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Christmas Ornaments

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Upholstery, Rug, and Carpet Cleaning

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Sawyer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Sawyer

Sylvanus Sawyer and his brother Addison M. Sawyer developed and patented a system of rifles, projectiles, and fuzes that were highly regarded early in the war. They had a 5.86inch rifle and projectiles under test at Fort Monroe in Hampton Roads in 1859.1 It may have been the same rifle that in 1861 earned Sawyer that high regard. Sawyer’s rifle was the only cannon available to the Union Army that could hit the Confederate batteries defending

Hampton Roads from the Rip Raps, an island about 2,000 yards south of Fort Monroe.2

Three Sawyer shell designs are known. The most common is the flanged model.

Instead of a sabot, the iron shell body has six flanges and is covered completely with a lead sleeve. A second design has the lead sleeve cover only the flanged cylindrical sides of the shell body but not the base or ogive. The third design has a smooth sided shell body completely encased in lead. There are no known battlefield recoveries of this model in large calibers. All three designs are reported to have had a brass foil over the lead sheath to reduce the lead fouling the rifling. One flanged specimen has been documented in the West Point Museum collection with this brass foil largely intact.

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Dyer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Dyer

Prior to the war, Alexander B. Dyer was a junior ordnance officer in the U.S. Army.

Before the war he went to England and observed the performance of Britten projectiles being fired from Blakely rifles. Upon his return home, Dyer designed a very similar projectile. He soon was promoted to captain and became chief of ordnance at Fort Monroe.1

It was while he was in that post that the Union Army began purchasing projectiles of his design. The ordnance officer who recommended the purchase of Dyer shells stated that the Dyer design differed only slightly from the Dimick projectile2 and was almost identical to the design of John A. Dahlgren.3

The Dyer design, like Britten’s and Dahlgren’s, had a heavy lead cup sabot cast on to the shell base. For field caliber shells, Dyer used the same method for sabot attachment as Britten. The rounded shell base was tinned, then a lead cup sabot was cast on to the tinned shell base. For the large caliber projectiles, Dyer designed the shell body with a flat base and used notches in the side of the shell base to hold the sabot in place, differing from the Britten design.

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Bamboo Furniture

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Nickel

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Appendix B Civil War Cannon Rifling

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix B

Civil War Cannon Rifling

The rifling found on the sabots of fired Civil War rifled artillery projectiles provides important information to the artillery student. Usually, it indicates which type of cannon fired the projectile. This in turn often allows a person to identify the specific cannon and perhaps the battery or ship that fired the projectile.

Listed below are the known types of rifling for all the calibers of rifled cannons thought to have been used in the Civil War. Obviously the list is not complete. Projectiles are still being recovered with rifling on their sabots that have not been previously documented. Some of the rifling documented for this appendix are from actual projectiles with rifling that are not recorded in reference books. The reference column indicates the source of the information.

Additions that can be documented by actual projectiles or cannon or from authoritative reference books are welcomed. See “Notes” at the end of this appendix.

Caliber

(Inches)

Type Rifle

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Section 3 Torpedoes and Mines

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Section 3

Torpedoes and Mines

Note: during the war, the term “torpedo” was generally used to describe both mines and torpedoes as we know them today. Following that tradition, the torpedoes and mines described in this section will be referred to as “torpedoes.”

The Confederates were forced to invest heavily in the development and deployment of torpedoes to protect their extensive ports and riverways. Confederates could not deploy enough ships, artillery, and men to defend the extensive river and coastal areas in the

South. Even in heavily defended areas such as Mobile, Charleston, and Wilmington, torpedoes added significantly to the threat to exposed Union ships and gunboats.

Initial efforts to develop Confederate torpedo capabilities were headed by Matthew

Maury,1 who is also credited with the design of several smoothbore bolts. After he went to England, Hunter Davidson was appointed as his successor and headed the program until the end of the war.2 It was a high enough priority that Lt. John M. Brooke, later famous for his cannon and projectile designs, designed several types of torpedoes and even a torpedo boat design. He designed an anchored swaying spar torpedo and a fixed bottom torpedo called a “turtle,” that was convex, so antitorpedo boats could not grapple it off the bottom.3 It was deployed together with his swaying spar torpedo, which was said to be one of the deadliest encountered by Union ships.

