33 Chapters
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24: IPM Case Studies: Grain

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF

24

IPM Case Studies: Grain

Hans-Michael Poehling,1* Thomas Thieme2 and Udo

Heimbach3

1

Institute of Horticultural Production Systems, Section Phytomedicine, Leibniz

Universität Hannover, Hannover, Germany; 2BTL Bio-Test Labor GmbH, Groß

Lüsewitz, Germany; 3Julius Kühn-Institut, Braunschweig, Germany

Introduction

Today, aphids are major insect pests in many cereal-growing regions of the world. Damage results from direct feeding and honeydew production, as well as virus transmission. Although first descriptions of outbreaks date back to 1970, cereal aphids are still a focus of agricultural research and extension services to estimate damage potential, to develop forecasting and control models, to select partially selective IPM-compatible pesticides, to improve pesticide application methods and to elucidate and re-establish natural control by predators and/or parasitoids, in particular in programmes aimed at improving ecosystem services. In central

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5: Growth and Development

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF

5

Growth and Development

Simon R. Leather,1* Caroline S. Awmack2 and Michael

P.D. Garratt3

1

Department of Crop and Environment Science, Harper Adams University, Newport,

UK; 2Sexton Close, Daventry, UK; 3Centre for Agri-­Environment Research, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading, UK

Introduction

The growth and developmental rates of individual aphids have been studied extensively since the early investigations of Davis (1915) because they can be reliable indicators of future population growth rates (Leather and Dixon, 1984; Acreman and Dixon,

1989). In this chapter, we discuss the methods used to measure aphid growth and development, the relationships between these measures of aphid performance, and the reliability of using the results of such experiments to predict the performance of field populations of pest aphids.

Individual aphids frequently have extremely high growth and developmental rates, allowing populations rapidly to reach levels that are damaging to crop plants. Under optimal growth conditions, an individual aphid typically commences reproduction

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19: Insecticide Resistance

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF

19

Insecticide Resistance

Stephen P. Foster,1* Gregor Devine2 and Alan L. Devonshire3

1

Department of Biological Chemistry and Crop Protection, Rothamsted Research,

Harpenden, UK; 2Mosquito Control Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical

Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia; 3Rothamsted Research, UK (retired)

Introduction

Insecticide resistance is an example of a dynamic evolutionary process in which chance mutations conferring protection against insecticides are selected in treated populations. Over the past 30 years, great advances have been made in the characterization and understanding of such adaptations. These have provided valuable insights into the origin and nature of selection and microevolution in agricultural and horticultural environments.

In practical terms, the evolution of insecticide resistance has undoubtedly contributed to overall increases in the application of chemicals to crops.

According to the USDA, in 2007, about 440,000

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18: Chemical Control

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF

18

Chemical Control

Alan M. Dewar1 and Ian Denholm2*

1

Dewar Crop Protection Ltd, Bury St Edmunds, UK; 2University of

­Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK

Introduction

As serious crop pests, aphids are major targets for insecticides and help drive a continuing quest for new compounds with novel modes of action and favourable environmental profiles. The first edition of this chapter (Dewar, 2007) noted a progressive change from a market dominated by organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates (Schepers, 1989; Jeschke et al., 2002) towards increasing reliance on pyrethroids and, latterly, neonicotinoids. Over the past

10  years, these changes have continued apace. In many countries, most OPs and carbamates have become obsolete or are being phased out as a consequence of their toxicological profile. Neonicotinoids, as a result of their exceptional efficacy and versatility, have continued to increase in popularity and have been joined by a suite of new molecules with distinct properties and/or modes of action. The carbamoyltriazole, triazamate, an excellent aphicide due to its systemicity and downward translocation in plants (Dewar et al., 1994), had a brief period of use prior to its withdrawal due to environmental concerns.

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13: Aphid Population Dynamics: From Fields to Landscapes

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF

13

Aphid Population Dynamics:

From Fields to Landscapes

James R. Bell,1* Jean-Sébastien Pierre2 and Charles-Antoine Dedryver3

1

Rothamsted Insect Survey, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK;

UMR 6553, Ecosystèmes-Biodiversité-Evolution, Rennes, France;

3

Institut de Génétique, Environnement et Protection des Plantes INRA,

Le Rheu, France

2

Introduction

There are close to 5000 aphid species in the world, of which about 200 are crop pests. For these pests, never before have decision support systems been in so much demand (Chapter 17, this volume) both to help reduce pesticide use and also to prevent damaging outbreaks. However, for only a handful of these species is there a sufficient level of ecological and biological understanding to merit undertaking a population dynamics approach. Unsurprisingly, the emphasis has been on aphids that cause the most serious crop damage (Table 13.1), and these are firmly our focus. The majority of aphid pest population studies are concentrated within agriculture, particularly on a small number of aphids that use cereals as their host. Rice, wheat and maize provide 60% of the world’s food energy intake, so it is perhaps not surprising that aphids feature heavily as biological threats, particularly in rice and wheat (FAO, 2016). There are considerable amounts of data concerning the ecology of these aphids, and consequently there have been repeated modelling attempts, statistical or otherwise, that have sought to capture and predict their population dynamics. These cereal aphid studies form the backbone of this chapter and will be discussed at length, but we shall also occasionally discuss the dynamics of aphids that use other annual crops and trees as their host.

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