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Framing

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Framing

• An image or object should be matted with equal space

on top and sides and an extra 1/8 to ½ inch at the bottom for proper alignment.

• When using glass, place a mat board or spaces between the glass and the artwork to prevent humidity damage.

Special glass is available to protect art against harmful ultraviolet rays.

• Matting, adhesives, and other framing materials should be acid-free. Non acid-free materials can cause deterioration of the artwork and unsightly brown rims at the edges of the mat and everywhere adhesives are used.

FRAMING NEEDLEWORK.

• Needlework should be framed with thought given to

permanence. Avoid irreversible mountings, such as adhesives.

The English Royal Academy of Needlework studies revealed that the most damage occurs when needlework is framed under glass. Far from protecting it from dust and pollution, the glass actually speeds up fiber deterioration.

They found that non-glare glass is more damaging than regular glass, which is more damaging than no glass at all.

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Marble

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Obtaining a Vintage Look on Fabrics

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Fabrics and Textiles

53

• Wax. Harden the wax by applying an ice cube to the

spot. Gently scrape off as much as possible. To remove the remaining wax, place the fabric between two sheets of brown paper and press with a warm iron, moving the paper as it absorbs the wax.

Colored wax can be difficult to remove. You may wish to consult a professional dry cleaner. Or you may try to treat such stains yourself by dipping a sponge into rubbing alcohol and dabbing it on the soiled area before washing the item.

• Wine. White-wine stains can usually be removed with a hot, soapy washing.

- To treat red-wine stains, sprinkle salt on the area and

immerse the item in cold water. If the spot remains, rub it out with salt before washing the item.

- Another remedy for red wine is to saturate the area with club soda or a solution of baking soda and water.

OBTAINING A VINTAGE LOOK

ON FABRICS

TEA-DYED METHOD

Bring three gallons of tap water to a boil in a 16-quart stainless steel pot. Fill your sink with cold water and soak the fabric.

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Blakely

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Blakely

Capt. Theophilus Alexander Blakely, a British inventor, designed a number of rifles and projectiles in a wide variety of calibers, which were sold before the war to individual

Southern states and later to the Confederacy. At least two batteries of Blakely rifles were also sold to Union units. It is well known that South Carolina had acquired a 3.5-inch

Blakely rifle before the war, which participated in the initial bombardment of Fort Sumter.1

Less well known is the fact that Virginia had acquired a 7.5-inch Blakely rifle just before or after hostilities began. That rifle fired some 900 rounds at Union forces at Shipping

Point at the mouth of the Potomac River before being abandoned by Confederate forces in mid-1862.2 It survives today and is located in the gun park at the Washington Navy Yard.

Most Blakely-designed rifles used projectiles designed by Sir Bashley Britten, who received a British patent on the design in 1855, but was unable to obtain a U.S. patent until after the war. Britten’s projectiles are described in the next section. The Blakely rifles firing Britten projectiles used conventional square land and groove rifling. Two other projectile designs—both flanged—were used in Blakely rifles that used the shunt system of rifling. Both are actually Blakely designs, but one is called the Preston-Blakely design and the other is known as the flanged Blakely. Battlefield recoveries of the PrestonBlakely design have been noted in 3.5-inch and 4-inch calibers. In addition, an 8-inch

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Appendix C Rifled Projectile Sabot Designs

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Appendix C

Rifled Projectile Sabot Designs

Correct identification of rifled projectiles often requires accurate identification of sabot designs. This appendix provides specific information to assist the student of projectiles in identifying sabot designs of both field and large caliber rifled artillery projectiles used in the war.

The three steps to accurate sabot identification are to identify: (1) the material the sabot is made of: iron, brass, copper, lead, or papier-maché; (2) the form or shape of the sabot: ring, cup, disk, or band; and (3) the distinguishing characteristics of different sabot designs. Each step is described in more detail in the rest of this appendix.

