42 Chapters
Medium 9781780646138

39: What Do We Have To Lose? Monitoring Crop Genetic Diversity

Maxted, N.; Dulloo, M.E.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V. CABI PDF

39 

What Do We Have To Lose?

Monitoring Crop Genetic Diversity

M.E. Dulloo,* I. Thormann and A.G. Drucker

Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

You can’t manage what you don’t measure

(Peter Drucker)

39.1  Introduction

Crop genetic resources for food and agriculture are the basis for sustainable agriculture and food and nutrition security, as well for maintaining essential ecosystem services (Hajjar et al., 2008; FAO, 2015). While they play an essential role in securing basic human food and nutritional needs (Dulloo et al., 2014), they are also critical in maintaining healthy evosystems

(services provided by evolutionary services)

(Faith et  al., 2010). These help support landscape-level agroecosystem resilience, as well as allowing plants and animals to undergo natural evolutionary processes (Frankham, 2010), which in turn generate broad genetic variation that is essential for crops, trees and animals to adapt to change (Bellon, 2009). Genetic diversity thus represents the essential raw material for species to evolve and to adapt. Maintaining crop diversity is a key strategy for farmers around the world to guarantee their sustenance.

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23: Landrace Conservation of Maize in Mexico: an Evolutionary Breeding Interpretation

Maxted, N.; Dulloo, M.E.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V. CABI PDF

23 

Landrace Conservation of Maize in Mexico: an Evolutionary Breeding

Interpretation

H. Perales*

El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Carretera Panamericana y

Periferico Sur s/n, San Cristobal, Mexico

23.1  Introduction

At the inception of the crop genetic resources conservation movement, ex situ methods were the preferred way to proceed (Frankel, 1970).

This contrasts to the preferences for wild species where ex situ methods are generally viewed as remedial, a welcomed addition but no way forward. Frankel noted (1970) that ‘we conclude that the prospects of long-term conservation of

“primitive” populations in their natural habitat, with anything like their current population dynamics, is generally much more tenuous than that of wild plants’. The indispensable nature of crop genetic resources for human survival and the uncertain nature of the conservation of crop variants in farmers’ fields were strong arguments for this position.

The view of the relationship between in situ and ex situ conservation for crop genetic resources has changed since the 1990s. Case studies documented that the expected replacement of traditional landraces with commercial seeds was not as simple and straightforward as expected previously (Brush, 1995). The Convention on Biological

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30: Chickpea Wild Relatives and Landraces of Georgia

Maxted, N.; Dulloo, M.E.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V. CABI PDF

30 

Chickpea Wild Relatives and

Landraces of Georgia

A. Korakhashvili*

National Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia

30.1  Introduction

In Georgia, the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a traditional grain legume crop influencing the food supply chain, especially in warmer and drier regions. This crop has been a dominant legume species in Georgian agriculture during the past 30 centuries, but no longer is so, being replaced by other grain legumes such as bean and soybean. Nevertheless, demand for chickpea is growing here at present, because of the good nutritive value of the seeds and the recently changing climate creating favourable conditions for chickpea cultivation. Food legumes in Georgia, though secondary to cereals in terms of production and consumption, have an important role in both sustainable crop production systems and human nutrition. They form an important component of the population’s diet in the developing countries of Transcaucasia. Chickpea is not only a source of human food but also is a powerful tool for restructuring the arable lands of Georgia and heightening the fertility of soils. Our forefathers knew well the high nutritive value of this crop and its positive effect, including its medicinal characteristics, on humans and their domestic livestock, who consumed the crop green or as straw.

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18: Developing a Crop Wild Relative Conservation Strategy for Finland

Maxted, N.; Dulloo, M.E.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V. CABI PDF

18 

Developing a Crop Wild Relative

Conservation Strategy for Finland

H. Fitzgerald,1* H. Korpelainen2 and M. Veteläinen3

Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;

2

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;

3

Boreal Plant Breeding Ltd, Jokioinen, Finland

1

18.1  Introduction

18.2  Methodology

Crop wild relatives (CWR) are wild plant species that are related to cultivated plants. CWR species have the potential to enhance agricultural production by allowing crops to survive through plant breeding in the new environmental conditions resulting from climate change and help in providing future food security. Since CWR are valuable wild species, mostly not included in conservation programmes and themselves often threatened or growing in threatened habitats, they require urgent research and conservation.

This article discusses the process of preparing the Finnish crop wild relative conservation strategy, which was created as part of the EU

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31: Landrace Inventories and Recommendations for In Situ Conservation in Finland

Maxted, N.; Dulloo, M.E.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V. CABI PDF

31  Landrace Inventories and

Recommendations for In Situ

Conservation in Finland

M. Heinonen*

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Genetic Diversity, Jokioinen, Finland

31.1  Need for Landrace Inventory

In Finland, landraces and local strains are still cultivated to some extent, especially landraces of cereals, forages, fruit, berries and some vegetables.

However, there are no comprehensive statistics on landrace cultivation. Since 2000, a decree for conservation varieties, their seed production, approval and marketing has been applied to cereals, forages, pulses and some other arable land crops in Finland. This was the first European support system for the on-farm cultivation of arable landraces and old cultivars (Paavilainen,

2009). Today, there are 29 registered conservation varieties. Furthermore, eight local strains of forages and one landrace potato have been accepted to the National List of Plant Varieties.

(Evira, 2014). Many papers specifically referring to Europe (e.g. Veteläinen et al., 2009) have stressed the need for a landrace in situ inventory.

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