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Cast Iron

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Cast Iron

Cast iron is an alloy of iron containing so much carbon that it is brittle and so cannot be wrought but must be shaped by casting.

Cast iron retains heat well, making it a popular choice for cooks, but it can be difficult to keep clean and sanitary.

SEASONING CAST IRON COOKWARE

• To season a new cast iron skillet or griddle (or one

that has been scoured), rub lightly with vegetable shortening. Coat both the exterior and the interior.

Heat the utensil in a 250-degree oven for two hours.

Vegetable oil is not recommended. It tends to leave a sticky coating.

• The first few times you use cast iron utensils, cook foods high in fat, such as fried chicken or bacon, to build up the seasoning.

• Wash cast iron after it has cooled with a little dishwashing liquid. According to the experts, detergents will not remove the seasoning. Do not soak the cookware.

• If any food has stuck to the surface, use a scouring pad, then rub shortening over the area. Always be sure to oven dry or air-dry your cast iron completely to avoid rust. Store uncovered.

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Chrome

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Brass

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

For both smoothbore and rifled artillery, grape stands and quilted grape served a different purpose from case shot and canister. Quilted grape and grape stands were designed to damage ships’ rigging and spars or fortification equipment, with the fragments from this damage causing major casualties to gun crews.

Some confusion exists about the use of grape stands and quilted grape. As general antipersonnel weapons, grape stands and quilted grape in field calibers had been largely replaced by canister by the time the war began. It appears that early in the war grape stands replaced quilted grape for calibers below 8 inch. Quilted grape were used in all calibers above 8 inches, including the 15-inch size, which has been documented aboard

Monitor-type gunboats1 and in postwar Bannerman catalogs.2 However, the Confederates captured a large supply of 32-pounder quilted grape when the Southern states seceded and had others manufactured during the early years of the war. These were deployed to river and coastal gun positions. A number of these 32-pounder quilted grape were excavated near Fort Huger, North Carolina, some years ago, and others reportedly were recovered in gun positions along the Mississippi and elsewhere over the years.

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Metals: Identifying with a Magnet

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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James

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

James

Charles T. James was a retired general in the Rhode Island Militia and a former U.S. senator from Rhode Island. In 1856 he patented the famous “bird-cage” projectile, currently designated as Type I. The sabot of this projectile was made of three layers: an inner layer of lead cast on to the shell body; a thin tin sheet middle layer; and a rough canvas outer covering. James’ second design was patented in 1862, and purchased only in the 3.8inch caliber. The sabot of the Type II design was a lead band sabot cast onto a heavily ribbed shell body.1

In December 1860, James was awarded a contract to rifle half the smoothbore cannon in U.S. Army forts and arsenals, and as many bronze smoothbore cannon as the U.S.

Army delivered to him in Chicopee, Massachusetts.2 Based on the list of “guns fit for service” attached to that letter agreement, James was to rifle 922 cannon, of which 91 would be 42-pounders, 427 would be 32-pounders, and 335 would be 24-pounders. This contract was underway at the time of the outbreak of hostilities. James benefited enormously from this contract, gaining other contracts for the manufacture of thousands of his projectiles for use in those rifles. The Union Army also awarded James a contract to produce bronze cannons in the 3.67-inch and 3.8-inch calibers. At least 158 of these rifles still survive.3

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Skates

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Skates

The Skates Foundry in Mobile, Alabama, manufactured both projectiles and bronze field caliber cannon for the Confederacy. They are credited with the manufacture of some very early 6.4-inch shells, which were used throughout the war by Confederate gunners in Mobile Bay. As with Selma shells, documentation indicating the individual designer of

Skates shells has not been found to date. Using the precedent of naming the Selma projectiles after the foundry, the designation of Skates is the most accurate attribution we can provide at this time.

All recovered Skates shells have been in the 6.4-inch caliber. The shells are relatively short and light in weight (65 pounds), indicating they were manufactured for rifled 32pounders. They do not have bourrelets, and have lead ring sabots pre-engraved for 5groove rifling. Recoveries of this pattern shell have been confirmed only from Mobile

Bay, although two shells of this design are reported to have been recovered in Norfolk. It is not coincidental that the only surviving 6.4-inch rifles with 5-groove rifling are three rifled 32-pounder seacoast guns located at Fort Gaines, at the mouth of Mobile Bay. These projectiles were probably manufactured before May 29, 1862. That was the date the

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