90 Chapters
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Advertising Memorabilia: Metal

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Doorstops

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Bamboo Furniture

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Cast Iron

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Cast Iron

Cast iron is an alloy of iron containing so much carbon that it is brittle and so cannot be wrought but must be shaped by casting.

Cast iron retains heat well, making it a popular choice for cooks, but it can be difficult to keep clean and sanitary.

SEASONING CAST IRON COOKWARE

• To season a new cast iron skillet or griddle (or one

that has been scoured), rub lightly with vegetable shortening. Coat both the exterior and the interior.

Heat the utensil in a 250-degree oven for two hours.

Vegetable oil is not recommended. It tends to leave a sticky coating.

• The first few times you use cast iron utensils, cook foods high in fat, such as fried chicken or bacon, to build up the seasoning.

• Wash cast iron after it has cooled with a little dishwashing liquid. According to the experts, detergents will not remove the seasoning. Do not soak the cookware.

• If any food has stuck to the surface, use a scouring pad, then rub shortening over the area. Always be sure to oven dry or air-dry your cast iron completely to avoid rust. Store uncovered.

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Canister

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Canister

Canister are always cylindrical. They were designed as antipersonnel projectiles used at short range against enemy troops or naval crews. Canister contain no explosive charge.

They are usually made with thin sheet metal sides that disintegrate as the canister is fired. At very close ranges, cannon crews might be ordered to use double canisters for each firing, creating a deadly wall of balls and metal debris directed against enemy troops.

However, canister did virtually no serious damage to enemy guns, ships, or equipment.

By the beginning of the Civil War, canister was recognized as the most deadly form of short-range antipersonnel weapon. Charges of double canister were even more deadly.

The larger number of smaller canister shot created a wide cone of destruction immediately in front of the cannon. For example, a single 7-inch canister contained 112 iron shot 1.3 inches in diameter compared to 9 shot 3.15 inches in diameter for a 7-inch grape stand.1

In large calibers, the canister shot used were iron.

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Chrome

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Christmas Ornaments

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Paper Collectibles

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Paper Collectibles

95

• Use a bone folder to remove creases from paper docu-

ments. Begin in the center of the document and press the bone folder lightly along the back of the crease in a outward direction and toward the edge of the paper.

Frame the document when it is flat and clean.

To clean a document, put on cotton gloves and sprinkle Opaline on the soiled document. Opaline is a nonabrasive, light cleaning agent that can be obtained at art supply stores. Rub erasures lightly in a circular motion, and brush away soiled particles with a softbristle artist’s brush.

Do not glue or tape paper collectibles in an album or scrapbook. Adhesives leave permanent stains on paper.

Use paper or photo mounting corners.

Common items should be repaired with ordinary household white glue applied carefully with a toothpick. For easier application, thin the glue with water before applying. Blot any excess glue with a paper towel.

If paper collectibles become infested with bugs, seal them in plastic bags and store them in the freezer for three days.

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Tredegar

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Tredegar

In the early months of the war, Southern foundries scrambled to meet the Confederacy’s needs for a wide variety of military ordnance. At this time Tredegar and Bellona Foundries were the only ones that could make large caliber cannons needed by the Confederacy.1

Charles Dew’s book on Tredegar2 and the Tredegar Foundry records,3 indicated that in

July 1861 Tredegar developed some hybrid cannon designs and promoted their use with the Confederate Army and Navy. The Confederate Army Ordnance Office ordered from

Tredegar hybrid cannon and projectiles for the hybrid cannon at the same time, probably to ensure they worked together. These hybrid rifles were a temporary solution to the urgent need to get large caliber rifles into the field.

Tredegar manufactured several types of hybrid rifles. These included 7-inch rifles bored from 9-inch Dahlgren smoothbore gun blocks;4 6.4-inch rifles bored from 10-inch

Columbiad gun blocks; 5.82-inch rifles bored from 8-inch Columbiad gun blocks, and

4.62-inch rifles bored from 8-inch siege howitzer and 24-pounder siege gun blocks.

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Preston-Blakely

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Preston-Blakely

Credit for sorting out the confusing story of the so-called “Preston” shells goes to

Warren Ripley. In his classic book, Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, Ripley traces the history of the Preston name.

