92 Slices
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Steel

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Loupe: How to Use

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Loupe: How to Use

• A loupe (pronounced loop) is a useful tool to exam-

ine everything from diamonds to cast iron toys. With a little practice, almost anyone can learn how to use it properly.

For occasional use, it is more practical to hand hold a loupe away from your eye rather than learn to hold it to your eye like a monocle. Hand holding a loupe also means you do not have to remove eyeglasses, if you wear them.

Hold a watchmaker’s loupe between your thumb and forefinger.

Hold a diamond loupe the same way, but also wrap your fingers around the lens housing to help support the loupe.

If you are examining a small object, hold the object in your free hand. Brace your elbows against the sides of your body and bring both your hands up toward your face. You may brace your elbows on a table top if you are seated.

As you raise your hands, bring the fleshy part of your palms (the heels) together. This creates a movable hinge. Keeping the loupe close to your eye, pivot the hand with the object in and out until you get a sharp

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Copper

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Dyer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Dyer

Prior to the war, Alexander B. Dyer was a junior ordnance officer in the U.S. Army.

Before the war he went to England and observed the performance of Britten projectiles being fired from Blakely rifles. Upon his return home, Dyer designed a very similar projectile. He soon was promoted to captain and became chief of ordnance at Fort Monroe.1

It was while he was in that post that the Union Army began purchasing projectiles of his design. The ordnance officer who recommended the purchase of Dyer shells stated that the Dyer design differed only slightly from the Dimick projectile2 and was almost identical to the design of John A. Dahlgren.3

The Dyer design, like Britten’s and Dahlgren’s, had a heavy lead cup sabot cast on to the shell base. For field caliber shells, Dyer used the same method for sabot attachment as Britten. The rounded shell base was tinned, then a lead cup sabot was cast on to the tinned shell base. For the large caliber projectiles, Dyer designed the shell body with a flat base and used notches in the side of the shell base to hold the sabot in place, differing from the Britten design.

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Canister

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Canister

Canister are always cylindrical. They were designed as antipersonnel projectiles used at short range against enemy troops or naval crews. Canister contain no explosive charge.

They are usually made with thin sheet metal sides that disintegrate as the canister is fired. At very close ranges, cannon crews might be ordered to use double canisters for each firing, creating a deadly wall of balls and metal debris directed against enemy troops.

However, canister did virtually no serious damage to enemy guns, ships, or equipment.

By the beginning of the Civil War, canister was recognized as the most deadly form of short-range antipersonnel weapon. Charges of double canister were even more deadly.

The larger number of smaller canister shot created a wide cone of destruction immediately in front of the cannon. For example, a single 7-inch canister contained 112 iron shot 1.3 inches in diameter compared to 9 shot 3.15 inches in diameter for a 7-inch grape stand.1

In large calibers, the canister shot used were iron.

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Fabrics and Textiles

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Fabrics and Textiles

See the section on Upholstery, Rugs, and Carpet Cleaning for tips on fabric used on furniture. Also see Vintage Clothing and Textiles for information about especially delicate items.

Before taking steps yourself to preserve and care for antique fabrics, you should seek professional advice about specific conservation, cleaning, storage, and exhibition problems. Each fabric is unique and requires individual consideration. With that warning in mind, follow these general rules for fabric care.

CARE OF OLD FABRICS

• Provide a stable environment for the textile. Protect it

from rough handling, light, extreme changes of temperature and humidity, and insects. For each of these problems there is a simple remedy.

• Handling. When you must handle fabrics, clean your hands first. Remove sharp jewelry to prevent snags and tears. Do not eat, drink, or smoke near the article. Keep article away from unclean surfaces, and do not place any objects on top of it.

