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CHAPTER FIVE: Interdividual Psychology and the Dialogical Self

Rachel Pollard Karnac Books ePub

In the last chapter I discussed some of the limitations of a Bakhtininspired dialogical model of consciousness for the theory and practice of psychotherapy. It was argued that a dialogical model is far from an exhaustive explanation for human consciousness and is therefore inadequate on its own as a model of psychotherapy. I argued that Girard's theory of mimetic desire offers an alternative account of consciousness that, while it sometimes contradicts, can also complement and supplement the dialogical account.

The dialogical approach is a discursive structural analysis of both external dialogue between people and inner dialogue. Bakhtin's later account of dialogism suggests that human speech cannot be other than dialogic and that even apparently monologic discourse is animated by a concealed or hidden dialogism: as Bakhtin (1981) said, ever since the first word was spoken, words cannot help but be interrelated to other words. However, just as Bakhtin's dialogical analysis of Dostoevsky's novels does not fully convey the complexity, depth or moral purpose of his writing, an analysis of dialogue in psychotherapy does not fully take account of the desires and the moral dilemmas with which the patient and therapist are struggling. What the patient communicates is always more than language alone can convey. In looking only at discourse, the dialogical approach tends to find binary oppositions rather than triangular relationships and significations of difference, rather than sameness. Bakhtin, like most literary critics, used non-literary disciplines as analytical tools to deepen his understanding of Dostoevsky. Girard, however, approached the novels themselves as a source of knowledge. He found that while Dostoevsky wrote about the same issues in his earlier works, his understanding of the motives and meanings involved in his characters’ behaviour deepened in the later works; this could be read as a critical commentary of his early work that reflects his own development as a writer (Douchemel, 1988).

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CHAPTER EIGHT: Towards a Bakhtinian Practice of Psychotherapy

Rachel Pollard Karnac Books ePub

… the embodiment of meaning in mortal flesh—is born and dies in the world and for the world; it is totally given in the world and can be consummated in the world … As such … it can be a hero. [Bakhtin, 1990, p. 111]

In this concluding chapter I will discuss how a more inclusive reading of Bakhtin, together with a qualified reading of Girard, could contribute towards finding a direction for a practice of psychotherapy inspired by Bakhtinian ethics. The dialogical aspects of Bakhtin have already been widely used to inform theory and practice in psychotherapy as discussed in Chapter Three. In this chapter I will focus on the other aspects of Bakhtin's thinking that I think are the contextual background in which the dialogical should be understood.

As previously discussed, there are many conflicting interpretations of Bakhtin and therefore when using his concepts in psychotherapy there is a need to be explicit about our own chosen interpretation. It is first necessary to return to the difficulties posed about the use of Bakhtin in psychotherapy theory and practice discussed in Chapter One. Two main questions emerged: given the uncertainty about the meaning of Bakhtin's most important concepts, how can psychotherapists justify the use of one meaning over any other? If there is an overall coherence to Bakhtin's works, can psychotherapists selectively appropriate particular concepts without distortion by removal from their wider context?

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CHAPTER TWO: Bakhtin, Dialogism, and European Philosophy

Rachel Pollard Karnac Books ePub

The previous chapter introduced the field of Bakhtin studies, drawing particular attention to the potential problems of interpreting Bakhtinian ideas for the practice of psychotherapy. This chapter discusses dialogism, the Bakhtinian concept that has been most influential in psychotherapy theory. This necessitates some exploration of the many meanings that have been attributed to dialogism as well as the overall context in which Bakhtin developed his ideas. Bakhtin did not write in isolation but in dialogue with other thinkers as others have subsequently written in dialogue with him, so some acknowledgement is needed of Bakhtin's relationship with European philosophy in order to contextualise his thinking. As Hirschkop (1999) wrote, interpretations that put Bakhtin into solitary confinement (136) are both inaccurate and an oversimplification of his writing. Far from being a thinker in isolation, Bakhtin was swimming with some of the dominant philosophical currents of his time.

