39 Chapters
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10: Use of Biotechnology in Promoting Novel Food and Agriculturally Important Microorganisms

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

10 

Use of Biotechnology in Promoting

Novel Food and Agriculturally

Important Microorganisms

Duraisamy Saravanakumar and Neela Badrie*

Department of Food Production, The University of the West Indies,

St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago

Abstract

This chapter reviews the various applications of microbes in agriculture, characterization of novel microbial genes and enzymes useful in food and agriculture, and biotechnological tools used to augment the activity of microbes and their products. Microorganisms have many associations with plant communities such as commensalism, synergism, mutualism and antagonism. Some of these associations result in beneficial interactions between plants and microorganisms for various purposes, such as promotion of plant growth, guarding the plant from other harmful interactions and production of safer foods which are free from inorganic chemicals. In addition, microorganisms have been studied for their vital roles in various food production and fermentation industries. The utility of microorganisms demonstrated so far in the field of food and agriculture necessitates further characterization and identification of novel microbes and the untapped potential use of their enzymes and gene products. The availability of various traditional and classical approaches aid in the identification and characterization of microbes to some extent, however, conspicuously the advent of biotechnology has opened up many more techniques that can be used to characterize and promote agriculturally important beneficial microorganisms.

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34: Industrial Additives Obtained Through Microbial Biotechnology: Bioflavours and Biocolourants

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

34 

Industrial Additives Obtained

Through Microbial Biotechnology:

Bioflavours and Biocolourants

Gustavo Molina,1,2* Meissa R.E. Abrahão,1 Marina G. Pessôa,1

Murillo Lino Bution,1 Bruno N. Paulino,1 Iramaia A. Néri-Numa1 and Gláucia M. Pastore1

1

Department of Food Science, UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil;

2

Institute of Science and Technology, Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM), Diamantina, Brazil

Abstract

Biotechnology offers unique opportunities to produce natural food ingredients, and this area has expanded

­considerably in recent years bringing new possibilities for the production of industrial additives. Aroma compounds are remarkable for their volatility and chemical diversity, such as lactones, hydrocarbons, alcohols,

­ketones, aldehydes, acids or esters, with an important application and market. The biotechnological production of these compounds has shown several advantages compared with chemical production, such as the elevated velocity for ­reactions, multi-step synthesis and high stereospecificity. In the same approach, recent data makes clear the advantages of using microorganisms to produce biocolourants. These compounds have been added to food, drinks, clothes, paints, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, for example, enhancing their appeal and acceptability by consumers. In this perspective, this chapter is focused on the biotechnological production of bioflavours and biocolourants, and aims to show their potential to industry, especially when obtained by means of biotechnological processes. Additionally, this chapter aims to cover an extensive and recent review of the literature, highlighting key advances in the production of additives through microbial biotechnology, the potential and challenges of this area and the future prospects.

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29: Recent Developments on Algal Biofuel Technology

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

29 

Recent Developments on Algal

Biofuel Technology

Rachel Long, Philip Sanderson and Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman*

Technology Futures Institute, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, UK

Abstract

Microalgae provide great promise for the production of biofuels as they have the highest growth rates of all photosynthetic organisms and have demonstrated high levels of desirable products required for biofuel production without competing for land or resources from the agriculture industry. It has been established that the type of algae chosen to cultivate is very important. This can affect which techniques may be best to use for harvesting and converting algae to biofuels. It is important to consider the lipid content of the algae and its growth rate as a high yield shall be needed from the process, but it must also be of high quality. The research that has been conducted so far has proven very useful, however, there is still much to learn when it comes to the best techniques to use for the production of biofuels. Any process utilizing microalgae needs to be cost-effective to be commercially viable and be able to fit into the current fuel demand without altering distribution or storage processes. In order to achieve a positive energy balance which will be important when considering cost-effective processes, a highly optimized production system is required. In recent scientific discussions, many of the environmental impacts and cost-performance points raised produce both challenges and opportunities that would require further research and the potential integration of other processes. Once a gold standard has been established for the cultivation of algal biomass and lipid extraction methods, commercialization of algal biofuel production will soon follow.

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4: The Role of Bacillus Bacterium in Formation of Plant Defence: Mechanism and Reaction

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

4 

The Role of Bacillus Bacterium in Formation of Plant Defence:

Mechanism and Reaction

Igor Maksimov* and Ramil Khairullin

Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

Abstract

This review analyses data on the physiological and biochemical influence of rhizospheric and endophytic plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from the genus Bacillus on mechanisms of resistance of plants and considers the possibility of their use in agriculture for protecting crops against pathogens and pests. Published results showed that some strains of Bacillus spp. elicit significant reduction of incidence or severity of various plant

­diseases. PGPR-promoted defence of plants develops as a result of their endosymbiotic interrelationships. This mechanism is directly achieved by the bacteria producing peptide antibiotics and hydrolases of chitin and glucan and also because the plants form their own system of induced systemic resistance (ISR), accompanied by changes in the balance of defensive proteins, hormones and pro-/antioxidant status.

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33: Industrial Additives Obtained Through Microbial Biotechnology: Biosurfactants and Prebiotic Carbohydrates

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

33 

Industrial Additives Obtained

Through Microbial Biotechnology:

Biosurfactants and Prebiotic

Carbohydrates

Iramaia A. Néri-Numa,1 Bruno N. Paulino,1 Marina G. Pessôa,1 Meissa R.E.

Abrahão,1 Murillo Lino Bution,1 Gustavo Molina1,2* and Gláucia M. Pastore1

1

Department of Food Science, UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 2Institute of Science and Technology, Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys

(UFVJM), Diamantina, Brazil

Abstract

Industrial biotechnology has expanded considerably in recent years bringing new possibilities for the production of industrial additives. Among the most studied compounds are the the non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) that are related to the bioavailability of minerals, modulation of the immune system, prevention of gastrointestinal infections, regulation of metabolism disorders related to obesity and type 2 diabetes, and many other important health allegations. There is an increasing market for health-promoting NDO food ingredients whose

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