Sabot Materials

Sabots were made of four types of materials during the war: wrought iron, lead, copper or brass, and papier-maché. Each is described below.

• Wrought Iron. Wrought iron can usually be identified by its appearance. In battlefield-recovered projectiles, the wrought iron sabot is often more corroded than the projectile body. When preserved with electrolysis, it takes on the same black color as the cast iron shell body. Wrought iron sabots were made separately and the projectile was cast around the sabot.

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Miscellaneous Bolts and Shells

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Miscellaneous Bolts and Shells

With the experimentation so widespread during the war, there are a number of types of projectiles that were one-of-a-kind experimental or single battlefield recoveries. These include Abbot, Dimick, Emery, French lugged projectiles, Gorgas, Rodman, a number of finned shot and shells, and two unidentified Confederate projectiles. Each is described briefly below.

Abbot

The Abbot design has been attributed to a single type of rifled bolt in several calibers, for which S. C. Abbot (not Gen. Henry Abbot) was awarded a patent in 1861 (#31099). A bolt in the 5.82-inch caliber is included in this book. Another in a 3.67-inch caliber is shown in Ripley and Dickey and George. Both bolts appear to have used air pressure from the rifle’s firing to expand the sabot (made of some unknown material) through vents in the shell base.

About the only relationship between the actual bolts and the patent drawings is the faceted nose. The key element in the patent application was to use air pressure from the cannon’s firing to multiply the force of the bursting charge. This design feature is completely missing from the actual projectiles attributed to Abbot. The actual bolts used air pressure only to force a midshell sabot into the rifling. The actual bolt design is much more like Dr. John Read’s patent #18707 awarded in 1857, which relied on air pressure through vents in the shell to expand the sabot. No battlefield recoveries are known of the

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Photography

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Lynall Thomas

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Lynall Thomas

Not much is known about Lynall Thomas, an Englishman credited with the design of complicated rifled shells of doubtful effectiveness supplied to the Confederacy. The shell consisted of a narrow shell body with a very large head. Behind the head a lead sleeve and lead disk were cast and a midshell thick iron band put on the outside of the lead sleeve. Another lead disk separated the midshell iron band from a thick rear iron band.

Upon firing, the iron bands were forced forward on the lead sleeve, squeezing the lead disks into the rifling.

Shells of this design have been recovered in three calibers: 4.62-inch, 5.82-inch, and

6.4-inch. Almost all the shells in each caliber come from only a single area. The 4.62inch shells come from Awendaw and Charleston, South Carolina. The single 5.82-inch shell is from the West Point collection, and all of the 6.4-inch Lynall Thomas shells come from the areas around Fort Fisher and nearby Fort Caswell.

Only one complete fired specimen has been noted (the 6.4-inch shell documented in this book). It appears to have taken the rifling effectively.

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Britten

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Britten

Sir Bashley Britten designed a lead-cupped rifled projectile and received a British patent on it in August 1855.1 Britten was unable to get an American patent on his projectile design until after the war. Some experts suspect that the U.S. Government’s anti-British sentiment caused this delay.

It may also be due to efforts by Alexander Dyer, a senior officer and eventually the

Chief of the Union Army Ordnance Department. After a trip to England just before the war, Dyer designed a very similar shell, which the Union Army Ordnance Department purchased in large numbers, even though most large caliber Dyer shells failed to explode.

It is noteworthy that Britten was allowed a U.S. patent on his design after the war, when his design was considered obsolete. It is also noteworthy that Dyer never obtained a patent on his design.

Britten’s design (and Dyer’s) had a lead cup sabot that was bonded onto the iron shell body with a hot zinc coating. The base of the shell body is rounded and often shows through the bottom of the sabot.