• Light. Light is harmful to textiles. Many older fabrics are made of cellulose (cotton and linen) and animal

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James

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

James

Charles T. James was a retired general in the Rhode Island Militia and a former U.S. senator from Rhode Island. In 1856 he patented the famous “bird-cage” projectile, currently designated as Type I. The sabot of this projectile was made of three layers: an inner layer of lead cast on to the shell body; a thin tin sheet middle layer; and a rough canvas outer covering. James’ second design was patented in 1862, and purchased only in the 3.8inch caliber. The sabot of the Type II design was a lead band sabot cast onto a heavily ribbed shell body.1

In December 1860, James was awarded a contract to rifle half the smoothbore cannon in U.S. Army forts and arsenals, and as many bronze smoothbore cannon as the U.S.

Army delivered to him in Chicopee, Massachusetts.2 Based on the list of “guns fit for service” attached to that letter agreement, James was to rifle 922 cannon, of which 91 would be 42-pounders, 427 would be 32-pounders, and 335 would be 24-pounders. This contract was underway at the time of the outbreak of hostilities. James benefited enormously from this contract, gaining other contracts for the manufacture of thousands of his projectiles for use in those rifles. The Union Army also awarded James a contract to produce bronze cannons in the 3.67-inch and 3.8-inch calibers. At least 158 of these rifles still survive.3

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Armstrong

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Armstrong

Sir William G. Armstrong designed a family of rifles and projectiles in the 1850s that were highly prized by the British government. In fact the British government controlled the company that produced the rifles and projectiles—Elswick Ordnance Company—and would not allow any to be sold to foreign countries until they completed their rearmament program in 1861–1862.1 The British government withdrew from the company in 1862, and Confederates began to buy Armstrong rifles and projectiles.2 In 1864, the Confederates acquired several large caliber Armstrong rifles and projectiles. Included in these shipments were two 8-inch Armstrong rifles, which were mounted at Fort Caswell and Fort Fisher.

Each rifle weighed nearly eight tons.3 Tests done in England indicated these rifles would pierce the armor of the Monitor-type gunboats.4

With the Armstrong rifles came an impressive array of advanced projectiles, including shell, segmented shrapnel, armor-piercing bolts, and armor-piercing shells. The Armstrong projectiles used a shunt rifling system with brass lugs mounted in a spiral shape along the length of the projectile body.

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Glossary

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Glossary

ANCHORED TORPEDO—a torpedo (mine) designed to float under the water or rest on the bottom of a body of water, anchored in place by a weight, cables, or ropes. A defensive weapon.

ARMY OFFICIAL RECORDS (“Army ORs” in footnotes)—officially named, War of the

Rebellion Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. A 128-volume set, published from 1880 to 1901, containing original reports and other documents prepared during the Civil War by government and military officials on both sides relating to

Union and Confederate Army actions. (See Bibliography)

ARTIFACT—a man-made object, usually associated with a period, as in Civil War artifact.

BANNERMAN’S—the major military surplus dealer who purchased huge quantities of leftover military ordnance after the Civil War, which they resold well into the twentieth century. Originally known as Francis S. Bannerman’s, later known as Bannerman and Sons.

BASE—the bottom of a projectile or torpedo.

BASE PLATE—a flat iron disk on the bottom of a canister, grape stand, or quilted grape.

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Read

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Read

Dr. John Read was an early pioneer in the design of rifled projectiles. Working with

Robert Parrott at West Point and independently at Fort Monroe with the army, Read experimented with several designs, before developing and patenting a shell with a ring sabot in 1856 (No. 15999). Later, but before the war began, he improved the design with a safety groove to eliminate the chipping problem on the shell body base.1 Both wrought iron and copper2 were used for making his ring sabots. Early in the war large caliber Read projectiles almost universally used wrought iron. However, a shell documented in this section confirms the shift to copper sabots some time before April 1862.

While field-caliber Read projectiles performed satisfactorily, large-caliber Read projectiles did not perform well, for several reasons:

(a) the iron sabots were too thick on many Read projectiles and would not take the rifling;

(b) many of the copper sabots on Read shells were too thin and would tear off before the projectile took the rifling; and

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Broun

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Broun

Lt. Col. William L. Broun became commander of the Richmond Arsenal in June

1863. It appears that he soon began to work on the redesign of rifled bolts and shells with copper ring sabots to improve their performance (and to reduce the consumption of scarce copper). Shells attributed to Broun’s designs appear on 1864 battlefields.