“Preston” is painted on several shells photographed at the Charleston Arsenal in

1865, undoubtedly by Union Army officers who recovered them and labeled them as such. The label probably relates to the use of the shells in Blakely rifles. The particular ones with the flanged rifling were made in the Fawcett, Preston and Co. foundry in

Liverpool, England.1 Ripley diligently checked surviving Confederate records, but could find no references to Preston in the 3.5-inch and 4-inch caliber. He did find a reference to

Blakely in those calibers in the records, and confirmed that the 4-inch Blakely rifle had 6groove rifling that matched the “Preston” shape.

Subsequent research has confirmed that the patent for the “Preston” design of rifle and projectile was actually awarded to Blakely in 1863.2

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Ivory or Bone

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Parrott

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Parrott

Robert Parker Parrott was both the most successful and the most controversial designer and founder of rifled cannon and projectiles of the Civil War. His West Point Foundry was located in Cold Spring, New York, across the Hudson River from the United States Military

Academy at West Point. During the war, Parrott and the West Point Foundry produced over 3,100 cannon, twice as many as the combined cannon production of all Confederate foundries and 33 percent more than any other Union foundry.1 Parrott also produced more rifled projectiles for the Union military forces than any other foundry.

Parrott got a head start in producing rifled cannon and projectiles because of his experimental work in the late 1850s. Parrott worked on rifled cannon designs in cooperation with Dr. John Read of Alabama, who worked on projectile designs.2 By 1861 they had already worked out many of the practical problems of integrated rifle-projectile design for field caliber artillery.

Parrott was already selling field caliber rifles to individual states before the war began.3

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Read

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Read

Dr. John Read was an early pioneer in the design of rifled projectiles. Working with

Robert Parrott at West Point and independently at Fort Monroe with the army, Read experimented with several designs, before developing and patenting a shell with a ring sabot in 1856 (No. 15999). Later, but before the war began, he improved the design with a safety groove to eliminate the chipping problem on the shell body base.1 Both wrought iron and copper2 were used for making his ring sabots. Early in the war large caliber Read projectiles almost universally used wrought iron. However, a shell documented in this section confirms the shift to copper sabots some time before April 1862.

While field-caliber Read projectiles performed satisfactorily, large-caliber Read projectiles did not perform well, for several reasons:

(a) the iron sabots were too thick on many Read projectiles and would not take the rifling;

(b) many of the copper sabots on Read shells were too thin and would tear off before the projectile took the rifling; and

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Shot, Shell, and Case Shot

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Section 1

Large Smoothbore Projectiles

Shot, Shell, and Case Shot

Smoothbore projectiles are generally classified in six categories, according to their design and proposed use. Shot, shell, and case shot are discussed in this section. Canister, grape stands and quilted grape will be discussed in the sections that follow.

Characteristics

Shot—are usually spherical in shape. These projectiles were designed to crush the target by the momentum of impact. As ships and fortifications became more formidable in their defenses, shot became more important projectiles for damaging or destroying them. Some shot were elongated, to increase the weight of the projectile being fired.

Almost all of these were proof shot, fired to ensure the ability of the cannon to withstand the pressures of firing. A few (almost all Confederate) were elongated and designed for use at very short ranges against ironclad targets before the shot started to tumble. Maury and Brooke shot are the best known of this type. (Maury shot are covered in the rifled projectile section because of their traditional association with rifled projectiles.) Bar and chain shot were not used in large caliber guns.

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Skates

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Skates

The Skates Foundry in Mobile, Alabama, manufactured both projectiles and bronze field caliber cannon for the Confederacy. They are credited with the manufacture of some very early 6.4-inch shells, which were used throughout the war by Confederate gunners in Mobile Bay. As with Selma shells, documentation indicating the individual designer of

Skates shells has not been found to date. Using the precedent of naming the Selma projectiles after the foundry, the designation of Skates is the most accurate attribution we can provide at this time.

All recovered Skates shells have been in the 6.4-inch caliber. The shells are relatively short and light in weight (65 pounds), indicating they were manufactured for rifled 32pounders. They do not have bourrelets, and have lead ring sabots pre-engraved for 5groove rifling. Recoveries of this pattern shell have been confirmed only from Mobile

Bay, although two shells of this design are reported to have been recovered in Norfolk. It is not coincidental that the only surviving 6.4-inch rifles with 5-groove rifling are three rifled 32-pounder seacoast guns located at Fort Gaines, at the mouth of Mobile Bay. These projectiles were probably manufactured before May 29, 1862. That was the date the

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