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23 PGPR: A Good Step to Control Several of Plant Pathogens

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

23 

1

PGPR: A Good Step to Control Several of Plant Pathogens

Laith K. Tawfeeq Al-Ani1,2

School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pinang, Malaysia;

2

Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture-Baghdad University,

Baghdad 10071, Iraq

23.1 Introduction

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are able to play a very important role in protecting plants from infection, as well as promoting plant growth through colonizing the roots. PGPRs are a beneficial group of soil microorganisms that very efficiently colonize the rhizoplane and rhizosphere. One third of the crops produced globally get damaged due to infection from diseases, irrespective of the use of several protective measures. The prime factor is the use of synthetic chemicals that protects plants from numerous diseases, but in contrast severely affect the environment, including humans, animals, plants, beneficial microorganisms, rivers, lakes, etc. The environment is already exposed to residues of chemicals that are sprayed to control plant pathogens.

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6 Pseudomonas Communities in Soil Agroecosystems

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

6 

Pseudomonas Communities in Soil

Agroecosystems

Betina Cecilia Agaras,* Luis Gabriel Wall and Claudio Valverde

Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Microbiología e Interacciones Biológicas en el Suelo,

Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes,

Buenos Aires, Argentina

6.1 Introduction

Among all soil bacterial genera having a representative described as a plant-growth promoter, Pseudomonas comprise a wide variety of PGPR species, with different mechanisms of action (Lugtenberg and Kamilova,

2009). Several pseudomonads have demonstrated high rhizosphere competence, production of different kinds of secondary

­metabolites involved in antagonism, phytostimulation or fertilization, and an ability to degrade complex organic compounds, hence being able to contribute not only to plant health but also to bioremediation of soils

(Lugtenberg and Dekkers, 1999; Haas and

Défago, 2005; Tapadar and Jha, 2013; Agaras et al., 2015; Mishra et  al., 2015; Kumar,

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2 Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Phytostimulation

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

2 

Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Phytostimulation

Randy Ortiz-Castro,1 Jesús Salvador López-Bucio2 and José López-Bucio3*

Red de estudios moleculares avanzados, Instituto de Ecología A.C., Carretera

Antigua a Coatepec 351, Veracruz, México; 2Instituto de Biotecnología,

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelos, México; 3Instituto de

Investigaciones Químico-Biológicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Michoacán, México

1

2.1 Introduction

Plants and bacteria have coexisted for millions of years. As a result, sophisticated signalling mechanisms allow cross-kingdom communication, which benefits plant health, growth and productivity (Singh et al., 2014).

Rhizobacteria sense roots via chemotaxis systems and chemoreceptors, which have been identified in the genomes of several plant-associated species (Scharf et al., 2016).

Chemotaxis provides a competitive advantage to motile flagellated bacteria in colonization of root epidermis, as it enables cells to sense and respond to gradients of chemical compounds released by plants (Scharf et al., 2016).

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20 Unravelling the Dual Applications of  Trichoderma spp. as Biopesticide and Biofertilizer

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

20 

Unravelling the Dual Applications of Trichoderma spp. as Biopesticide and Biofertilizer

Vivek Singh,1,2 Shatrupa Ray,1,2 Kartikay Bisen,2 Chetan Keswani,3 R.S. Upadhyay,1

B.K. Sarma2 and H.B. Singh2*

1

Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India;

2

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India; 3Department of Biochemistry, Institute of

Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

20.1 Introduction

The commercial development and market success of biopesticides depend upon formulating biological control agents with a broad spectrum of activity and an easy application technology. Market penetration of biopesticide products for pest control management has increased significantly in recent years (Glare et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2014c), owing largely to increasing awareness in the public of the adverse effects of chemical pesticides on human health and the environment (Gašić and Tanović, 2013). However, major drawbacks that restrict the field application of biopesticides are their relatively slow microbial action and restricted shelf life, along with application techniques that are complicated in comparison to those of chemical pesticides (Frey, 2001).

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4 Biosafety Evaluation: A Necessary Process Ensuring the Equitable Beneficial Effects of PGPR

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

4 

Biosafety Evaluation: A Necessary

Process Ensuring the Equitable

Beneficial Effects of PGPR

Juan Ignacio Vílchez,1* Richard Daniel Lally2 and Rafael Jorge León Morcillo1

1

Department of Plant Growth Promotion Rhizobacteria, Plant Stress

Centre for Biology (PSC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai, China;

2

EnviroCORE, The Dargan Centre, Department of Science and Health, Institute of Technology Carlow, County Carlow, Ireland and Alltech, Dunboyne,

County Meath, Ireland

4.1  Biosafety of PGPR in Soil

Today bio-inoculants capable of stimulating plant growth and providing plant protection against environmental stresses are sought with the aim to isolate efficient commercial products for field effective application

(Niranjan Raj et al., 2006; Turan et al., 2010;

Keswani et al., 2014; Singh et al., 2016).

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) applied as biofertilizers and biocontrol agents have been used broadly both in natural and agricultural soils. To date, PGPR products have only been perceived to contribute positive effects as a result of their use in plant growth promotion (Niranjan Raj et al., 2006; Gupta et al., 2015; Bisen et al., 2016; Keswani et al.,

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