92 Chapters
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Coins

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Upholstery, Rug, and Carpet Cleaning

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Guide to Using Data Sheets

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Guide to Using Data Sheets

For the convenience of users, the data sheets for projectiles and torpedoes use a standard format. Descriptions of the information in each category are provided below.

Users should read this guide before using the data sheets.

Projectile Photos

Most projectile data sheets have photographs of the side, top, and bottom of the projectile. The ruler scale applies only to the side view of the projectile. It is important to note that the scale does not include the height of the fuze, only the length of the projectile.

The torpedo data sheets normally have only a side view and a close-up photo of the fuze or detonator mechanism. Most torpedo data sheets do not include a scale bar, because the torpedoes are too long for the scale numbers to be legible.

Projectile or Torpedo Identification Title

The projectile identification provides several key pieces of information. It first identifies the origin of the projectile or torpedo. Origin defines who manufactured the projectile or torpedo: CS, British/CS, or US. Next it identifies the caliber (e.g., bore size) of the cannon that fires the projectile.

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Chrome

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Glue: How to Choose

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Glue: How to Choose

WOOD AND POROUS MATERIALS

Items made of wood, paper, leather, fabric, and other porous or absorbent materials are the ones most frequently in need of regluing. You have a choice of four main types of glue for use with these materials:

• White glue. This glue usually comes in plastic squeeze

bottles of various sizes. It is inexpensive, sets in about one hour, and washes off with water while the glue is still wet. The most popular brands of white glue are

Elmer’s Glue-All and Franklin Evertite White Glue.

• Yellow Glue. This glue is stronger, fast-setting, and tackier than white glue. It can be sanded smooth when dry.

The most readily available yellow glues are Elmer’s Carpenter Wood Glue and Franklin Titebond.

• Waterproof glue for long-lasting outdoor use, as in repairing lawn furniture or exterior trim, requires mixing. Labeled either plastic resin or resorcinol resin, these glues are packaged with the necessary ingredients and instructions for mixing. The most common brands of waterproof glue are Weldwood Plastic Resin, Elmer’s

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Pewter

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Furniture

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Furniture

59

SCRATCHES

• To disguise a furniture scratch, crush pecan or Brazil

nuts into a paste and rub into the wood.

• Dab some iodine over scratches in mahogany furniture.

• Choose a matching color of paste shoe polish. Rub polish into the scratch. Protect with furniture oil.

BURNS

• Burns are one of the most serious types of furniture

damage. The following method of treatment requires care and patience, but should postpone the need to refinish the entire piece.

Clean the burn area by carefully scraping with a sharp knife or single-edged razor blade to remove all loose dirt and charred wood. The area should then be cleaned thoroughly with odorless mineral spirits on a cotton swab. Smooth the area with fine steel wool (0000) wrapped around a pencil or stick. Clean and sand with the wood grain using 320 or finer sandpaper.

After cleaning again, a matching stain should be applied to the area. When the stain has dried, stick-shellac that matches the wood finish should be applied to level the damaged area.

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Photography

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Cochran

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Cochran

J. Webster Cochran was a longtime inventor of weapons and projectiles.1 He designed

2 and was granted patents on projectiles and fuzes from the 1850s through at least 1863.

His only success in terms of government purchases appears to be the family of Cochran projectiles and fuzes purchased and used very early in the war by the Union Navy. These were produced in navy calibers only, except for a 3.8-inch bolt that is in the West Point collection. The navy calibers documented for Cochrans were 3.4-inch, 5.1-inch and 6inch. There are no known surviving specimens in the 5.1-inch caliber.

Cochran designed a convex brass ring sabot that screwed on to the projectile. The sabot contained a grease ring and had numerous small holes around it. As the sabot squeezed into the rifling upon firing, grease was squeezed out to lubricate the barrel.

Fired specimens appear to have taken the rifling well and retained their sabots. It is not clear why Cochran failed to get follow-on contracts with the navy, but the complicated design probably made the Cochran shells too costly.

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Leather

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Leather

85

• Massage saddle soap into scuff marks with a clean, dry

cloth. Work in circles until the scuff mark is gone. Gently buff with a soft cloth.

• The best way to preserve leather is by controlling its environment rather than altering the object itself. Avoid storing leather in excessively humid areas where mold and bacteria thrive. Likewise, leather stored in a dry area may crack or split.

• Keep leather away from heat sources, which deteriorate its protein content.

TREATING LEATHER

• Clean the leather first. Apply a small amount of castor

oil with a soft cloth pad or with your fingertips. Rub the area well and remove the excess oil carefully with a clean cloth.

• If you get an oil or grease stain on leather, quickly blot up as much of the stain as possible. Then rub pure unscented talcum powder into the stain. Work it well into the leather. Remove the talc with leather cleaner such as Lexol-pH. If the remaining stain is still unsightly, darken the leather with mink oil to match the stain.

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Hooked Rugs

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Bamboo Furniture

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Tredegar

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Tredegar

In the early months of the war, Southern foundries scrambled to meet the Confederacy’s needs for a wide variety of military ordnance. At this time Tredegar and Bellona Foundries were the only ones that could make large caliber cannons needed by the Confederacy.1

Charles Dew’s book on Tredegar2 and the Tredegar Foundry records,3 indicated that in

July 1861 Tredegar developed some hybrid cannon designs and promoted their use with the Confederate Army and Navy. The Confederate Army Ordnance Office ordered from

Tredegar hybrid cannon and projectiles for the hybrid cannon at the same time, probably to ensure they worked together. These hybrid rifles were a temporary solution to the urgent need to get large caliber rifles into the field.

Tredegar manufactured several types of hybrid rifles. These included 7-inch rifles bored from 9-inch Dahlgren smoothbore gun blocks;4 6.4-inch rifles bored from 10-inch

Columbiad gun blocks; 5.82-inch rifles bored from 8-inch Columbiad gun blocks, and

4.62-inch rifles bored from 8-inch siege howitzer and 24-pounder siege gun blocks.

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Doorstops

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Colorfast Fabrics

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

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