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Furniture

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Furniture

59

SCRATCHES

• To disguise a furniture scratch, crush pecan or Brazil

nuts into a paste and rub into the wood.

• Dab some iodine over scratches in mahogany furniture.

• Choose a matching color of paste shoe polish. Rub polish into the scratch. Protect with furniture oil.

BURNS

• Burns are one of the most serious types of furniture

damage. The following method of treatment requires care and patience, but should postpone the need to refinish the entire piece.

Clean the burn area by carefully scraping with a sharp knife or single-edged razor blade to remove all loose dirt and charred wood. The area should then be cleaned thoroughly with odorless mineral spirits on a cotton swab. Smooth the area with fine steel wool (0000) wrapped around a pencil or stick. Clean and sand with the wood grain using 320 or finer sandpaper.

After cleaning again, a matching stain should be applied to the area. When the stain has dried, stick-shellac that matches the wood finish should be applied to level the damaged area.

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Pewter

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Lynall Thomas

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Lynall Thomas

Not much is known about Lynall Thomas, an Englishman credited with the design of complicated rifled shells of doubtful effectiveness supplied to the Confederacy. The shell consisted of a narrow shell body with a very large head. Behind the head a lead sleeve and lead disk were cast and a midshell thick iron band put on the outside of the lead sleeve. Another lead disk separated the midshell iron band from a thick rear iron band.

Upon firing, the iron bands were forced forward on the lead sleeve, squeezing the lead disks into the rifling.

Shells of this design have been recovered in three calibers: 4.62-inch, 5.82-inch, and

6.4-inch. Almost all the shells in each caliber come from only a single area. The 4.62inch shells come from Awendaw and Charleston, South Carolina. The single 5.82-inch shell is from the West Point collection, and all of the 6.4-inch Lynall Thomas shells come from the areas around Fort Fisher and nearby Fort Caswell.

Only one complete fired specimen has been noted (the 6.4-inch shell documented in this book). It appears to have taken the rifling effectively.

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Loupe: How to Use

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Loupe: How to Use

• A loupe (pronounced loop) is a useful tool to exam-

ine everything from diamonds to cast iron toys. With a little practice, almost anyone can learn how to use it properly.

For occasional use, it is more practical to hand hold a loupe away from your eye rather than learn to hold it to your eye like a monocle. Hand holding a loupe also means you do not have to remove eyeglasses, if you wear them.

Hold a watchmaker’s loupe between your thumb and forefinger.

Hold a diamond loupe the same way, but also wrap your fingers around the lens housing to help support the loupe.

If you are examining a small object, hold the object in your free hand. Brace your elbows against the sides of your body and bring both your hands up toward your face. You may brace your elbows on a table top if you are seated.

As you raise your hands, bring the fleshy part of your palms (the heels) together. This creates a movable hinge. Keeping the loupe close to your eye, pivot the hand with the object in and out until you get a sharp

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Framing

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Framing

• An image or object should be matted with equal space

on top and sides and an extra 1/8 to ½ inch at the bottom for proper alignment.

• When using glass, place a mat board or spaces between the glass and the artwork to prevent humidity damage.

Special glass is available to protect art against harmful ultraviolet rays.

• Matting, adhesives, and other framing materials should be acid-free. Non acid-free materials can cause deterioration of the artwork and unsightly brown rims at the edges of the mat and everywhere adhesives are used.

FRAMING NEEDLEWORK.

• Needlework should be framed with thought given to

permanence. Avoid irreversible mountings, such as adhesives.

The English Royal Academy of Needlework studies revealed that the most damage occurs when needlework is framed under glass. Far from protecting it from dust and pollution, the glass actually speeds up fiber deterioration.

They found that non-glare glass is more damaging than regular glass, which is more damaging than no glass at all.

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Chapter 7 Search Techniques & Methods

Julian Evan Hart M-Y Books ePub

Eearly all types of modern metal detectors are ergonomically designed for balance and comfort in order to minimise arm strain. How you use your machine is therefore down to whichever technique you feel most comfortable with. Some people swing their detectors in a wide sweeping arc, while others simply sweep from side to side in straight lines as they move forward. But, whatever style you adopt, the most important thing to remember is that you must keep the search coil as close to the ground as possible at all times. Never swing the detector as if it were a pendulum, as this will limit the detectors depth-seeking capability to the centre point where the search coil comes closest to the ground only, rather than across the whole sweep of the arc.

It is also important that you sweep the search coil slowly; going too fast will dramatically reduce your find-rate.

Search Techniques

If you are searching a field for the first time and want to assess it as a potentially good or poor site, or have only a limited amount of time available due to seeding about to take place, it might be a good idea to adopt an explorative search technique.