These designs simplified the manufacturing process by eliminating the lower bourrelet on the shell body, replacing it with a copper sabot that was wider than the shell base diameter. He attempted to improve the sabot effectiveness with lugs that were cast about one-half inch into the shell to hold the sabot firmly to the body. There is some evidence that these changes produced better performance, and manufacturing was simplified.

Large-caliber Broun shells have been recovered from two areas. The 4.2-inch caliber

Brouns have been recovered from late war Richmond-Petersburg lines and from Mobile

Bay. The larger calibers, 6.4-inch and 7.0-inch, are known to have been recovered only from the Mobile Bay area.

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Lynall Thomas

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Lynall Thomas

Not much is known about Lynall Thomas, an Englishman credited with the design of complicated rifled shells of doubtful effectiveness supplied to the Confederacy. The shell consisted of a narrow shell body with a very large head. Behind the head a lead sleeve and lead disk were cast and a midshell thick iron band put on the outside of the lead sleeve. Another lead disk separated the midshell iron band from a thick rear iron band.

Upon firing, the iron bands were forced forward on the lead sleeve, squeezing the lead disks into the rifling.

Shells of this design have been recovered in three calibers: 4.62-inch, 5.82-inch, and

6.4-inch. Almost all the shells in each caliber come from only a single area. The 4.62inch shells come from Awendaw and Charleston, South Carolina. The single 5.82-inch shell is from the West Point collection, and all of the 6.4-inch Lynall Thomas shells come from the areas around Fort Fisher and nearby Fort Caswell.

Only one complete fired specimen has been noted (the 6.4-inch shell documented in this book). It appears to have taken the rifling effectively.

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Jewelry

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Tips, Tools, & Techniques

76

- Fill a small bowl with any liquid soap and a teaspoon

-

or more of clear ammonia. The ammonia adds luster to the gold and brilliance to any encrusted stones.

Immerse the pieces in the bowl. Let stand for a few minutes.

Remove one piece at a time. Using a soft toothbrush, gently brush the piece.

Rinse the piece in a bowl of hot water. Be sure to close the drain if you rinse jewelry in a sink basin.

Dry the piece carefully.

• Another method to clean gold without the liquid soap

is to soak the jewelry in equal parts ammonia and lukewarm water for ten minutes. Rub with a soft brush and let dry without rinsing.

JADE

• Jade is cold to the touch. The term “Jade” is used generi-

cally for two materials: Nephrite and Jadeite. Nephrite comes from China and is softer than true Jadeite. Jadeite comes from Burma, Japan, Guatemala, California,

Hawaii, Russia, and Switzerland.

• Jadeite comes in various colors—green, yellow, orange, and lavender—and has a greater translucent quality.

• To test for real jade, carefully rub the tip of a knife across the bottom of the item. If the mark is white, the item is not jade. If it leaves a black mark, it may be jade.

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Buttons

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Buttons

21

• Brass buttons will turn green when the brass plating has

worn off. Copper also becomes covered with green copper carbonate due to exposure to moisture in the air.

Remove the green by rubbing the button gently with acetic acid or any substance containing this acid (such as vinegar). Wash the button with fresh water and dry well with a hairdryer or an absorbent towel. Do not store until completely dry. If the buttons are pierced, be sure that the inside of the button is dry. This is when a hairdryer comes in handy. Gel or regular toothpaste also works, but do not use on pierced buttons. It is too difficult to remove the paste completely from the crevices.

Composite buttons are made of multiple types of materials, such as pearl on brass, metal on plastic, or celluloid on Bakelite. Clean each material using the individual instructions for that material. Use caution when dealing with varied construction.

Composition buttons are made of a mixture of substances. Polish with baby oil, mineral oil, furniture polish, or Johnson’s Neutral Self Shining Shoe Polish.

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Advertising Memorabilia: Metal

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