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Nickel

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Stafford

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Stafford

Little is known of the designer of the Stafford family of projectiles. He was probably well connected politically, based on the political controversy highlighted below. The projectiles were sub-caliber projectiles, meaning that the bulk of the projectile was substantially smaller than the caliber of the rifle. This is similar in concept to the sabot rounds used in current models of Abrams tanks. The concept of sub-caliber projectiles is to achieve much higher velocities at short range than full-caliber projectiles can attain, enabling the shell or bolt to penetrate deeper in a narrower space.

Stafford projectiles had brass ring sabots. Some were encased in a wood sleeve, others had a brass ring, or an enlarged head to fit the rifle bore. The sabot was a brass ring type, which was held in place by iron pins or nails driven into the metal core, into the wood casing, or between the two.

Staffords were produced in several calibers, including 5.1-inch, 6.4-inch, and 8-inch.

No survivors are known in the 8-inch caliber. One hundred 8-inch Stafford projectiles were purchased by the Union Navy and tested by the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in 1863 off Charleston.1 They were reported on July 27, 1863, to have performed unsatisfactorily.2 Ironically, only five days before the navy test results were reported,

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Guide to Using Data Sheets

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Guide to Using Data Sheets

For the convenience of users, the data sheets for projectiles and torpedoes use a standard format. Descriptions of the information in each category are provided below.

Users should read this guide before using the data sheets.

Projectile Photos

Most projectile data sheets have photographs of the side, top, and bottom of the projectile. The ruler scale applies only to the side view of the projectile. It is important to note that the scale does not include the height of the fuze, only the length of the projectile.

The torpedo data sheets normally have only a side view and a close-up photo of the fuze or detonator mechanism. Most torpedo data sheets do not include a scale bar, because the torpedoes are too long for the scale numbers to be legible.

Projectile or Torpedo Identification Title

The projectile identification provides several key pieces of information. It first identifies the origin of the projectile or torpedo. Origin defines who manufactured the projectile or torpedo: CS, British/CS, or US. Next it identifies the caliber (e.g., bore size) of the cannon that fires the projectile.

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Postage Stamps

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Coins

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

For both smoothbore and rifled artillery, grape stands and quilted grape served a different purpose from case shot and canister. Quilted grape and grape stands were designed to damage ships’ rigging and spars or fortification equipment, with the fragments from this damage causing major casualties to gun crews.

Some confusion exists about the use of grape stands and quilted grape. As general antipersonnel weapons, grape stands and quilted grape in field calibers had been largely replaced by canister by the time the war began. It appears that early in the war grape stands replaced quilted grape for calibers below 8 inch. Quilted grape were used in all calibers above 8 inches, including the 15-inch size, which has been documented aboard

Monitor-type gunboats1 and in postwar Bannerman catalogs.2 However, the Confederates captured a large supply of 32-pounder quilted grape when the Southern states seceded and had others manufactured during the early years of the war. These were deployed to river and coastal gun positions. A number of these 32-pounder quilted grape were excavated near Fort Huger, North Carolina, some years ago, and others reportedly were recovered in gun positions along the Mississippi and elsewhere over the years.

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Marble

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Mildew Cleaner

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Pottery

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Canister

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Canister

Canister are always cylindrical. They were designed as antipersonnel projectiles used at short range against enemy troops or naval crews. Canister contain no explosive charge.

They are usually made with thin sheet metal sides that disintegrate as the canister is fired. At very close ranges, cannon crews might be ordered to use double canisters for each firing, creating a deadly wall of balls and metal debris directed against enemy troops.

However, canister did virtually no serious damage to enemy guns, ships, or equipment.

By the beginning of the Civil War, canister was recognized as the most deadly form of short-range antipersonnel weapon. Charges of double canister were even more deadly.

The larger number of smaller canister shot created a wide cone of destruction immediately in front of the cannon. For example, a single 7-inch canister contained 112 iron shot 1.3 inches in diameter compared to 9 shot 3.15 inches in diameter for a 7-inch grape stand.1

In large calibers, the canister shot used were iron.