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Tools to Keep on Hand

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

xii

Tips, Tools, & Techniques

Georgia co-authored three Denton history books during her tenure as museum director. She writes a monthly column for the Denton Record-Chronicle, and has had articles on collecting and caring for antiques in the Antique Almanac, Antique

Prime, and the Latino Times magazines. She was an appraiser for Antiques Roadshow and currently teaches courses on antiques and collectibles and owns enVogue & Vintage at the

Antique Gallery in Denton, Texas. For more information on her classes, contact georgiacaraway@aol.com.

TOOLS TO KEEP ON HAND

• Acid-free paper and boxes (available from craft stores

and library and museum suppliers). Protects photographs, prints, and textiles.

Black light. A device that emits ultraviolet radiation

(UV) light and can detect cracks in pottery and glue repairs in paper items.

Brushes. Soft-bristled baby brushes (try saying that quickly!) are great for cleaning the delicate fabric on lampshades. Makeup brushes are great for cleaning Christmas ornaments and dusting delicate items with crevices.

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Silver

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Silver

117

corrosion. Immediately wash, rinse, and dry items that have come into contact with any of these.

Hand wash your sterling pieces. Dry thoroughly with cotton cloths. Some sterling-handled knives are filled with tar. The heat from the dishwasher may cause the tar to expand and split the handles.

Never wash stainless and sterling together. This will cause a chemical reaction that will tarnish the sterling and corrode the stainless.

Do not use dishwashing powders or liquid containing salt as this will corrode silver.

Mother-of-pearl, ivory, and bone-handled servers should never be put in the dishwasher.

Although some sources suggest that it is safe to put sterling pieces in the dishwasher, the above warnings should deter you from this practice.

SILVER POLISHES:

• Rub with toothpaste on a soft cloth, rinse, and polish dry.

Or

• Rub with a paste of water and cornstarch, or cigarette ashes, or baking soda with a damp cloth. Allow to dry.

Polish with cheesecloth.

Or

• Let silver stand in sour milk or buttermilk overnight

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Buttons

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Buttons

21

• Brass buttons will turn green when the brass plating has

worn off. Copper also becomes covered with green copper carbonate due to exposure to moisture in the air.

Remove the green by rubbing the button gently with acetic acid or any substance containing this acid (such as vinegar). Wash the button with fresh water and dry well with a hairdryer or an absorbent towel. Do not store until completely dry. If the buttons are pierced, be sure that the inside of the button is dry. This is when a hairdryer comes in handy. Gel or regular toothpaste also works, but do not use on pierced buttons. It is too difficult to remove the paste completely from the crevices.

Composite buttons are made of multiple types of materials, such as pearl on brass, metal on plastic, or celluloid on Bakelite. Clean each material using the individual instructions for that material. Use caution when dealing with varied construction.

Composition buttons are made of a mixture of substances. Polish with baby oil, mineral oil, furniture polish, or Johnson’s Neutral Self Shining Shoe Polish.

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Bamboo Furniture

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Photography

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Quilts

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

110

Tips, Tools, & Techniques

• Test for colorfastness by placing a few drops of water

on a small corner of the fabric. Press firmly with a white towel. If the color appears on the towel, do not clean the quilt yourself. If no color appears, try again on other spots to be sure that all parts are safe. Next, try with a few drops of water and a mild detergent.

Avoid washing an old quilt in the washing machine unless the quilt is in very stable condition. The twisting and agitation can break the threads and tear the fabric.

Fill a bathtub half full with lukewarm water. Place an old sheet under the quilt to ease lifting it out of the tub. Fold in quarters and let it soak for about 30 minutes. Drain the tub without removing the quilt, then refill.

Add a half cup of mild detergent or textile soap, such as Orvus. Gently agitate. Let soak for about 30 minutes.

Drain and refill tub with cool water several times until all soap is rinsed away.

Get help to lift the quilt out of the water: it will be very heavy and the pressure can tear the fabric and break the stitches.

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Coins

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Hotchkiss

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Hotchkiss

Andrew Hotchkiss of Connecticut developed the Hotchkiss family of projectiles and was granted his first patent on October 16, 1855. He improved the design and was granted subsequent patents on July 24, 1860, and May 14, 1861.1 The dates cast into many of his projectiles—October 9, 1855, and May 14, 1861—are somewhat confusing. The October

9 date is the date the first patent was applied for, not the date granted.2

The initial design was a smooth-sided projectile, now classified as Type I. Flame grooves were added for the Type II shells, which improved the performance of time fuzes, and for some unknown reason, they were also added to bolts. A flat-nose version with a rounded base cup was developed for case shot, identified as Type III. At the very end of the war, a flat base cup was added to the flat-nose case shot, a wooden disk was inserted between the cup and the shell, and the Wright 14-second or 16-second time fuze was added. This is known as Type IV.

In all four types, the base cup pushed into the lead band sabot, forcing it into the rifling. Because of this design, however, the base cup and the sabot often separated, creating major friendly fire hazards to forward troops. Nonetheless, in the 3-inch caliber, the Hotchkiss was the preferred projectile for the 3-inch Ordnance Rifle and saw widespread use through the end of the war and afterwards.

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Enamel

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

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