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10 Parthenium Weed: Uses and Abuses

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF

10

Parthenium Weed: Uses and

Abuses

Nimal Chandrasena1* and Adusumilli Narayana

Rao2

1GHD

Water Sciences, Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia;

Hyderabad, India

2ICRISAT,

10.1  Introduction

Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus

L.), a plant of the Asteraceae family, has long been recognized as a weed of global significance (Aneja et al., 1991; Towers and Subba

Rao, 1992; Evans, 1997; Pandey et al., 2003).

It is an annual herb, native to the area around the Gulf of Mexico, including the

Caribbean islands and central South America. After introductions and spread in other regions, parthenium weed now has a pantropical distribution. It normally grows fast, producing an adult plant, about 1.5 m in height, which produces flowers early, and sets a large number of seeds in its lifetime

(Adkins and Shabbir, 2014). The weed can also grow under wide ecological conditions

– from sea level up to 3000 m (K. Dhileepan,

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5 Impacts on the Environment

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5

Impacts on the Environment

Arne Witt1* and Amalia Belgeri2

1CABI,

Nairobi, Kenya; 2AGROTERRA S.A., Montevideo, Uruguay

5.1  Introduction

Invasive species can alter the production, maintenance and quality of ecosystem services (Levine et al., 2003; Brooks et al., 2004;

Kimbro et  al., 2009), which are broadly defined as the benefits provided to people by natural ecosystems and include provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services (MEA, 2005). Invasive plant species change community structure and function through exploitation (resource use) and interference (competition for resources and possibly allelopathy). According to Vilà et al.

(2010), invasive plants decrease species diversity and abundance by c.51% and c.44%, respectively, also reducing fitness and growth of native plant species by c.42% and 22%, respectively. By reducing native species diversity, abundance, fitness and distribution and by altering community structure, alien invasive plant species have a significant impact on ecosystem services

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14 History and Management – Southern Africa and Western Indian Ocean Islands

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14

History and Management –

Southern Africa and Western

Indian Ocean Islands

Lorraine W. Strathie1* and Andrew J.

McConnachie2

1Agricultural

Research Council – Plant Health and Protection,

Hilton, South Africa; 2Department of Primary Industries,

Biosecurity and Food Safety, Orange, New South Wales, Australia

14.1  Introduction

along many of the national road networks that link South Africa, Swaziland and

In Africa, parthenium weed (Parthenium hys- Mozambique, as well as at or near country terophorus L.) is present in Egypt in North border posts, increasing the risk of dispersal

Africa and in the East African countries of to new countries. The probability of invasion

Somalia, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, increases with time as infestations continue

Eritrea and Ethiopia (McConnachie and to expand.

Dense parthenium weed infestations

Witt, Chapter 15, this volume). In Southern

Africa, parthenium weed has invaded South occur in subsistence (Fig. 14.1A) and comAfrica, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, mercial (Fig. 14.1B) agricultural production

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1 An Introduction to the ‘Demon Plant’ Parthenium Weed

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF

1

An Introduction to the ‘Demon

Plant’ Parthenium Weed

Steve W. Adkins,1* Asad Shabbir2 and

Kunjithapatham Dhileepan3

1The

University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia; of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; current affiliation

The University of Sydney, Narrabri, New South Wales, Australia;

3Biosecurity Queensland, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries,

Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

2University

1.1  Introduction

In this book we ask the question, in parthenium weed do we have the ‘worst weed the world has ever encountered’? The conclusion we have reached is, if not yet, then we soon will have! As this phenomenal ‘demon plant’ spreads around the world at a remarkable rate, causing such devastating outcomes to all aspects of agriculture, horticulture, forestry and the natural environment, as well as being a significant health concern, it is coming under unparalleled scientific and public scrutiny.

Parthenium Weed: Biology, Ecology and

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9 Coordination of Management

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9

Coordination of Management

Asad Shabbir,1* Sushilkumar,2 Ian A. W. Macdonald3 and Colette Terblanche4

1University

of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; current affiliation Plant

Breeding Institute, the University of Sydney, Narrabri, New South

Wales, Australia; 2ICAR, Directorate of Weed Research Adhartal,

Jabalpur, India; 3International Environmental Consultant, KwaZuluNatal, South Africa; 4Colterra Environmental Consultants, KwaZuluNatal, South Africa

9.1  Introduction

Throughout the world, except in a very few extreme environments, the challenge posed by invasive alien organisms far exceeds the capacity to manage them. Unfortunately, all the indications are that the problem is increasing and is likely to continue to do so for the foreseeable future, given current trends. Under such a scenario it is crucially important that the effectiveness of management is maximized. In this chapter, the important role that coordination can play in managing one of the world’s most invasive and harmful alien plant species, parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), is addressed.

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