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18 Role of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in Degradation of Xenobiotic Compounds and Allelochemicals

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

18 

Role of Plant Growth-Promoting

Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in Degradation of

Xenobiotic Compounds and Allelochemicals

Deepika Goyal,1 Janmejay Pandey1* and Om Prakash2#

Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan,

Bandarsindri, NH-8, Kishangarh, Ajmer-305817, Rajasthan, India; 2Microbial Culture

Collection, National Centre for Cell Sciences, Pune-411007, Maharashtra, India

1

they are characterized by extreme chemical and thermodynamic stability. While this property makes them ideally suited for industrial application and enhances their commercial value, it also makes them extremely

18.1.1  Xenobiotic compounds as priority persistent in the environment. Furthermore, environmental pollutants many of the xenobiotic compounds, e.g. hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), pentachloropheContamination of Earth’s environment with nol (PCP), polychlorinated biphenols (PCB), toxic xenobiotic pollutants has been a major etc., also exhibit a strong tendency to biocause of concern for several decades. This accumulation. Therefore, organisms posisituation has emerged largely due to non-­ tioned at higher levels in food chains and judicious production, usage and disposal of food webs (including human beings) will xenobiotic pollutants during urbanization tend to have greater accumulation of these and activities related to industrialization toxic compounds compared to those organand agriculture. Xenobiotic compounds are isms present at the lower levels. Noticeably, man-made chemicals (such as explosives, these bioaccumulating xenobiotic compounds pesticides, fungicides, synthesized azo dyes, can be passed from mothers to their children industrial solvents, alkanes, polycyclic aro- during embryonic development as well as matic hydrocarbons, dioxins and furans, through post-­natal breastfeeding. Apart from polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated the tendency to bioaccumulate, a large numaromatic compounds and nitro-aromatic ber of xenobiotic compounds can also impart compounds, petroleum products, and bromi- toxic effects to human beings, ranging from nated flame retardants, etc.) that are synthe- acute toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, sized for industrial and agricultural application. teratogenicity, etc. In addition, they are harmA majority of the xenobiotic compounds ful due to their ability to poison animals and do not have any known natural source and plants and alter ecosystem functions.

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4 Biosafety Evaluation: A Necessary Process Ensuring the Equitable Beneficial Effects of PGPR

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

4 

Biosafety Evaluation: A Necessary

Process Ensuring the Equitable

Beneficial Effects of PGPR

Juan Ignacio Vílchez,1* Richard Daniel Lally2 and Rafael Jorge León Morcillo1

1

Department of Plant Growth Promotion Rhizobacteria, Plant Stress

Centre for Biology (PSC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai, China;

2

EnviroCORE, The Dargan Centre, Department of Science and Health, Institute of Technology Carlow, County Carlow, Ireland and Alltech, Dunboyne,

County Meath, Ireland

4.1  Biosafety of PGPR in Soil

Today bio-inoculants capable of stimulating plant growth and providing plant protection against environmental stresses are sought with the aim to isolate efficient commercial products for field effective application

(Niranjan Raj et al., 2006; Turan et al., 2010;

Keswani et al., 2014; Singh et al., 2016).

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) applied as biofertilizers and biocontrol agents have been used broadly both in natural and agricultural soils. To date, PGPR products have only been perceived to contribute positive effects as a result of their use in plant growth promotion (Niranjan Raj et al., 2006; Gupta et al., 2015; Bisen et al., 2016; Keswani et al.,

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21 Genome Insights into Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria, an Important Component of Rhizosphere Microbiome

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

21 

Genome Insights into Plant GrowthPromoting Rhizobacteria, an Important

Component of Rhizosphere Microbiome

Vasvi Chaudhry,1* Niladri Chaudhry2 and Shrikant S. Mantri3

Bacterial Genomics & Evolution Laboratory, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology,

Chandigarh-160036, India; 2Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005, India; 3Computational

Biology Laboratory, National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), Mohali,

Punjab-160071, India

1

21.1 Introduction

Plants interact with the environment and their associated microbial communities in both above- and belowground ecosystems.

This assemblage of plant with environment and associated microorganisms together comprises the “plant microbiome” similarly to the way a human being possesses its microbiome (Turner et al., 2013; Berg et al., 2014).

The plant microbiome has been considered as one of the key determinants of plant health and productivity (Hartmann et  al., 2009).

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24 Role of Trichoderma Secondary Metabolites in Plant Growth Promotion and Biological Control

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

24 

Role of Trichoderma Secondary

Metabolites in Plant Growth Promotion and Biological Control

Jyoti Singh,1 Rahul Singh Rajput,2 Kartikay Bisen,2 Surendra Singh1 and H.B. Singh2*

1

Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi-221005, India; 2Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of

Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

24.1 Introduction

After World War II ended, the world’s population started rising due to instant increase in population of less developed countries.

The resultant effects of this tremendous growth will be observed on living standards, resource use and the environment for a long span of time (UNPD, 2008). Cultivation of plants is closely linked to the development of human civilization, which has been ongoing for more than 10,000 years, and therefore plant diseases have been a major concern to mankind for a long time.

In agriculture, the maximum loss is due to plant diseases, which is a major challenge faced by cultivators of each crop at any time.

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23 PGPR: A Good Step to Control Several of Plant Pathogens

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

23 

1

PGPR: A Good Step to Control Several of Plant Pathogens

Laith K. Tawfeeq Al-Ani1,2

School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pinang, Malaysia;

2

Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture-Baghdad University,

Baghdad 10071, Iraq

23.1 Introduction

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are able to play a very important role in protecting plants from infection, as well as promoting plant growth through colonizing the roots. PGPRs are a beneficial group of soil microorganisms that very efficiently colonize the rhizoplane and rhizosphere. One third of the crops produced globally get damaged due to infection from diseases, irrespective of the use of several protective measures. The prime factor is the use of synthetic chemicals that protects plants from numerous diseases, but in contrast severely affect the environment, including humans, animals, plants, beneficial microorganisms, rivers, lakes, etc. The environment is already exposed to residues of chemicals that are sprayed to control plant pathogens.

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