12 Chapters
Medium 9781780648156

3: Soil Nutrient Mapping for On-farm Fertility Management

Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P.; Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P. CABI PDF

Soil Nutrient Mapping for On-farm

Fertility Management

3

K.L. Sahrawat,† Suhas P. Wani, Girish Chander,*

G. Pardhasaradhi and K. Krishnappa

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid

Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India

3.1  Introduction

Feeding the projected population of 9.1 billion globally and 1.6 billion in India by 2050 is one of the greatest challenges of the century, and in this endeavour to ensure future food security, efficient soil nutrient management is crucial (Wani et al., 2003; Sahrawat et al.,

2010; Chander et al., 2013). Since the era of the Green Revolution in

India in the late 1960s, the focus has been on only three macronutrients, namely nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), and this has brought nutrient imbalances and widespread deficiencies of micro and secondary nutrients such as sulfur (S), boron (B) and zinc

(Zn) in addition to macronutrients (Wani et al., 2009; Sahrawat and

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Medium 9781780648156

6: Institutional Arrangements and Innovations

Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P.; Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P. CABI PDF

Institutional Arrangements and

Innovations

6

K. Krishnappa,* K.H. Anantha, Suhas P. Wani and K.V. Raju

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid

Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India

6.1  Introduction

Modernization of agriculture is a key element in the overall development of developing countries like India. The agriculture sector employs on an average about 55% of the population in India and has significant forward and backward linkages to the rest of the economy. Raising agricultural productivity is the key factor in making agriculture more competitive in rapidly liberalizing world markets as well as increasing the incomes of rural populations. Agriculture is receiving increasing attention as an instrument for growth and in which institutional innovations are seen as key to achieve not only agricultural growth, but also to include poor smallholders in this growth (World Bank, 2008). These institutional innovations are expected to be able to overcome various market failures, including missing or incomplete input and output markets. The World Development Report – 2008 sees a particularly important role for the communities, collective action and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in overcoming some of the market and state failures (World Bank, 2008). Reducing hunger through increasing agricultural production to keep up with population growth while increasing access to food for marginalized populations requires a better understanding of the dynamic and complex relationships between the socio-political, economic, scientific and environmental factors that

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10: Water Productivity and Income

Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P.; Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P. CABI PDF

Water Productivity and Income

10

Kaushal K. Garg,* Suhas P. Wani,

Girish Chander, K.H. Anantha and

G. Pardhasaradhi

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid

Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India

10.1  Introduction

Food security and reducing poverty for the ever-growing population in India is a challenging task. India’s agricultural land is 142 million ha with 135% cropping intensity (NAAS, 2009) and 60% is rainfed, which is characterized by water scarcity, land degradation, low use of inputs and low productivity. Agricultural productivity of these areas oscillates between 0.5 t/ha and 2 t/ha with an average of 1 t/ha (Rockström et al., 2010; Wani et al., 2011a, b). Of the total agricultural area, the

40% that is irrigated land contributes 55% of total food production in the country (GoI, 2012) but on the other hand it consumes almost

70% of freshwater resources and has left limited scope for further expansion of the irrigated area (Central Water Commission, 2005; CGWB,

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11: Social and Economic Benefits

Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P.; Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P. CABI PDF

Social and Economic Benefits

11

K.H. Anantha,* K.V. Raju, Suhas P. Wani,

G. Pardhasaradhi, K. Srinivas, Kaushal K. Garg and K. Krishnappa

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid

Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India

11.1  Introduction

In order to meet the food demand of the growing population, agriculture has to produce more from the available land area and water through more efficient use of natural resources with minimal impact on the environment (Hobbs et al., 2008). Recent data show a general increase in global food production (FAO, 2010) and this can be attributed to both the expansion of cultivated area and technological progress, leading to increased crop yields (Lal, 2009). This yield gain has been achieved largely due to heavy reliance on fertilizers and pesticides, thereby putting pressure on the environment. It is estimated that by 2025,

India’s population is expected to reach 1.45 billion (United Nations, 2006) and the cereal grains requirement will be between 257 million t and 296 million t, depending on income growth (Kumar, 1998; Bhalla et al., 1999).

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12: Lessons Learnt and a Way Forward

Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P.; Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P. CABI PDF

Lessons Learnt and a Way

Forward

12

Suhas P. Wani* and K.V. Raju

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid

Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India

12.1  Introduction

The Bhoochetana project is one of a kind – a scaling-up initiative implemented during 2009–2012 by the Department of Agriculture

­

(DoA), Government of Karnataka, India, with technical support from the consortium led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This unique project has had a good impact as discussed in the earlier chapters (Chapters 1–11) of this book and provides an excellent opportunity for synthesizing the lessons learnt from this novel initiative by a government agency in India and

ICRISAT, an international research organization. The Bhoochetana project has achieved the impact on a large scale, spread over 5.1 million ha in 2013/14 and improved the livelihoods of 4.75 million farmers directly and another 16–18 million people indirectly in 30 districts of the state of Karnataka over 4 years.

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