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Guide to Using Data Sheets

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Guide to Using Data Sheets

For the convenience of users, the data sheets for projectiles and torpedoes use a standard format. Descriptions of the information in each category are provided below.

Users should read this guide before using the data sheets.

Projectile Photos

Most projectile data sheets have photographs of the side, top, and bottom of the projectile. The ruler scale applies only to the side view of the projectile. It is important to note that the scale does not include the height of the fuze, only the length of the projectile.

The torpedo data sheets normally have only a side view and a close-up photo of the fuze or detonator mechanism. Most torpedo data sheets do not include a scale bar, because the torpedoes are too long for the scale numbers to be legible.

Projectile or Torpedo Identification Title

The projectile identification provides several key pieces of information. It first identifies the origin of the projectile or torpedo. Origin defines who manufactured the projectile or torpedo: CS, British/CS, or US. Next it identifies the caliber (e.g., bore size) of the cannon that fires the projectile.

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James

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

James

Charles T. James was a retired general in the Rhode Island Militia and a former U.S. senator from Rhode Island. In 1856 he patented the famous “bird-cage” projectile, currently designated as Type I. The sabot of this projectile was made of three layers: an inner layer of lead cast on to the shell body; a thin tin sheet middle layer; and a rough canvas outer covering. James’ second design was patented in 1862, and purchased only in the 3.8inch caliber. The sabot of the Type II design was a lead band sabot cast onto a heavily ribbed shell body.1

In December 1860, James was awarded a contract to rifle half the smoothbore cannon in U.S. Army forts and arsenals, and as many bronze smoothbore cannon as the U.S.

Army delivered to him in Chicopee, Massachusetts.2 Based on the list of “guns fit for service” attached to that letter agreement, James was to rifle 922 cannon, of which 91 would be 42-pounders, 427 would be 32-pounders, and 335 would be 24-pounders. This contract was underway at the time of the outbreak of hostilities. James benefited enormously from this contract, gaining other contracts for the manufacture of thousands of his projectiles for use in those rifles. The Union Army also awarded James a contract to produce bronze cannons in the 3.67-inch and 3.8-inch calibers. At least 158 of these rifles still survive.3

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Metals: Identifying with a Magnet

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Advertising Memorabilia: Metal

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Paper Collectibles

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Paper Collectibles

95

• Use a bone folder to remove creases from paper docu-

ments. Begin in the center of the document and press the bone folder lightly along the back of the crease in a outward direction and toward the edge of the paper.

Frame the document when it is flat and clean.

To clean a document, put on cotton gloves and sprinkle Opaline on the soiled document. Opaline is a nonabrasive, light cleaning agent that can be obtained at art supply stores. Rub erasures lightly in a circular motion, and brush away soiled particles with a softbristle artist’s brush.

Do not glue or tape paper collectibles in an album or scrapbook. Adhesives leave permanent stains on paper.

Use paper or photo mounting corners.

Common items should be repaired with ordinary household white glue applied carefully with a toothpick. For easier application, thin the glue with water before applying. Blot any excess glue with a paper towel.

If paper collectibles become infested with bugs, seal them in plastic bags and store them in the freezer for three days.

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Vintage Clothing and Textiles

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Vintage Clothing and Textiles

125

• Vary the way you fold textiles/clothing.

• Stuff the sleeves of coats, blouses, or dresses with acid•

free tissue in order to prevent creases.

Cover cardboard rolls with polyester or cotton batting and muslin wrapping.

Check storage areas two to three times a year for insects.

Use padded hangers that fit the shoulders of the clothing.

Do not store vintage fabrics in plastic cleaners bags or plastic storage bags. Do not use zip-locked bags for small items. Moisture buildup can cause mold and mildew.

Do not store fabrics that have been starched. They will attract silverfish and other pests.

Sugar was a popular starching material in the old days.

Remove sugar by washing the piece before storing (consult a professional for vintage fabrics). Critters love to munch on sugar-starched textiles.

Do not store or display garments in sunlight. Bright light will fade the colors.

HOW TO PAD HANGERS

• Cut white cotton sheets or muslin into strips.

• Use wooden hangers, if available, because they are stur-

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Copper

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Armstrong

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Armstrong

Sir William G. Armstrong designed a family of rifles and projectiles in the 1850s that were highly prized by the British government. In fact the British government controlled the company that produced the rifles and projectiles—Elswick Ordnance Company—and would not allow any to be sold to foreign countries until they completed their rearmament program in 1861–1862.1 The British government withdrew from the company in 1862, and Confederates began to buy Armstrong rifles and projectiles.2 In 1864, the Confederates acquired several large caliber Armstrong rifles and projectiles. Included in these shipments were two 8-inch Armstrong rifles, which were mounted at Fort Caswell and Fort Fisher.

