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6 The European Cultural Route of Saint Martin of Tours

Olsen, D.H.; Trono, A. CABI PDF

6

The European Cultural Route of Saint Martin of Tours

Raffaella Afferni* and Carla Ferrario

University of Eastern Piedmont, Vercelli, Italy

Introduction

Pilgrimage is an important aspect of the world’s major religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam,

Judaism and Christianity), and one of the most common religious and cultural phenomena of human society (Collins-Kreiner, 2010).1 In Europe, experiences tied to sacred sites were important in classical times, but it was in the Middle Ages that they reached their apogee. The Church encouraged people to make pilgrimages to holy places and shrines, promising that if they prayed at these shrines they might be absolved of their sins and have a better chance of going to heaven.

This religious practice fell into decline during the Reformation, as was perhaps inevitable, due to the superstitions and abuses associated with it. In recent times, the practice of pilgrimage has taken on increasing importance

(Cohen, 1992), and the Via Francigena, Camino de Santiago, Saint Martin of Tours Route and other itineraries have become channels of communication contributing to the recovery of the cultural unity that characterized Europe in the Middle Ages (Dallari et al., 2006). In recent centuries, routes to sacred sites have declined in importance due to advanced processes of secularization that have remodelled lifestyle patterns, visions and perspectives. However,

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12 The Ways to Jerusalem: Maritime, Cultural and Pilgrimage Routes

Olsen, D.H.; Trono, A. CABI PDF

12

The Ways to Jerusalem:

Maritime, Cultural and

Pilgrimage Routes

Anna Trono* and Marco Leo Imperiale#

University of Salento, Lecce, Italy

Introduction

Cultural tourism is growing because of the increased interest in archaeological heritage,

­ museums, events and regional characteristics.

Promotion of cultural attractions is increasingly oriented towards representing the significant moments of a visit to a region and the cognitive and emotional enrichment of the visitor, who is the target of tourism services based on authenticity, creativity and adventure. This demand is met especially by ‘authentic’ and ‘adventurous’ cultural itineraries that enable profound and original experiences, which are even more appealing if they are superimposed on ancient routes, such as those travelled by warriors, merchants and pilgrims. These historic routes give meaning to the journey, especially among young people.

Unlike the past, the journey is not motivated by a desire to wander or a search for risk, heroism or a

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4 The Role of Heritage Tourism in the Management and Promotion of Pilgrimage Trails and Routes

Olsen, D.H.; Trono, A. CABI PDF

4

The Role of Heritage Tourism in the Management and

Promotion of Pilgrimage Trails and Routes

Stephen W. Boyd*

Ulster University, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK

Introduction

A cursory glance at the title of this chapter would suggest there is a clear and positive association between heritage tourism and the promotion and management of pilgrimage space. Few would question that heritage tourism is recognized as one of the oldest forms of tourism where the past is consumed and reflected in contemporary culture. Pilgrimage movements, being one of the earliest forms of that travel, have emerged today as having significance in many people’s lives over hedonistic and special interest forms of travel

(Olsen and Timothy, 2006; Jackowski and Smith,

1992). People engage in a pilgrimage for many reasons that go beyond the traditional motives of religion and spirituality. While secular pilgrimages to non-sacred locations have increased in recent years, they still take on some of the themes of the seeking after something, following someone, and being drawn to specific places. This chapter does not seek to address the nature of these pilgrimages as such, but rather the role that set routes and trails facilitate.

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18 The Talpa de Allende Pilgrimage Trail

Olsen, D.H.; Trono, A. CABI PDF

18

The Talpa de Allende

Pilgrimage Trail

Daniel H. Olsen1* and Rodrigo Espinoza Sánchez2

Brigham Young University, Utah, USA; 2Universidad de

Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de la Costa, Campus

Puerto Vallarta, Guadalajara, Mexico

1

Introduction

For centuries, the people of Mexico have t­ ravelled long distances to visit sites of religious and spiritual significance for a wide range of reasons, including worship and participation in i­ nitiatory or cleansing rituals, the fulfilment of vows, and curiosity (Morinis, 1992). Pilgrimage in Mexico extends back to the Mayan civilization, as attested through numerous archeological studies and sites (e.g. McCafferty, 1996; Glover et al., 2011;

Patel, 2012). Indeed, cultural and archaeological tourism to Mexico is an important niche market mixing religious tourism with indigenous tourism, particularly as it relates to New Age spirituality (van den Berghe, 1995; Castaneda,

1996; Carlson, 1999; Juárez, 2002; Medina,

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16 The Shikoku Pilgrimage: Popularity and the Pilgrim’s Transaction

Olsen, D.H.; Trono, A. CABI PDF

16

The Shikoku Pilgrimage:

Popularity and the Pilgrim’s

Transaction

Greg Wilkinson*

Brigham Young University, Utah, USA

Pilgrimage is as concerned with taking back some part of the charisma of a holy place as it is about actually going to the place. (Coleman and

Elsner, 1995, p. 100)

Today religion is more threatened than ever, yet sacred journeys are more popular than ever.

(Feiler, 2014)

Introduction

In 2014, Bruce Feiler started each episode of his

PBS series, Sacred Journeys, with the above quote.

If the validity of Feiler’s assertion is assumed, the question of why this might be arises. In his series,

Feiler travels to several of the world’s most well-­visited religious sites, including Jerusalem,

Lourdes, Mecca and the Ganges River. While each of these locations is a popular pilgrimage location, with millions of people visiting these sacred sites every year, Feiler noted that each location has been affected by secularism and religious strife in different ways. For example, some visitors have reported a decline in participation at Lourdes since its 150th anniversary in 2008 (Caprino,

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