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Preston-Blakely

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Preston-Blakely

Credit for sorting out the confusing story of the so-called “Preston” shells goes to

Warren Ripley. In his classic book, Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, Ripley traces the history of the Preston name.

“Preston” is painted on several shells photographed at the Charleston Arsenal in

1865, undoubtedly by Union Army officers who recovered them and labeled them as such. The label probably relates to the use of the shells in Blakely rifles. The particular ones with the flanged rifling were made in the Fawcett, Preston and Co. foundry in

Liverpool, England.1 Ripley diligently checked surviving Confederate records, but could find no references to Preston in the 3.5-inch and 4-inch caliber. He did find a reference to

Blakely in those calibers in the records, and confirmed that the 4-inch Blakely rifle had 6groove rifling that matched the “Preston” shape.

Subsequent research has confirmed that the patent for the “Preston” design of rifle and projectile was actually awarded to Blakely in 1863.2

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Lynall Thomas

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Lynall Thomas

Not much is known about Lynall Thomas, an Englishman credited with the design of complicated rifled shells of doubtful effectiveness supplied to the Confederacy. The shell consisted of a narrow shell body with a very large head. Behind the head a lead sleeve and lead disk were cast and a midshell thick iron band put on the outside of the lead sleeve. Another lead disk separated the midshell iron band from a thick rear iron band.

Upon firing, the iron bands were forced forward on the lead sleeve, squeezing the lead disks into the rifling.

Shells of this design have been recovered in three calibers: 4.62-inch, 5.82-inch, and

6.4-inch. Almost all the shells in each caliber come from only a single area. The 4.62inch shells come from Awendaw and Charleston, South Carolina. The single 5.82-inch shell is from the West Point collection, and all of the 6.4-inch Lynall Thomas shells come from the areas around Fort Fisher and nearby Fort Caswell.

Only one complete fired specimen has been noted (the 6.4-inch shell documented in this book). It appears to have taken the rifling effectively.

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Metals: Identifying with a Magnet

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Vintage Clothing and Textiles

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Vintage Clothing and Textiles

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• Vary the way you fold textiles/clothing.

• Stuff the sleeves of coats, blouses, or dresses with acid•

free tissue in order to prevent creases.

Cover cardboard rolls with polyester or cotton batting and muslin wrapping.

Check storage areas two to three times a year for insects.

Use padded hangers that fit the shoulders of the clothing.

Do not store vintage fabrics in plastic cleaners bags or plastic storage bags. Do not use zip-locked bags for small items. Moisture buildup can cause mold and mildew.

Do not store fabrics that have been starched. They will attract silverfish and other pests.

Sugar was a popular starching material in the old days.

Remove sugar by washing the piece before storing (consult a professional for vintage fabrics). Critters love to munch on sugar-starched textiles.

Do not store or display garments in sunlight. Bright light will fade the colors.

HOW TO PAD HANGERS

• Cut white cotton sheets or muslin into strips.

• Use wooden hangers, if available, because they are stur-

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Chapter 7 Search Techniques & Methods

Julian Evan Hart M-Y Books ePub

Eearly all types of modern metal detectors are ergonomically designed for balance and comfort in order to minimise arm strain. How you use your machine is therefore down to whichever technique you feel most comfortable with. Some people swing their detectors in a wide sweeping arc, while others simply sweep from side to side in straight lines as they move forward. But, whatever style you adopt, the most important thing to remember is that you must keep the search coil as close to the ground as possible at all times. Never swing the detector as if it were a pendulum, as this will limit the detectors depth-seeking capability to the centre point where the search coil comes closest to the ground only, rather than across the whole sweep of the arc.

It is also important that you sweep the search coil slowly; going too fast will dramatically reduce your find-rate.

Search Techniques

If you are searching a field for the first time and want to assess it as a potentially good or poor site, or have only a limited amount of time available due to seeding about to take place, it might be a good idea to adopt an explorative search technique.

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