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Copper

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Furniture

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Furniture

59

SCRATCHES

• To disguise a furniture scratch, crush pecan or Brazil

nuts into a paste and rub into the wood.

• Dab some iodine over scratches in mahogany furniture.

• Choose a matching color of paste shoe polish. Rub polish into the scratch. Protect with furniture oil.

BURNS

• Burns are one of the most serious types of furniture

damage. The following method of treatment requires care and patience, but should postpone the need to refinish the entire piece.

Clean the burn area by carefully scraping with a sharp knife or single-edged razor blade to remove all loose dirt and charred wood. The area should then be cleaned thoroughly with odorless mineral spirits on a cotton swab. Smooth the area with fine steel wool (0000) wrapped around a pencil or stick. Clean and sand with the wood grain using 320 or finer sandpaper.

After cleaning again, a matching stain should be applied to the area. When the stain has dried, stick-shellac that matches the wood finish should be applied to level the damaged area.

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Absterdam

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Absterdam

John Absterdam patented a number of projectile designs in 1862 and 1864. The Union

Army Absterdam shells were made in the 3-inch and 4.5-inch calibers. Two of these 4.5inch designs are included in the book, having been used in the 1864-65 RichmondPetersburg siege.

There are three designs of Absterdam projectiles: Type 1 has a lead cup sabot and two lead bourrelets; Type 2 has a lead cup sabot and one (upper) lead bourrelet; and Type 3 has a brass ring sabot with no bourrrelets. A hybrid Type 2/3 is documented in this book, with a brass ring sabot and one upper lead bourrelet.

Absterdam had contracts with at least three foundries in addition to his own foundry to manufacture his projectiles: Dickson & Zane of Philadelphia; Chase, Sharp & Thompson of Philadelphia; and A.J. Smith.1 The first 3-inch Absterdam shells were ordered by the

Union Ordnance Department from Chase, Sharp & Thompson on July 28, 1863, and delivered on February 8, 1864.2 The first 4.5-inch Absterdam projectiles were ordered by the Union Ordnance Department through Dickson & Zane on March 17, 1864, and delivered on September 27, 1864.3

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Label Removal

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Label Removal

• Products such as rubber cement solvent, Bestine sol-

vent, and Goo Gone will remove sticky labels, masking tape, and sticky residue left from labels on glass, pottery, and china.

Be very cautious when using any product on paper. Test a small area before applying the product to a label to be sure that it will not leave a greasy spot. You can easily ruin a paper collectible by using these products. I have had great luck with Goo Gone, but I still test each time I use it on paper.

For glass or china, peel away as much paper as you can.

Next, soften the residue by applying vinegar, hairspray, nail polish remover, mayonnaise, or peanut butter.

On painted surfaces, apply a hot rag or heat with a hairdryer. Be careful not to pull off the painted surface by working too quickly. You can reduce the value of a collectible item by removing the original paint.

On plastic, apply a hot rag, rub gently with a dab of peanut butter, or heat with a hairdryer set on warm.

On metal, rub gently with a dab of peanut butter.

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Lynall Thomas

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Lynall Thomas

Not much is known about Lynall Thomas, an Englishman credited with the design of complicated rifled shells of doubtful effectiveness supplied to the Confederacy. The shell consisted of a narrow shell body with a very large head. Behind the head a lead sleeve and lead disk were cast and a midshell thick iron band put on the outside of the lead sleeve. Another lead disk separated the midshell iron band from a thick rear iron band.

Upon firing, the iron bands were forced forward on the lead sleeve, squeezing the lead disks into the rifling.

Shells of this design have been recovered in three calibers: 4.62-inch, 5.82-inch, and

6.4-inch. Almost all the shells in each caliber come from only a single area. The 4.62inch shells come from Awendaw and Charleston, South Carolina. The single 5.82-inch shell is from the West Point collection, and all of the 6.4-inch Lynall Thomas shells come from the areas around Fort Fisher and nearby Fort Caswell.

Only one complete fired specimen has been noted (the 6.4-inch shell documented in this book). It appears to have taken the rifling effectively.

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Tennessee

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Tennessee

(Formerly Mullane)

Establishing proper credit for the design of Tennessee projectiles has been a challenge for decades. Period documents refer to them by a variety of names including, “Tennessee

Shell,” “copper saucer,” and “copper cup.” Even Cdr. John Brooke referred to the design as “Tennessee Sabot” in correspondence to the Confederate secretary of the navy and to

Catesby Jones at the Selma Foundry in 1863.1

In a postwar paper written in 1883, Gen. Edward P. Alexander, formerly Longstreet’s chief of artillery, gave credit to both Mullane and Read for the design of at least the fieldcaliber Tennessee projectiles. In the paper, Alexander stated:

This shell (with the saucer shaped copper sabot attached with bolts after the shell was cast), called the Mullane or Tennessee shell, was the invention of Dr.

Read of Tuscaloosa, Ala., the well known inventor of what are usually but improperly called Parrott shell. . . . A patent was refused the Mullane shell by the

Confederate Patent Office, on the ground that it was anticipated by this patent of

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Tredegar

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Tredegar

In the early months of the war, Southern foundries scrambled to meet the Confederacy’s needs for a wide variety of military ordnance. At this time Tredegar and Bellona Foundries were the only ones that could make large caliber cannons needed by the Confederacy.1

Charles Dew’s book on Tredegar2 and the Tredegar Foundry records,3 indicated that in

July 1861 Tredegar developed some hybrid cannon designs and promoted their use with the Confederate Army and Navy. The Confederate Army Ordnance Office ordered from

Tredegar hybrid cannon and projectiles for the hybrid cannon at the same time, probably to ensure they worked together. These hybrid rifles were a temporary solution to the urgent need to get large caliber rifles into the field.

