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3: Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

3 

Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in

Drug Delivery

Neerupma Dhiman*

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, India

Abstract

The application of hydrocolloids in pharmaceutical formulations includes their use in the manufacture of

­implants, films, beads, microparticles, nanoparticles, and inhalable and injectable systems, as well as viscous

­liquid formulations. The biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of hydrocolloid-based hydrogels and their importance are the highlights of this chapter.

Introduction

The design and development of new drug molecules is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Later, they have to be transported in the human and/or animal body and in this regard the drug delivery is an important process.

It is the method of administering the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. The controlled delivery systems or controlled release technology (CRT) provide release at a predetermined, predictable and controlled rate to achieve high therapeutic efficiency with minimal toxicity (Pandey et al., 2012). Hence, the development of novel drug delivery vehicles is an essential step towards controlled and site-­ specific administration of therapeutics. The desirable characteristics are that these should be introduced into the body through minimally invasive means and that these vehicles should

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8: Polymer–Drug Conjugates: Targeted Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

8 Polymer–drug Conjugates: Targeted

Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Amit Kumar Tyagi3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity

Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh,

Noida, India; 3Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Division of Cancer

­Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA

1

Abstract

Polymer therapeutics is a promising area in medicine and has led to the recent development of enhanced, ­targeted drug delivery systems. The fast-growing field of polymeric drug conjugates, almost a dozen of which are close to the clinical trial stage, have demonstrated several advantages over the parent drugs. These include ease of drug administration with fewer side effects, improved patient compliance, enhanced therapeutic efficacy, concentration and absorption, improved pharmacokinetics and stability. This chapter considers the potential of polymer– drug conjugates, which are going beyond classical methodologies, and their utility for treating major human diseases and new targets.

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1 Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery: An Introduction

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

1  Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery:

An Introduction

Harsha Kharkwal1,* Bhanu Malhotra2 and Srinivas Janaswamy3

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Institute of Biotechnology and

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research, Amity University, Noida, India;

3

Department of Dairy and Food Science, South Dakota State University,

South Dakota, USA

1

Abstract

Natural polymers are macromolecules composed of repeating structural units joined by covalent bonds. Carbohydrates, proteins and muscle fibres are known examples and have potential as drug delivery systems. A typical delivery system aims at slow and tissue-specific release, and as natural polymers exhibit biodegradability and biocompatibility they are well suited for this purpose. Natural polymers are also utilized as excipients and over the years, new advances in the treatment of diseases using the approach of site specific drug delivery by the utilization of polymers have emerged with several promises. This chapter highlights some available examples with an emphasis on their potent applications and properties in the drug domain.

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12: Polymers as Biodegradable Matrices in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

12 

Polymers as Biodegradable Matrices in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Anuradha Srivastava3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity

Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh,

Noida, India; 3Biological Sciences and Geology, Queensborough Community

College, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

The conventional forms of oral dosage have significant disadvantages including poor bioavailability in hepatic metabolism and drug degradation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to enzymes and different pH ranges in these tracts. One effective route for drug absorption into the body and then into the systematic circulation to circumvent such issues is the skin. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) have emerged, combining high therapeutic efficacy with safety, reducing the number and size of dose administration significantly. TDDS are being pioneered in medical practices as alternatives to hypodermic injections and oral drug delivery systems. The therapeutic agents are introduced through the skin into the systemic circulation through the use of transdermal patches. This chapter presents an overview of TDDS practices, and the use of various biopolymers for drug delivery, and discusses the potential advantages and issues related to them.

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14: Polymers Targeting Habitual Diseases

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

14 

Polymers Targeting Habitual Diseases

Bhanu Malhotra1, Preeti Panthari2, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Madhav P. Yadav3

1

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research, Amity University Uttar

Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Sustainable Biofuels and Co-Products Research Unit,

USDA, Wyndmoor, Pennyslvania, USA

Abstract

The use of polymeric drug conjugates mainly as a cancer therapy treatment has been addressed, but these

­polymers also find their way into the treatment of various lifestyle disorders such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Focus is on the development of biodegradable, polymer-based drug conjugates which can be administered easily and pose no side effects. This chapter illustrates the role and applications of polymer− drug conjugates for the treatment of diabetes, atherosclerosis and colon-specific diseases, and their future prospects. Although cutting-edge research is yet to emerge, polymeric drugs stand out as an exciting example of how their horizon is expanding beyond cancer therapy to other therapeutic applications.

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