25 Chapters
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18 Role of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in Degradation of Xenobiotic Compounds and Allelochemicals

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

18 

Role of Plant Growth-Promoting

Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in Degradation of

Xenobiotic Compounds and Allelochemicals

Deepika Goyal,1 Janmejay Pandey1* and Om Prakash2#

Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan,

Bandarsindri, NH-8, Kishangarh, Ajmer-305817, Rajasthan, India; 2Microbial Culture

Collection, National Centre for Cell Sciences, Pune-411007, Maharashtra, India

1

they are characterized by extreme chemical and thermodynamic stability. While this property makes them ideally suited for industrial application and enhances their commercial value, it also makes them extremely

18.1.1  Xenobiotic compounds as priority persistent in the environment. Furthermore, environmental pollutants many of the xenobiotic compounds, e.g. hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), pentachloropheContamination of Earth’s environment with nol (PCP), polychlorinated biphenols (PCB), toxic xenobiotic pollutants has been a major etc., also exhibit a strong tendency to biocause of concern for several decades. This accumulation. Therefore, organisms posisituation has emerged largely due to non-­ tioned at higher levels in food chains and judicious production, usage and disposal of food webs (including human beings) will xenobiotic pollutants during urbanization tend to have greater accumulation of these and activities related to industrialization toxic compounds compared to those organand agriculture. Xenobiotic compounds are isms present at the lower levels. Noticeably, man-made chemicals (such as explosives, these bioaccumulating xenobiotic compounds pesticides, fungicides, synthesized azo dyes, can be passed from mothers to their children industrial solvents, alkanes, polycyclic aro- during embryonic development as well as matic hydrocarbons, dioxins and furans, through post-­natal breastfeeding. Apart from polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated the tendency to bioaccumulate, a large numaromatic compounds and nitro-aromatic ber of xenobiotic compounds can also impart compounds, petroleum products, and bromi- toxic effects to human beings, ranging from nated flame retardants, etc.) that are synthe- acute toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, sized for industrial and agricultural application. teratogenicity, etc. In addition, they are harmA majority of the xenobiotic compounds ful due to their ability to poison animals and do not have any known natural source and plants and alter ecosystem functions.

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17 Phytoremediation and the Key Role of PGPR

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

17 

1

Phytoremediation and the Key Role of PGPR

Elisabetta Franchi1* and Gianniantonio Petruzzelli2

Eni S.p.A, Renewable Energy & Environmental R&D, S. Donato Milanese, Italy;

2

Institute of Ecosystem Study, National Council of Research, Pisa, Italy

17.1 Phytoremediation

The original concept of phytoremediation is derived from studies on plants which can uptake and tolerate extremely high levels of heavy metals. These plants were defined hyperaccumulators (Brooks et al., 1977) and these studies originated from an article

(Minguzzi and Vergnano, 1948), describing the ability of Alyssum bertolonii to accumulate very high amounts of nickel. Brooks

(1998) underlined the seminal importance of this article for the development of phytoremediation: ‘a small perennial shrub in

Tuscany, Italy, was destined to lead the way to a whole range of new technologies and discoveries’. Nowadays, phytoremediation identifies a series of plant-based technologies that can be applied to a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants for remediating polluted soil, water and sediments, by exploiting the multiple properties of plants, which can be used in different specific processes.

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4 Biosafety Evaluation: A Necessary Process Ensuring the Equitable Beneficial Effects of PGPR

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

4 

Biosafety Evaluation: A Necessary

Process Ensuring the Equitable

Beneficial Effects of PGPR

Juan Ignacio Vílchez,1* Richard Daniel Lally2 and Rafael Jorge León Morcillo1

1

Department of Plant Growth Promotion Rhizobacteria, Plant Stress

Centre for Biology (PSC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai, China;

2

EnviroCORE, The Dargan Centre, Department of Science and Health, Institute of Technology Carlow, County Carlow, Ireland and Alltech, Dunboyne,

County Meath, Ireland

4.1  Biosafety of PGPR in Soil

Today bio-inoculants capable of stimulating plant growth and providing plant protection against environmental stresses are sought with the aim to isolate efficient commercial products for field effective application

(Niranjan Raj et al., 2006; Turan et al., 2010;

Keswani et al., 2014; Singh et al., 2016).

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) applied as biofertilizers and biocontrol agents have been used broadly both in natural and agricultural soils. To date, PGPR products have only been perceived to contribute positive effects as a result of their use in plant growth promotion (Niranjan Raj et al., 2006; Gupta et al., 2015; Bisen et al., 2016; Keswani et al.,

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20 Unravelling the Dual Applications of  Trichoderma spp. as Biopesticide and Biofertilizer

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

20 

Unravelling the Dual Applications of Trichoderma spp. as Biopesticide and Biofertilizer

Vivek Singh,1,2 Shatrupa Ray,1,2 Kartikay Bisen,2 Chetan Keswani,3 R.S. Upadhyay,1

B.K. Sarma2 and H.B. Singh2*

1

Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India;

2

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India; 3Department of Biochemistry, Institute of

Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

20.1 Introduction

The commercial development and market success of biopesticides depend upon formulating biological control agents with a broad spectrum of activity and an easy application technology. Market penetration of biopesticide products for pest control management has increased significantly in recent years (Glare et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2014c), owing largely to increasing awareness in the public of the adverse effects of chemical pesticides on human health and the environment (Gašić and Tanović, 2013). However, major drawbacks that restrict the field application of biopesticides are their relatively slow microbial action and restricted shelf life, along with application techniques that are complicated in comparison to those of chemical pesticides (Frey, 2001).

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19 Harnessing Bio-priming for Integrated Resource Management under Changing Climate

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

19 

Harnessing Bio-priming for

Integrated Resource Management under Changing Climate

Deepranjan Sarkar,1 Sumita Pal,2 H.B. Singh,2 Ranjeet

Singh Yadav1 and Amitava Rakshit1*

1

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural

Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India; 2Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

19.1 Introduction

Agriculturists are facing huge pressure with escalating world population, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and growing climate variability, which is difficult to predict by how much and over what time. The drastic impacts will be seen on plant growth by warmer and drier conditions, changes in wind speed, occurrence of new pests and diseases and many more understated variations resulting from altered interactions among the components of crop agro-ecosystems

(Smith and Almaraz, 2004). Agrochemical pollution leads to ecological disruptions that cause a loss of ecosystem services, viz. land resources, biodiversity and food sources, which has adverse impacts on human health

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