Tredegar manufactured several types of hybrid rifles. These included 7-inch rifles bored from 9-inch Dahlgren smoothbore gun blocks;4 6.4-inch rifles bored from 10-inch

Columbiad gun blocks; 5.82-inch rifles bored from 8-inch Columbiad gun blocks, and

4.62-inch rifles bored from 8-inch siege howitzer and 24-pounder siege gun blocks.

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James

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

James

Charles T. James was a retired general in the Rhode Island Militia and a former U.S. senator from Rhode Island. In 1856 he patented the famous “bird-cage” projectile, currently designated as Type I. The sabot of this projectile was made of three layers: an inner layer of lead cast on to the shell body; a thin tin sheet middle layer; and a rough canvas outer covering. James’ second design was patented in 1862, and purchased only in the 3.8inch caliber. The sabot of the Type II design was a lead band sabot cast onto a heavily ribbed shell body.1

In December 1860, James was awarded a contract to rifle half the smoothbore cannon in U.S. Army forts and arsenals, and as many bronze smoothbore cannon as the U.S.

Army delivered to him in Chicopee, Massachusetts.2 Based on the list of “guns fit for service” attached to that letter agreement, James was to rifle 922 cannon, of which 91 would be 42-pounders, 427 would be 32-pounders, and 335 would be 24-pounders. This contract was underway at the time of the outbreak of hostilities. James benefited enormously from this contract, gaining other contracts for the manufacture of thousands of his projectiles for use in those rifles. The Union Army also awarded James a contract to produce bronze cannons in the 3.67-inch and 3.8-inch calibers. At least 158 of these rifles still survive.3

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Coins

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Appendix C Rifled Projectile Sabot Designs

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix C

Rifled Projectile Sabot Designs

Correct identification of rifled projectiles often requires accurate identification of sabot designs. This appendix provides specific information to assist the student of projectiles in identifying sabot designs of both field and large caliber rifled artillery projectiles used in the war.

The three steps to accurate sabot identification are to identify: (1) the material the sabot is made of: iron, brass, copper, lead, or papier-maché; (2) the form or shape of the sabot: ring, cup, disk, or band; and (3) the distinguishing characteristics of different sabot designs. Each step is described in more detail in the rest of this appendix.

Sabot Materials

Sabots were made of four types of materials during the war: wrought iron, lead, copper or brass, and papier-maché. Each is described below.

• Wrought Iron. Wrought iron can usually be identified by its appearance. In battlefield-recovered projectiles, the wrought iron sabot is often more corroded than the projectile body. When preserved with electrolysis, it takes on the same black color as the cast iron shell body. Wrought iron sabots were made separately and the projectile was cast around the sabot.

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Leather

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Leather

85

• Massage saddle soap into scuff marks with a clean, dry

cloth. Work in circles until the scuff mark is gone. Gently buff with a soft cloth.

• The best way to preserve leather is by controlling its environment rather than altering the object itself. Avoid storing leather in excessively humid areas where mold and bacteria thrive. Likewise, leather stored in a dry area may crack or split.

• Keep leather away from heat sources, which deteriorate its protein content.

TREATING LEATHER

• Clean the leather first. Apply a small amount of castor

oil with a soft cloth pad or with your fingertips. Rub the area well and remove the excess oil carefully with a clean cloth.

• If you get an oil or grease stain on leather, quickly blot up as much of the stain as possible. Then rub pure unscented talcum powder into the stain. Work it well into the leather. Remove the talc with leather cleaner such as Lexol-pH. If the remaining stain is still unsightly, darken the leather with mink oil to match the stain.

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Loupe: How to Use

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Loupe: How to Use

• A loupe (pronounced loop) is a useful tool to exam-

ine everything from diamonds to cast iron toys. With a little practice, almost anyone can learn how to use it properly.

For occasional use, it is more practical to hand hold a loupe away from your eye rather than learn to hold it to your eye like a monocle. Hand holding a loupe also means you do not have to remove eyeglasses, if you wear them.

Hold a watchmaker’s loupe between your thumb and forefinger.

Hold a diamond loupe the same way, but also wrap your fingers around the lens housing to help support the loupe.

If you are examining a small object, hold the object in your free hand. Brace your elbows against the sides of your body and bring both your hands up toward your face. You may brace your elbows on a table top if you are seated.

As you raise your hands, bring the fleshy part of your palms (the heels) together. This creates a movable hinge. Keeping the loupe close to your eye, pivot the hand with the object in and out until you get a sharp

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Ivory or Bone

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Marble

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Audio Materials

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Audio Materials

The field of audio materials has been developing and changing over the last 134 years since Thomas A. Edison developed his phonograph and cylinders to convey the spoken word and music. Edison invented the first machine that could record sound in 1877 using a tinfoil cylinder. In 1886,

Alexander Graham Bell obtained several patents for a commercial talking machine called a graphaphone. He replaced

Edison’s tinfoil with wax cylinders. By 1888, Edison had perfected his phonograph using a wax cylinder.

Some definitions of audio materials are in order. Audio records include 78s, 45s, and LPs (which are long-playing phonograph records designed to be played at 33 1/3 rpm).

CD is a compact disc that is a plastic-fabricated, circular medium for recording, storing, and playing back audio, video, and computer data. DVDs used to be known as digital video discs until they became more versatile, thus the name change to digital versatile discs.

CLEANING AUDIO RECORDS, CDS,

AND DVDS

• To clean really dirty or smudged records, CDs, or DVDs,

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