15 Chapters
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3: Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

3 

Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in

Drug Delivery

Neerupma Dhiman*

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, India

Abstract

The application of hydrocolloids in pharmaceutical formulations includes their use in the manufacture of

­implants, films, beads, microparticles, nanoparticles, and inhalable and injectable systems, as well as viscous

­liquid formulations. The biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of hydrocolloid-based hydrogels and their importance are the highlights of this chapter.

Introduction

The design and development of new drug molecules is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Later, they have to be transported in the human and/or animal body and in this regard the drug delivery is an important process.

It is the method of administering the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. The controlled delivery systems or controlled release technology (CRT) provide release at a predetermined, predictable and controlled rate to achieve high therapeutic efficiency with minimal toxicity (Pandey et al., 2012). Hence, the development of novel drug delivery vehicles is an essential step towards controlled and site-­ specific administration of therapeutics. The desirable characteristics are that these should be introduced into the body through minimally invasive means and that these vehicles should

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10: Microencapsulation for Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and Prebiotics

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

10 

Microencapsulation for Controlled

Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and

Prebiotics

Preeti Panthari1,* and Harsha Kharkwal2

Amity Institute of Phytochemistry and Phytomedicine, Amity University, Noida, India;

2

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

1

Abstract

Microencapsulation of bioactive compounds (such as antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, omega-3 lipids and probiotics) has been increasingly studied extensively due to interest in nutraceutical components and functional foods. The main objective of this technique is to protect the bioactive compounds from diminished functionality due to environmental conditions such as oxygen, pH, humidity, light or temperature. Among the different microencapsulation processes, spray drying produces a final powder product with good-quality properties for distribution, transportation and storage. In this regard, a wide variety of encapsulation agents have been studied for increasing the viability of the bioactive compounds and to promote an additional functionality in the final product as well, such as prebiotics. Prebiotics are soluble carbohydrates that humans are unable to digest, which selectively enhance Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus growth (microorganisms commonly present in the human gut). Some examples include inulin, fructans (fructo-oligosaccharides) and galacto-saccharides. In addition, several microorganisms (probiotics) have demonstrated beneficial effects in humans, and these have been attributed to lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid production, as well as to a reduction in the pH of the colon, which causes a decrease in the survival of pathogenic bacteria. This chapter considers the enhanced efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics through microencapsulation in addressing gastrointestinal diseases.

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1 Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery: An Introduction

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

1  Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery:

An Introduction

Harsha Kharkwal1,* Bhanu Malhotra2 and Srinivas Janaswamy3

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Institute of Biotechnology and

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research, Amity University, Noida, India;

3

Department of Dairy and Food Science, South Dakota State University,

South Dakota, USA

1

Abstract

Natural polymers are macromolecules composed of repeating structural units joined by covalent bonds. Carbohydrates, proteins and muscle fibres are known examples and have potential as drug delivery systems. A typical delivery system aims at slow and tissue-specific release, and as natural polymers exhibit biodegradability and biocompatibility they are well suited for this purpose. Natural polymers are also utilized as excipients and over the years, new advances in the treatment of diseases using the approach of site specific drug delivery by the utilization of polymers have emerged with several promises. This chapter highlights some available examples with an emphasis on their potent applications and properties in the drug domain.

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15: Bioengineered Wound and Burn Healing Substitutes: Novel Design for Biomedical Applications and General Aspects

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

15 

Bioengineered Wound and Burn

Healing Substitutes: Novel Design for Biomedical Applications and General Aspects

Erdal Cevher1, Ali Demir Sezer2,* and Ayca Yıldız Peköz1

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul ­

University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology,

Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey

1

Abstract

Wound healing is the inherent ability of an organism to protect itself against injuries. Cumulative evidence

­indicates that the healing process patterns in part embryonic morphogenesis and may result in either organ regeneration or scarring, phenomena that are developmental stage- or age-dependent. Tissue regeneration by using biomaterials and skin grafting materials in periapical surgery is an example of tissue engineering technology. Significant progress has been made in the development of in vitro-engineered skin substitutes that mimic human skin, either to be used for the replacement of lost skin or for the establishment of in vitro skin research models. Full-thickness skin deficits are indications to autologic skin graft. In extensive skin injuries an employment of skin substitutes is sometimes necessary. This review presents the classification of skin substitutes (permanent, temporary, biological, synthetic). The different kinds of skin substitutes approved for commercial production are described (epidermal substitutes, dermal substitutes, composite dermo-epidermal substitutes).

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9: Protein–Drug Conjugates: A New Class of Biotherapeutics

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

9 

Protein–Drug Conjugates: A New

Class of Biotherapeutics

Deepshikha Pande Katare1,*, Savita Mishra1, Harsha Kharkwal2 and S.K. Jain3

Centre for Medical Biotechnology, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University

Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and

Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University

Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and

Research, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India

1

Abstract

There is an increasing need for a novel drug delivery system in the current clinical scenario. Over the past few decades recombinant human proteins, enzymes, monoclonal antibodies and drug conjugates (ADCs) have changed the pharmaceutical industry. This chapter highlights current and emerging methods for the development of stable and effective antibody–drug conjugates that provide target-specific therapy for various life-threatening diseases such as cancer.

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