Each rifle weighed nearly eight tons.3 Tests done in England indicated these rifles would pierce the armor of the Monitor-type gunboats.4

With the Armstrong rifles came an impressive array of advanced projectiles, including shell, segmented shrapnel, armor-piercing bolts, and armor-piercing shells. The Armstrong projectiles used a shunt rifling system with brass lugs mounted in a spiral shape along the length of the projectile body.

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Cedar Aroma Renewal

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Preston-Blakely

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Preston-Blakely

Credit for sorting out the confusing story of the so-called “Preston” shells goes to

Warren Ripley. In his classic book, Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, Ripley traces the history of the Preston name.

“Preston” is painted on several shells photographed at the Charleston Arsenal in

1865, undoubtedly by Union Army officers who recovered them and labeled them as such. The label probably relates to the use of the shells in Blakely rifles. The particular ones with the flanged rifling were made in the Fawcett, Preston and Co. foundry in

Liverpool, England.1 Ripley diligently checked surviving Confederate records, but could find no references to Preston in the 3.5-inch and 4-inch caliber. He did find a reference to

Blakely in those calibers in the records, and confirmed that the 4-inch Blakely rifle had 6groove rifling that matched the “Preston” shape.

Subsequent research has confirmed that the patent for the “Preston” design of rifle and projectile was actually awarded to Blakely in 1863.2

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Parrott

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Parrott

Robert Parker Parrott was both the most successful and the most controversial designer and founder of rifled cannon and projectiles of the Civil War. His West Point Foundry was located in Cold Spring, New York, across the Hudson River from the United States Military

Academy at West Point. During the war, Parrott and the West Point Foundry produced over 3,100 cannon, twice as many as the combined cannon production of all Confederate foundries and 33 percent more than any other Union foundry.1 Parrott also produced more rifled projectiles for the Union military forces than any other foundry.

Parrott got a head start in producing rifled cannon and projectiles because of his experimental work in the late 1850s. Parrott worked on rifled cannon designs in cooperation with Dr. John Read of Alabama, who worked on projectile designs.2 By 1861 they had already worked out many of the practical problems of integrated rifle-projectile design for field caliber artillery.

Parrott was already selling field caliber rifles to individual states before the war began.3

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Label Removal

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Label Removal

• Products such as rubber cement solvent, Bestine sol-

vent, and Goo Gone will remove sticky labels, masking tape, and sticky residue left from labels on glass, pottery, and china.

Be very cautious when using any product on paper. Test a small area before applying the product to a label to be sure that it will not leave a greasy spot. You can easily ruin a paper collectible by using these products. I have had great luck with Goo Gone, but I still test each time I use it on paper.

For glass or china, peel away as much paper as you can.

Next, soften the residue by applying vinegar, hairspray, nail polish remover, mayonnaise, or peanut butter.

On painted surfaces, apply a hot rag or heat with a hairdryer. Be careful not to pull off the painted surface by working too quickly. You can reduce the value of a collectible item by removing the original paint.

On plastic, apply a hot rag, rub gently with a dab of peanut butter, or heat with a hairdryer set on warm.

On metal, rub gently with a dab of peanut butter.

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Ivory or Bone

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Section 3 Torpedoes and Mines

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Section 3

Torpedoes and Mines

Note: during the war, the term “torpedo” was generally used to describe both mines and torpedoes as we know them today. Following that tradition, the torpedoes and mines described in this section will be referred to as “torpedoes.”

The Confederates were forced to invest heavily in the development and deployment of torpedoes to protect their extensive ports and riverways. Confederates could not deploy enough ships, artillery, and men to defend the extensive river and coastal areas in the

South. Even in heavily defended areas such as Mobile, Charleston, and Wilmington, torpedoes added significantly to the threat to exposed Union ships and gunboats.

Initial efforts to develop Confederate torpedo capabilities were headed by Matthew

Maury,1 who is also credited with the design of several smoothbore bolts. After he went to England, Hunter Davidson was appointed as his successor and headed the program until the end of the war.2 It was a high enough priority that Lt. John M. Brooke, later famous for his cannon and projectile designs, designed several types of torpedoes and even a torpedo boat design. He designed an anchored swaying spar torpedo and a fixed bottom torpedo called a “turtle,” that was convex, so antitorpedo boats could not grapple it off the bottom.3 It was deployed together with his swaying spar torpedo, which was said to be one of the deadliest encountered by Union ships.

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Enamel

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

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