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13 Palkhi: A Moving Sacred Town

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13

Palkhi: A Moving Sacred Town

Kiran A. Shinde*

University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Introduction

The Hindi term ‘palkhi’ (pālkı̄) simply means

‘palanquin’ or ‘chariot’. This term is most commonly used in a religious context in Maharashtra, a state in the Western part of India, where pilgrims and devotees carry replicas of the feet of a saint in a palanquin, or a covered sedan chair carried by four to six bearers. This devotional practice is rooted in the bhakti movement, a theistic ­devotional movement stemming from medieval Hinduism (Lele, 1981; Hawley, 2009), follows the journey that a particular saint took in travelling to worship a deity. Over the centuries, the colloquial meaning of ‘palkhi’ has become synonymous with the pilgrimage movements of two saints: the Dnyaneshwar palkhi that originates from the town of Alandi, and the Tukaram palkhi that ­originates from Dehu. Both palkhi culminate at P

­ andharpur and the Vitthal temple, which is home to the deity Vithoba, considered a manifestation of the god Vishnu or his avatar, Krishna. Both of these palkhi or processions take place between July and August

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19 Pilgrimage and Identity along the Mormon Trail

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19

Pilgrimage and Identity along the Mormon Trail

Daniel H. Olsen* and Brian J. Hill

Brigham Young University, Utah, USA

Introduction

The year 1997 marked a time of much excitement among members of The Church of Jesus

Christ of Latter-day Saints (Latter-day Saints or

Mormons) in North America and around the world. Not unlike the year 2000 which was significant for technological and religious/eschatological reasons (e.g. Horrocks, 1999; Olsen and

Timothy, 1999; Cowan, 2003; Schaefer, 2004;

Pärna, 2010), 1997 was an important year for

Latter-day Saints, marking the sesquicentennial of the crossing of the early Mormon pioneers from the United States into Mexican territory to establish a religious utopia in the midst of the

Rocky Mountains. Every year Latter-day Saints around the world celebrate Pioneer Day, a commemoration of the entry of the first pioneer company into the Salt Lake V

­ alley in modern-­day Utah after a journey along what is known today as the

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6 The European Cultural Route of Saint Martin of Tours

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6

The European Cultural Route of Saint Martin of Tours

Raffaella Afferni* and Carla Ferrario

University of Eastern Piedmont, Vercelli, Italy

Introduction

Pilgrimage is an important aspect of the world’s major religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam,

Judaism and Christianity), and one of the most common religious and cultural phenomena of human society (Collins-Kreiner, 2010).1 In Europe, experiences tied to sacred sites were important in classical times, but it was in the Middle Ages that they reached their apogee. The Church encouraged people to make pilgrimages to holy places and shrines, promising that if they prayed at these shrines they might be absolved of their sins and have a better chance of going to heaven.

This religious practice fell into decline during the Reformation, as was perhaps inevitable, due to the superstitions and abuses associated with it. In recent times, the practice of pilgrimage has taken on increasing importance

(Cohen, 1992), and the Via Francigena, Camino de Santiago, Saint Martin of Tours Route and other itineraries have become channels of communication contributing to the recovery of the cultural unity that characterized Europe in the Middle Ages (Dallari et al., 2006). In recent centuries, routes to sacred sites have declined in importance due to advanced processes of secularization that have remodelled lifestyle patterns, visions and perspectives. However,

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21 Discussion Points

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21

Discussion Points

Chapter 1: Discussion Questions

Explain why there has been an increased interest in religious and pilgrimage travel.

Why have religous pilgrimage routes and trails become so popular?

Can you think of additional types of themes used in linear tourism development?

What are the benefits of developing linear tourism routes and trails?

What is the difference between a route and a trail?

Chapter 2: Discussion Questions

The religious itinerary is rooted in the territories to which it belongs, becoming cultural capital that is made available by means of a mechanism of social identification. To what degree does this embeddedness (cognitive exchange with the outside) change the cultural characteristics of the religious itinerary?

What is the role of the cultural product represented by the religious itinerary in developing the cognitive potential of the regions involved?

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7 The Camino de Santiago de Compostela: The Most Important Historic Pilgrimage Way in Europe

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7

The Camino de Santiago de Compostela: The Most

Important Historic Pilgrimage

Way in Europe

Rubén C. Lois-González,* Xosé M. Santos and Pilar Taboada-de-Zúñiga Romero

University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Introduction

The Camino de Santiago has achieved great

­significance in recent years. In international academic literature, there are abundant bibliographies that analyse this phenomenon from different disciplinary perspectives (Graham and Murray,

1997; Murray and Graham, 1997; Frey, 1998;

Slavin, 2003; Tilson, 2005; Pack, 2008, 2010;

Murray, 2014; Lois-González and Santos, 2015;

Nilsson and Tesfahuney, 2016; Sánchez y Sánchez and Hesp, 2016). Among the most plentiful are those referring to tourism, relating it, for example, to the resurgence of pilgrimages and their new motivations. In addition, the Camino de Santiago has served as a stimulus for the recovery and creation of old and new pilgrimage routes.

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