39 Chapters
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27: Exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Bacteria: an Ideal Source of Biopolymers

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

27 

Exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing

Bacteria: an Ideal Source of Biopolymers

Kanika Sharma1* and Hema Chandran2

Department of Botany and Department of Biotechnology,

Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India; 2Department of Botany,

Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India

1

Abstract

Polysaccharides are the most abundant carbon sources in the biosphere, thus it is no surprise that their uses and applications are wide ranging. Extended use of polysaccharides has initiated a need to focus research on the isolation of polysaccharides from natural resources. Among the natural resources used for polysaccharide isolation interest has focused on bacterial extracellular polysaccharides as they are candidates for many commercial applications in different industrial sectors such as food, petroleum, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. These polysaccharides have enabled the industry to replace the traditionally used gums from plants and algae due to the possibility of easy and quick mass production. Bacterial polysaccharides are eco-friendly in nature and are susceptible to natural biodegradation causing little damage to the environment and thus diminishing pollution. These polysaccharides are also not vulnerable to changes in climate and geographical barriers. Thus this chapter encompasses the various sources for isolating exopolysaccharides (EPS) producers, screening methods used for their isolation, polysaccharide recovery, quantification and purification methods.

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21: Microbial Chitinase: Production and Potential Applications

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

21 

Microbial Chitinase: Production and Potential Applications

Mohammed Kuddus1* and Saima2

Department of Biochemistry, University of Hail, Saudi Arabia;

2

Department of Biotechnology, Integral University, Lucknow, India

1

Abstract

Chitin, a biopolymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, is extensively found in marine and terrestrial environments.

The chitinase enzyme is able to hydrolyse insoluble chitin into its oligo and monomeric components and has received increased attention because of the broad range of biotechnological and industrial applications including:

(i) pharmaceutically significant chito-oligosaccharides; (ii) single-cell proteins; (iii) protoplast isolation; (iv) control of pathogenic fungi; and (v) treatment of chitinous waste. The enzyme chitinase is found in various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, crustaceans, insects, invertebrates and higher plants. The commercial application of microbial chitinase is attractive as by comparison to other sources of chitinase it lends itself to large-scale production to fulfill the demands of the current world. This chapter covers microbial sources of chitinase, its structure, its production and applications in industrial and biotechnological sectors.

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20: Microbial Xylanases: Production, Applications and Challenges

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

20 

Microbial Xylanases: Production,

Applications and Challenges

Shiv Shankar, Shikha* and Manjul Gupta

Department of Environmental Science,

Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India

Abstract

Xylanases (enzyme code EC 3.2.1.8) are a class of ­enzymes catalysing the degradation of the linear polysaccharide

β-1,4-xylan into xylose, thus breaking down hemicellulose, a major constituent of the plant cell wall. Xylanase production has been reported in a wide spectrum of microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts and filamentous fungi. In the past few years, xylanases have drawn significant attention of the scientific fraternity due to their widespread biotechnological applications such as: (i) in pretreatment of lignocellulosic waste to simple sugars; (ii) production of biobutenol; (iii) animal feed processing; (iv) improvement of bread quality;

(v) biobleaching of fabrics; (vi) pulp bleaching; (vii) silage production; and (viii) treatment of organic waste. The main bottleneck in commercial applications of xylanase-based enzymatic processes is the bulk production of xylanases at an economically viable rate. Therefore, it is exigent to work on cost-effective strategies for large-scale production of xylanases by microbes.

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9: Pleurotus as an Exclusive Eco-Friendly Modular Biotool

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

9 

Pleurotus as an Exclusive

Eco-Friendly Modular Biotool

Ram Naraian,1* Simpal Kumari1 and Siya Ram2

Department of Biotechnology, Mushroom Training and Research Centre

(MTRC), Veer Bahadur Singh ­Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India;

2

School of Biotechnology, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, India

1

Abstract

The basidiomycete genus Pleurotus, commonly known as the oyster mushroom, is a well estabilished and recognized model biotool for many biochemical and biotechnological activities. Members of this genus are naturally widespread in temperate and subtropical environments throughout the world as decomposers of wood. Pleurotus is capable of growing on a wide range of lignocellulosic substrates, including various agricultural and forest wastes. Pleurotus spp. possess a cassette of genes producing important metabolites including lignocellulolytic

­enzymes which enables this group of fungi to be used as an ‘eco-friendly biotool’ for biodegradation, bioremediation, production of multipurpose enzymes, food derivatives, medicinal products, animal fodder, compost and an agent of biobleaching. This chapter compiles comprehensive and detailed accounts of several of the aforementioned activities. As a result of its remarkable characteristics, this fungus has now become an important biotool and the choice of biotechnologists for use as a model employed in innovative research studies, industries and various fields from the laboratory bench to large-scale activities.

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6: Biofilmed Biofertilizers: Application in Agroecosystems

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

6 

Biofilmed Biofertilizers:

Application in Agroecosystems

Udugama V.A. Buddhika,1 Gamini Seneviratne,1* Ekanayake M.H.G.S.

Ekanayake,1 Dasanayake M.N. Senanayake,1 Avanthi D. Igalavithane,1

Nirodha Weeraratne,1 Asgiri P.D.A. Jayasekara,2 Wilfred L. Weerakoon,3

Amila Indrajith,3 Herath M.A.C.Gunaratne,4 Rambandi K.G.K. Kumara,1

Meragalge S.D.L. De Silva5 and Ivan R. Kennedy6

1

National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka; 2Tea Research

Institute of Sri Lanka, Hantana, Sri Lanka; 3Center for Sustainable Agriculture

Research and Development, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka; 4Plenty Foods Private Limited,

Madatugama, Sri Lanka; 5Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Talawakelle,

Sri Lanka; 6Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, University of Sydney, Australia

Abstract

Certain soil microbiota naturally exists as surface-­attached microbial communities in a biofilm mode of growth.

They have been shown to be more effective at functioning than monocultures or mixed cultures of microbes.

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