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Tennessee

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Tennessee

(Formerly Mullane)

Establishing proper credit for the design of Tennessee projectiles has been a challenge for decades. Period documents refer to them by a variety of names including, “Tennessee

Shell,” “copper saucer,” and “copper cup.” Even Cdr. John Brooke referred to the design as “Tennessee Sabot” in correspondence to the Confederate secretary of the navy and to

Catesby Jones at the Selma Foundry in 1863.1

In a postwar paper written in 1883, Gen. Edward P. Alexander, formerly Longstreet’s chief of artillery, gave credit to both Mullane and Read for the design of at least the fieldcaliber Tennessee projectiles. In the paper, Alexander stated:

This shell (with the saucer shaped copper sabot attached with bolts after the shell was cast), called the Mullane or Tennessee shell, was the invention of Dr.

Read of Tuscaloosa, Ala., the well known inventor of what are usually but improperly called Parrott shell. . . . A patent was refused the Mullane shell by the

Confederate Patent Office, on the ground that it was anticipated by this patent of

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Rugs

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Brooke

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Brooke

Cdr. John Mercer Brooke, CSN, is best known for his designs of rifled cannon and projectiles for the Confederacy. He also designed the torpedoes and armor for the CSS

Virginia and oversaw its manufacture by Tredegar Foundry.1 Brooke was so highly regarded by both sides that Union Adm. David Porter said he only regretted the loss of two officers to the Confederacy from the United States Navy: Brooke and Catesby Jones.2 Porter did not mean to be flattering with that comment. After the war he said that Brooke had done more harm to the North than any other man in the South.3

Like his early work in designing cannon, Brooke’s early projectile patterns were modified versions or outright copies of existing designs. For example, in working on projectiles for the CSS Virginia, Brooke asked for designs from the Gosport Navy Yard ordnance officer, then modified the Dahlgren pattern for a shell design. He wrote in his notes, “200 shells are being cast at the Tredegar—of my design—Dahlgren pattern serving as the basis.”4 A number of experiments were conducted using Brooke’s Dahlgren designs,

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Selma

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Selma

The Selma Naval Gun Foundry was one of five government-owned foundries that manufactured cannon for the Confederacy. It was the only one of those that could manufacture the heavy smoothbore and rifled cannon like Bellona and Tredegar.

The foundry was taken over initially by the Confederate Army in February 1863, under the command of Col. George Rains (of Rains grenade and torpedo fuze fame).1 It was soon transferred to the navy under the command of Catesby ap R. Jones. Jones had been the executive officer of the CSS Virginia in its brief history. As fate would have it, Jones was actually in command of the Virginia during the historic battle with the USS Monitor. Flag

Officer Buchanan was seriously injured during action on March 8 against the USS Congress and USS Cumberland and was removed from the ship before the Monitor engagement.2

Selma produced projectiles designed by most other Confederate designers. They also produced several types of projectiles of a design unique to the Selma Foundry. Based on his experience and former association with Cdr. John Brooke, there is a strong probability that the actual designer was Catesby Jones. However, no documentation has survived that identifies him or any other individual as actually having designed the projectiles. As a result, they are referred to as Selma projectiles.

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Coins

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Quilts

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110

Tips, Tools, & Techniques

• Test for colorfastness by placing a few drops of water

on a small corner of the fabric. Press firmly with a white towel. If the color appears on the towel, do not clean the quilt yourself. If no color appears, try again on other spots to be sure that all parts are safe. Next, try with a few drops of water and a mild detergent.

Avoid washing an old quilt in the washing machine unless the quilt is in very stable condition. The twisting and agitation can break the threads and tear the fabric.

Fill a bathtub half full with lukewarm water. Place an old sheet under the quilt to ease lifting it out of the tub. Fold in quarters and let it soak for about 30 minutes. Drain the tub without removing the quilt, then refill.

Add a half cup of mild detergent or textile soap, such as Orvus. Gently agitate. Let soak for about 30 minutes.

Drain and refill tub with cool water several times until all soap is rinsed away.

Get help to lift the quilt out of the water: it will be very heavy and the pressure can tear the fabric and break the stitches.

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