166 Chapters
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9. The Development of War (1937)

Money-Kyrle, Roger Harris Meltzer Trust ePub

A Psychological Approach

I. MOTIVES OF WAR

According to Bacon, we should collect our facts before we start to theorize. But facts are so numerous that the pure Baconian would never get beyond the collecting stage. In practice we all start with a theory and look for facts to fit it, and are sufficiently scientific if we are prepared to modify the theory every time they fail to do so. In other words, we proceed by a series of approximations.

(1) Conscious Motives

As far as conscious motives of war are concerned, many theories have been suggested. In the first place, it has been attributed to necessity and the struggle for existence, that is, to the pressure of the population upon the food supply. And those who hold this view usually accept it as the common lot of animals as well as men. But among rabbits, over-population brings starvation and disease, not war – and biologically this may be more beneficial to the species. Even the higher carnivores do not, so far as I know, prey upon their own species when food is short. Man, of course, does fight for food and land to grow it in; but he fights quite as often for other causes, or for no sound cause at all. Indeed, I imagine it would be true to say that primitive man fights most readily when all his economic needs are satisfied. The season of plenty is the time of war. Mars was a god of spring as well as battle – and significantly enough of marriage too.

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Medium 9781855759534

10 Carmela (February 1995)

Karnac Books ePub

Rosa Castella

T he patient is 32 years old; she is married and has a 19-month-old boy. She comes from a working-class background; her father works as a bricklayer; and her mother is a housewife. She is an only child.

D.M.: You say she is an only child?

ROSA: Yes.

When she talks about her childhood she says that her mother used to leave her alone when she went to do the shopping and would laugh at her when she found her crying on her return. Mother is described as a mistrustful person who reacted to her daughter's problems by telling her that she was stupid. Of her father, she says that he was closer to her emotionally but he was led by his wife. They have often had to move house for work-related reasons; for my patient this has meant changing schools and friends; she used to find she had a block and would fail her exams, although she did sometimes pass comfortably. In our first interview she talked about the gigolos and prostitutes in her family,

When she was a young woman, her parents moved away from her to live in a village; she felt abandoned. She graduated in Medicine and Psychiatry and is now studying English. She has worked as a shop assistant and has also sold fish; she finally found work as a doctor in a private medical centre. She was doing both jobs until some patients saw her selling fish and never returned.

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23. On Prejudice – a Psycho-analytical Approach (1960)

Money-Kyrle, Roger Harris Meltzer Trust ePub

The dictionaries give more than one meaning of the word prejudice. In particular – and this, I think, is the only meaning we are concerned with – it is defined as a ‘previous, premature or hasty judgment’. What seems to be implied is that it is an emotional judgment – either positive or negative – and that, while not necessarily wrong, it is the product of faulty reasoning, and so much less likely to be right than an unprejudiced one.

This seems a straightforward notion. But I think it contains the seeds of possible confusion, because two distinct types of judgment are mixed up in it: judgments of fact, which I will call beliefs; and judgments of value, that is, evaluations.

Take the case of a racial antipathy, and consider under what conditions we can, strictly speaking, call it a prejudice. Clearly both types of judgment are involved. There is a belief that a certain race has certain qualities; and there is a negative evaluation of these qualities – that is, they are disliked. So, in deciding whether the antipathy is a prejudice, two questions arise: Does the race really have the qualities attributed to it? And if it does, can dislike of them still be called a prejudice?

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11. Towards a Common Aim: A Psycho-analytic Contribution to Ethics (1944)

Money-Kyrle, Roger Harris Meltzer Trust ePub

I. INTRODUCTION

1. Ends and means. Two relatively distinct problems have always faced individuals, societies, and humanity at large: the problem of choosing the best means to achieve a given end, and the problem of choosing the end to be achieved. I say relatively distinct, because what from one point of view is an end, may be a means from another. For instance, good housing is an end from the point of view of the Ministry of Reconstruction, but a means from that of the Ministry of Health. From the point of view of the physiologist, the only ultimate ends are perhaps the satisfaction of the primary instincts,2 and the psychologist would probably agree that all other ‘ends’ are the result of sublimation and are therefore, in the last analysis, indirect ‘means’ to the satisfaction of these instincts. But the word ‘end’ is commonly used in a much wider sense to denote any conscious aim which is not obviously and consciously a means to some other more remote end. It is only in this wider sense that we can distinguish between the two problems: choice of means and choice of ends.

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30. British Schools of Psycho-analysis: Melanie Klein and her Contribution to Psycho-analysis (1963)

Money-Kyrle, Roger Harris Meltzer Trust ePub

Melanie Klein and Her Contribution to Psycho-analysis

Melanie Klein was born in Vienna in 1882 and died in London in 1960. She had originally intended to study medicine at the Vienna University and would have done so, had not an early marriage intervened. However, years later during World War I, she had a second opportunity to recapture her old interest in a new form. She came in contact with Freud’s work, recognized what she felt she had been looking for and, from then on, dedicated herself to it. She started her training with Sándor Ferenczi during the war and, after the armistice, continued it with Karl Abraham. Both encouraged her to specialize in the analysis of children, at that time almost a new field. (Later she also analysed adults and, at the end of her life, was largely engaged in training analyses.)

One of her early patients was a very silent child. She tried giving him toys, discovered she could interpret his play as if it had been verbal associations, and so found herself in possession of a new implement of psycho-analytic research. The results of her research with this implement, which she began to publish in a long series of papers and a few books, were regarded by some as departures from Freud and are still often criticized as such. Others, including her own teacher Abraham, till his death in 1926, welcomed them as important contributions to analytic insight and therapeutic power. She herself always saw her work as rooted in Freud’s and a development of it, which inevitably also involved some modifications.

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