cleaner such as Lexol-pH. If the remaining stain is still unsightly, darken the leather with mink oil to match the stain.

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Christmas Ornaments

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Glue: How to Choose

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Glue: How to Choose

WOOD AND POROUS MATERIALS

Items made of wood, paper, leather, fabric, and other porous or absorbent materials are the ones most frequently in need of regluing. You have a choice of four main types of glue for use with these materials:

• White glue. This glue usually comes in plastic squeeze

bottles of various sizes. It is inexpensive, sets in about one hour, and washes off with water while the glue is still wet. The most popular brands of white glue are

Elmer’s Glue-All and Franklin Evertite White Glue.

• Yellow Glue. This glue is stronger, fast-setting, and tackier than white glue. It can be sanded smooth when dry.

The most readily available yellow glues are Elmer’s Carpenter Wood Glue and Franklin Titebond.

• Waterproof glue for long-lasting outdoor use, as in repairing lawn furniture or exterior trim, requires mixing. Labeled either plastic resin or resorcinol resin, these glues are packaged with the necessary ingredients and instructions for mixing. The most common brands of waterproof glue are Weldwood Plastic Resin, Elmer’s

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Obtaining a Vintage Look on Fabrics

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Fabrics and Textiles

53

• Wax. Harden the wax by applying an ice cube to the

spot. Gently scrape off as much as possible. To remove the remaining wax, place the fabric between two sheets of brown paper and press with a warm iron, moving the paper as it absorbs the wax.

Colored wax can be difficult to remove. You may wish to consult a professional dry cleaner. Or you may try to treat such stains yourself by dipping a sponge into rubbing alcohol and dabbing it on the soiled area before washing the item.

• Wine. White-wine stains can usually be removed with a hot, soapy washing.

- To treat red-wine stains, sprinkle salt on the area and

immerse the item in cold water. If the spot remains, rub it out with salt before washing the item.

- Another remedy for red wine is to saturate the area with club soda or a solution of baking soda and water.

OBTAINING A VINTAGE LOOK

ON FABRICS

TEA-DYED METHOD

Bring three gallons of tap water to a boil in a 16-quart stainless steel pot. Fill your sink with cold water and soak the fabric.

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Tennessee

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Tennessee

(Formerly Mullane)

Establishing proper credit for the design of Tennessee projectiles has been a challenge for decades. Period documents refer to them by a variety of names including, “Tennessee

Shell,” “copper saucer,” and “copper cup.” Even Cdr. John Brooke referred to the design as “Tennessee Sabot” in correspondence to the Confederate secretary of the navy and to

Catesby Jones at the Selma Foundry in 1863.1

In a postwar paper written in 1883, Gen. Edward P. Alexander, formerly Longstreet’s chief of artillery, gave credit to both Mullane and Read for the design of at least the fieldcaliber Tennessee projectiles. In the paper, Alexander stated:

This shell (with the saucer shaped copper sabot attached with bolts after the shell was cast), called the Mullane or Tennessee shell, was the invention of Dr.

Read of Tuscaloosa, Ala., the well known inventor of what are usually but improperly called Parrott shell. . . . A patent was refused the Mullane shell by the

Confederate Patent Office, on the ground that it was anticipated by this patent of

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Buttons

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Buttons

21

• Brass buttons will turn green when the brass plating has

worn off. Copper also becomes covered with green copper carbonate due to exposure to moisture in the air.

Remove the green by rubbing the button gently with acetic acid or any substance containing this acid (such as vinegar). Wash the button with fresh water and dry well with a hairdryer or an absorbent towel. Do not store until completely dry. If the buttons are pierced, be sure that the inside of the button is dry. This is when a hairdryer comes in handy. Gel or regular toothpaste also works, but do not use on pierced buttons. It is too difficult to remove the paste completely from the crevices.

Composite buttons are made of multiple types of materials, such as pearl on brass, metal on plastic, or celluloid on Bakelite. Clean each material using the individual instructions for that material. Use caution when dealing with varied construction.

Composition buttons are made of a mixture of substances. Polish with baby oil, mineral oil, furniture polish, or Johnson’s Neutral Self Shining Shoe Polish.

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China

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

China

31

• This method of cleaning collectible china (Flow Blue,

Ironstone, Harker Cameo, etc.) has been tested by experts and proven effective. This method will remove brown spots and lighten the effects from crazing.

