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2 Experiencing the Arctic in the Past: French Visitors to Finnmark in the Late 1700s and Early 1800s

Lee, Y.-S.; Weaver, D.B.; Prebensen, N.K. CABI PDF

2

Experiencing the Arctic in the Past:

French Visitors to Finnmark in the

Late 1700s and Early 1800s

Isabelle Guissard* and Young-Sook Lee

UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Alta, Norway

Introduction

This chapter traces three elite French visitors to northern Norway who travelled there long before the area began receiving attention as a tourist destination per se. Drawing on archival records and relevant literature, it recounts the travel experiences of the three visitors, who showed interest in the Arctic environment and its people in the late 1700s and early 1800s.

The first story comes from Prince Louis

Philippe’s stay in northern Norway. This stay primarily had political motivations, albeit the prince was interested in science. The second story is about Léonie d’Aunet, who is thought to be the first French woman tourist in the Arctic.

She travelled on La Recherche, a scientific research expedition vessel that was commissioned by Prince Louis Philippe. La Recherche travelled to northern Norwegian locations, such as North Cape and Spitzbergen. As the wife of one of the expedition members on the vessel, her motivations could most closely be related to those of leisurely and touristic visits to the Arctic today. The last example is Roland Bonaparte, a grandnephew of Napoléon Bonaparte, who travelled to northern Norway at the end of the

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7 Degrees of Peripherality in the Production and Consumption of Leisure Tourism in Greenland

Lee, Y.-S.; Weaver, D.B.; Prebensen, N.K. CABI PDF

7

Degrees of Peripherality in the

Production and Consumption of

Leisure Tourism in Greenland

David B. Weaver* and Laura J. Lawton

Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith

University, Australia

Introduction

Evolution of Greenland Tourism

Even by the exotic standards of the Arctic as a region, Greenland (or Kalaallit Nunaat) stands out for its impressive idiosyncrasies. Understated by Kaae (2006: 110) as ‘an emerging destination in extreme cold water’, Greenland has the lowest population density of any of the world’s self-governing geopolitical entities, with

0.026 persons per km2 or 38 km2 per person.

More than 80% of the Danish dependency’s land area of 2,166,000 km2, constituting the world’s largest island, is covered by icecap, and no roads connect any of the 77 fjord-hugging towns and villages that accommodate the

57,000 mostly indigenous residents (Kaae,

2006). The patterns of leisure tourism production and consumption fostered by such isolation are described and analysed in this chapter.

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10 The Arctic Tourism Experience from an Evolving Chinese Perspective

Lee, Y.-S.; Weaver, D.B.; Prebensen, N.K. CABI PDF

10

The Arctic Tourism Experience from an Evolving Chinese Perspective

Ming-Feng Huang,1 Chuanzhong Tang*,1 and

David B. Weaver2

1Surrey

International Institute, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian, China; 2Griffith University, Gold Coast,

Australia

Introduction

The growth in worldwide international tourist arrivals from 278 million in 1980 to 1133 million in 2014 (UNWTO, 2015) has been accompanied by the emergence of new visitor segments and products such as ecotourism, adventure tourism and food tourism. Moreover, all places can now be regarded as tourist destinations, from the deep-sea bed to the summit of the Himalayas, and from the equatorial rainforests to the high-latitude ice sheets. No more than a generation ago, the high latitudes received hardly any attention from international tourists, Snyder and Stonehouse (2007: 3) regarding them as ‘virtually unknown to the general public and poorly understood until the late 19th century’. Visitor numbers to the Arctic have since increased to about 1.5 million per year (UNEP, 2007), but most people even today still regard this region as an aspirational destination, exotic and mysterious, and difficult to reach from other parts of the world. Such a view, for example, pertains to China, which has attracted considerable academic and industry attention as one of the world’s main touristgenerating countries. The Chinese tourist tsunami has already hit nearby destinations such as Hong Kong and Macau with tens of millions of visitors, but as yet the Arctic is only experiencing the smallest of ripples, a situation that will doubtless change in the next two decades.

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20 Arctic Tourism Experiences: Opportunities, Challenges and Future Research Directions for a Changing Periphery

Lee, Y.-S.; Weaver, D.B.; Prebensen, N.K. CABI PDF

20

Arctic Tourism Experiences:

Opportunities, Challenges and

Future Research Directions for a

Changing Periphery

Young-Sook Lee,*,1 David B. Weaver2 and

Nina K. Prebensen1,3

1UiT

The Arctic University of Norway, Alta, Norway; 2Griffith

University, Australia; 3Buskerud and Vestfold University College,

Borre, Norway

Introduction

Macro-level issues such as climate change and heightened efforts for sustainable future life have focused attention on the Arctic. It is not uncommon to be presented with comparable before-and-now photos of some Arctic scenes to demonstrate fast-melting ice and snow in the region and the subsequent effects such as rising sea level (Hodell et al., 1991), changing flora and fauna (Chapin et al., 2012), and subsidence and other changes associated with rapidly melting permafrost (Romanovsky and Osterkamp, 1997). In tandem with these macro-level climatological and geophysical trends, the Arctic has also been increasingly in the limelight as a tourist destination (Pashkevich, 2014). Much of the attention given to the Arctic in tourism studies, indeed, can be attributed to the omnipresent effects of climate change, which is felt imminently and acutely in the region. However, the bigger and more ominous matter of global climate change and sustainable future life seem to occupy most research and business efforts, so that parallel efforts to understand their implications for Arctic tourism are still rather limited.

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8 Northern Lights Experiences in the Arctic Dark: Old Imaginaries and New Tourism Narratives

Lee, Y.-S.; Weaver, D.B.; Prebensen, N.K. CABI PDF

8

Northern Lights Experiences in the

Arctic Dark: Old Imaginaries and

New Tourism Narratives

Stein R. Mathisen*

UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Alta, Norway

Introduction

During the first decades of the third millennium, businesses offering ‘northern lights tourism’ activities have established themselves as some of the fastest-growing tourism businesses in northern Scandinavia (Northern Norway Tourist Board, 2016; Visit Norway, 2016). This development is evident in other Arctic and

­sub-Arctic areas, where the celestial phenomena of the aurora borealis frequently appear, and where destinations are relatively accessible to travelling visitors. Since 2000, due to increased solar activity and magnetic storms, there has been enhanced northern lights activity. Contemporaneously, interest in the Arctic areas and circumpolar regions has increased.

The landscapes in which the northern lights are now abundantly appearing have increasingly become strategically and politically important.

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