Although a classicist by training, Bakhtin and others of his generation wrote and studied under the reigning influence of Kant and is now considered by most scholars1 to have been a fellow traveller with the diffuse but highly influential philosophical movement known as the neo-Kantians. Bakhtin's dialogism originates in his dialogue with Kant and is best understood, in this context, as a philosophical idea about nature of meaning rather than as a linguistic concept. An important aspect of Kant's influence on Bakhtin is Kant's concern with our relationship with the world, which led to Bakhtin's profound interest in how we interpret the world and our experience in it (Holquist, 1990). The second half of the 19th century saw a “return to Kant” in German philosophy in an attempt to recover a unity between philosophy, the natural sciences, and culture and as a reaction against individualism and psychologism.2Anyone struggling to relate Bakhtin's early works, with their concerns with aesthetics, authoring, and creative activity, to psychotherapy should bear in mind that the early Bakhtin was trying to overcome the separation of art from life and culture from science in an attempt to recover a unity of experience and being. Psychology, like the other human sciences, only emerged as a separate discipline with its own body of knowledge in the early 19th century, largely divorced from its parent discipline of philosophy. Since Freud, psychotherapy has traditionally been much more catholic in its knowledge base but, to the extent that it has relied on psychological theories, this has constrained its effectiveness in understanding and finding solutions to human problems and has led to a certain degree of introverted navel-gazing among its practitioners. In his emphasis on human difference and the uniqueness of each human being, Bakhtin exposes some of the limitations of approaching any encounter with another individual with preconceptions.

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CHAPTER SEVEN: Bakhtin's Ethics and Psychotherapy

Rachel Pollard Karnac Books ePub

The previous chapter discussed how human interaction and communication is a complex but integrated phenomenon of which language itself is only a part. In focusing only on the dialogical in Bakhtin, psychotherapy misses the full significance of the contextual matrix in which dialogical consciousness is embedded in Bakhtin's thought as a whole, leading to an overly linguistic view of consciousness. The human body was a central and recurring theme in Bakhtin's thought, although he approached it from an ethical and philosophical perspective that is very different to the perspectives discussed in the last chapter. This chapter will discuss a theme that is widely seen as being common to all Bakhtin's writing, which is an ethics of interpersonal relatedness that is grounded in the principle of incarnation, i.e. the Word made flesh. In Bakhtin's thought dialogism is superior to monologism (PDP, pp. 81–82), closed systems of thinking such as abstract theory are inferior to those that are open as a result of human activity (Bakhtin, 1990, 194), the official is inferior to the unofficial, and dogma or fixed codes of any kind, from an ethical perspective, are inferior to the unique and unrepeatable concrete event (Bakhtin, 1993, pp. 23–24). Bakhtin (1990, 1993) is concerned with the particular rather than the general, lived experience rather than abstract ideals. Love and forgiveness in the context of the intimate I and Thou relationship, with what Holquist (1993) identifies as their associated themes of “authoring,” “responsibility,” “outsideness” and “participatory thinking,” are for Bakhtin far more important than the impersonal values of justice or fairness. Bakhtin would have abhorred the blanket generalisations about human subjectivity that passes for “scientific” research in clinical psychology and psychiatry.

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CHAPTER THREE: Bakhtin, the Dialogical Self and Dialogical Psychotherapy

Rachel Pollard Karnac Books ePub

Just as interest in critical theory in North America created the conditions necessary for the reception of Bakhtin in literary studies (Wachtel, 2000), the development of a psychology of the “self”, inspired by James Mead, both coincided with Bakhtin's dialogic conception of consciousness (Hermans, 2004) and paved the way for what has come to be known as the “Dialogical Self”. The first part of this chapter will give a brief overview of the “Dialogical Self” and the importance of Bakhtin's analysis of linguistic style in the modern novel in his interpretation of dialogism. The second part of the chapter examines some of the ways in which dialogical concepts derived from Bakhtin have been used in conjunction with two different models of psychotherapy; the third part compares dialogical approaches with other linguistic approaches to psychotherapy.

In psychotherapy, Bakhtin has become associated with a concept of the self that is “dialogical” i.e. that consists of a number of different “voices” that speak to each other from different “positions” or points of view (Stiles, 1997, Hermans 1996, 2004). These voices may have a historical origin, for example the voice of a parent, or they could have a more general, societal origin such as social class or social expectations of women or men, or be the voices of groups in society that we belong to such as a political party, football club or a religious faith. William Stiles (1997) suggests that the concept of “voice” can be understood as akin to that of role, in a sociological sense, or as that of object, in the psychoanalytic sense, or even, from a Jungian perspective, as an archetype:

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