Clear hydrogen peroxide, 30 or 40 percent volume, may be safely used to clean your china pieces. This solution can be obtained at your local beauty supply dealer. If they do not stock clear hydrogen peroxide in these percentages, ask them to order it. Never use hydrogen peroxide over 40 percent. It is too strong.

Work in a well-ventilated area, and do not breathe the fumes. Do not expose your skin or eyes to the peroxide.

Wear rubber gloves, as the hydrogen peroxide can burn your skin.

Pour the peroxide into an airtight, plastic container that has a sealable cover. Hydrogen peroxide is combustible. Do not place the container near a heater or an open flame.

Submerge your china in the solution and seal the cover.

Check the container every few days by carefully opening the lid. You will notice that the discoloration has begun to disappear. Very dirty pieces may take one and a half weeks of soaking.

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Bamboo Furniture

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Sawyer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Sawyer

Sylvanus Sawyer and his brother Addison M. Sawyer developed and patented a system of rifles, projectiles, and fuzes that were highly regarded early in the war. They had a 5.86inch rifle and projectiles under test at Fort Monroe in Hampton Roads in 1859.1 It may have been the same rifle that in 1861 earned Sawyer that high regard. Sawyer’s rifle was the only cannon available to the Union Army that could hit the Confederate batteries defending

Hampton Roads from the Rip Raps, an island about 2,000 yards south of Fort Monroe.2

Three Sawyer shell designs are known. The most common is the flanged model.

Instead of a sabot, the iron shell body has six flanges and is covered completely with a lead sleeve. A second design has the lead sleeve cover only the flanged cylindrical sides of the shell body but not the base or ogive. The third design has a smooth sided shell body completely encased in lead. There are no known battlefield recoveries of this model in large calibers. All three designs are reported to have had a brass foil over the lead sheath to reduce the lead fouling the rifling. One flanged specimen has been documented in the West Point Museum collection with this brass foil largely intact.

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Brooke

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Brooke

Cdr. John Mercer Brooke, CSN, is best known for his designs of rifled cannon and projectiles for the Confederacy. He also designed the torpedoes and armor for the CSS

Virginia and oversaw its manufacture by Tredegar Foundry.1 Brooke was so highly regarded by both sides that Union Adm. David Porter said he only regretted the loss of two officers to the Confederacy from the United States Navy: Brooke and Catesby Jones.2 Porter did not mean to be flattering with that comment. After the war he said that Brooke had done more harm to the North than any other man in the South.3

Like his early work in designing cannon, Brooke’s early projectile patterns were modified versions or outright copies of existing designs. For example, in working on projectiles for the CSS Virginia, Brooke asked for designs from the Gosport Navy Yard ordnance officer, then modified the Dahlgren pattern for a shell design. He wrote in his notes, “200 shells are being cast at the Tredegar—of my design—Dahlgren pattern serving as the basis.”4 A number of experiments were conducted using Brooke’s Dahlgren designs,

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Appendix A Missing and Unaccounted For

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix A

Missing and Unaccounted For

Research for this book produced tantalizing clues about projectiles that are unknown to the author and could not be documented for inclusion in the book.

This list of “missing” projectiles is provided below, together with the data source where they were identified. They are “unaccounted for” among surviving projectiles.

Hopefully others will do additional research and locate these projectiles. Some of these are field calibers, but are included as part of an effort to expand the knowledge in the field:

Caliber (In.)

2.9

3.0

3.4

3.5

3.67

3.67

3.8

4.2

4.2

4.5

4.62

4.62

4.62

4.62

5.1

5.82

5.82

6.4

6.4

7.0

7.0

7.0

7.0

7.5

Design

Hotchkiss Shell

Stafford Shell

Hotchkiss Bolt

Hotchkiss Case Shot and Shell

Hopson Shot

Stafford Shell

Schenkl Case Shot and Shell

Absterdam shell

Hotchkiss Shot

Dyer Shot

Hotchkiss Shell

Sawyer Bolts and Shells

Schenkl Canister

Schenkl Shells

Cochran Shell

Hotchkiss Shell

Parrott Bolt

Dyer Shells and Bolts2

Hopson Shot

Brooke Concussion Shell

Hotchkiss Bolts and Shells

Sawyer Shell

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Rugs

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

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