12 Chapters
Medium 9781780647753

5: Measuring Youth Entrepreneurship Attributes: The Case of an Out-of-school Youth Training Program in Mindanao, Philippines

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF

5 

Measuring Youth Entrepreneurship

Attributes: The Case of an Out-of-school Youth

Training Program in Mindanao, Philippines

Cynthia Lai,1* Catherine Chan,2 Domenico Dentoni3 and Elma Neyra4

University of Hawai‘i at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 2University of Hawai‘i at

Maˉnoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 3Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands;

4

Southern Christian College, Midsayap, North Cotabato, Philippines

1

5.1  Introduction

The implementation of youth entrepreneurship training programs is motivated by the realization that fostering entrepreneurship, defined in this chapter as starting a new business (­Kelley et al., 2012), can help in addressing youth unemployment when no other alternatives exist

(Rosa, 2006; Geldhof et al., 2014; UNCDF, 2014).

The Millennium Development Goals, established in the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, promoted entrepreneurship as one of the major platforms to support sustainable social and economic development for youth (UNDP,

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647753

1: Agri-entrepreneurs and Their Characteristics

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF

1 

Agri-entrepreneurs and Their

Characteristics

Pauline Sullivan*

Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee

1.1  Introduction

There are over three billion people working worldwide (World Bank, 2012). Of the three billion people with jobs, farming and household micro-­businesses provide about 1.5 billion employment opportunities globally with 50% of employment in developing countries. Jobs are especially important for increasing numbers of underemployed youth in developing countries where there will not be enough jobs to employ the increasing number of unemployed. In these countries the largest group of those people is youth aged 15–24 (40%) (Kapsos,

2013). A disproportionate number of those people are young people, who will compete for ever fewer jobs in the future, as job creation lags population growth (Jones, 2015). Available jobs will require education and skills that poor people do not have. The few jobs accessible to people without an education or relevant skills do not provide livable wages. Entrepreneurship is a viable strategy for upward mobility, as a 1% increase in entrepreneurial activities decreases the poverty rate by 2% (Singh, 2014).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647753

11: Characterizing Farmer Innovation Behavior for Agricultural Technologies in Transitional Areas Facing Environmental Change

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF

11 

Characterizing Farmer Innovation

Behavior for Agricultural Technologies in

Transitional Areas Facing Environmental

Change

1

Jacqueline Halbrendt1* and Bikash Paudel2

Wageningen University, Netherlands; 2Local Initiatives for Biodiversity,

Research and Development (LI-BIRD), Pokhara, Nepal

11.1  Introduction

Nepal has gone through tumultuous developments in the recent past and the country has a strong desire to bring about peace and political stability. During this transitional phase, the country faces a lot of challenges, among them a desire for economic development while facing poverty and natural disasters. In recent years, many

­development agencies have targeted Nepal as a country that requires aid assistance due to its poor humanitarian indicators. A popular mechanism is assisting small farmers with relevant information and technology to increase their productivity for enhanced nutrition and income, but not much is understood regarding farmers’ behavior toward innovations. This chapter attempts to discover some of the salient characteristics of farmers who adopt innovations and where they get their information.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647753

7: Allowing Entrepreneurs to Save Profits is Important to Motivation, Sustainability, and Resilience: Can All Cultures Support This?

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF

7 

Allowing Entrepreneurs to Save Profits is

Important to Motivation, Sustainability, and

Resilience: Can All Cultures Support This?

James R. Hollyer*

University of Guam, Mangilao, Guam

7.1  Introduction

Successful international development—skill development that creates societal transformation rather than a transfer of wealth—requires a keen understanding of the culture where one works (Hall, 1976). As leadership and business guru Peter Drucker said, “Culture eats strategy for breakfast.” All the great strategy and plans in the world will not create change or transformation if they do not, in some way, benefit the existing culture (or those in power). Anything that threatens a culture’s norms will be resisted by those who benefit from the status quo (Morris et al., 2011). In some cases, sole entrepreneurs striking out on their own to make their

“fortune” are such a threat in some countries’ cultures. Entrepreneurs are especially threatening in cultures where collective behaviors frown on individual success because it disturbs the status quo or the culture’s version of “sustainable” or “equilibrium” (Hall, 1976). Yet, a huge untapped potential of creativity and hard work exists just waiting to be given to the world’s 1.8 billion young people between the ages of 10 and

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647753

10: Urban Consumer Preferences for Food in Post‑conflict Economies: The Case of Kosovo

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF

10 

Urban Consumer Preferences for Food in Post‑conflict Economies:

The Case of Kosovo

Maurizio Canavari,1 Drini Imami,2* Muje Gjonbalaj,3

Ekrem Gjokaj4 and Anera Alishani5

1

University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 2Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana,

Albania; 3University of Priština, Priština, Kosovo; 4Ministry of Agriculture,

Forestry and Rural Development (MAFRD), Priština, Kosovo; 5University of Prizren, Prizren, Kosovo

10.1  Introduction

Kosovo is located in the Western Balkans, with a land area of 10,908 km2, a population of 1.8 million and a density of 177 people/km2 in 2013.

More than half of the population lives in rural areas. The largest city is Priština, which is also the capital. Kosovo is considered a post-­conflict transition country because it used to be a centrally planned economy under Yugoslavia till the late 1980s, while it underwent a notorious conflict in the 1990s and emerged as an independent country in the following decade. According to the Kosovo Agency of Statistics (KAS), despite economic growth in the last few years,

See All Chapters

See All Chapters