19 Chapters
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8: Climatic Limiting Factors: Temperature

Quero-Garcia, J.; Iezzoni, A.; Pulawska, J. CABI PDF

8 

Climatic Limiting Factors: Temperature

Bénédicte Wenden,1* José Antonio Campoy,1 Martin Jensen2 and Gregorio

López-Ortega3

1

UMR 1332 Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, INRA et Université de Bordeaux,

Villenave d’Ornon, France; 2Department of Food Science, Aarhus

University, Aarslev, Denmark; 3Murcia Institute of Agri-Food Research and

Development (IMIDA), Murcia, Spain

8.1 Introduction

Survival and production of woody and perennial plants in temperate and boreal zones depend on precise timing of growth and rest periods in synchrony with seasonal changes in temperature (Olsen, 2010). In cherry trees, several stages of growth are subject to strict temperature control or are at risk from temperature extremes, including dormancy, flowering and fruit development. In order to survive the freezing temperatures of winter, cherry trees and other perennials have developed adaptive mechanisms that include cessation of meristem activity and bud set and an acquired tolerance to cold. In most woody plants in temperate climates, these processes are induced by decreasing photoperiod and temperature, which leads to a greater tolerance to cold and leaf fall (Allona et al., 2008). In spring and summer, warm and hot temperatures can also affect flower and fruit quality.

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5: Sour Cherry Varieties and Improvement

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5 

Sour Cherry Varieties and Improvement

Mirko Schuster,1* Janos Apostol,2 Amy Iezzoni,3 Martin Jensen4 and Dragan ­Milatović5

1

Julius Kühn-Institut, Dresden, Germany; 2NARIC Fruitculture Research Institute,

Budapest, Hungary; 3Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA;

4

Aarhus University, Årslev, Denmark; 5University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

5.1  History of Improvement

The variability in tree morphology and fruit characteristics is very high in sour cherry, especially in germplasm from the native

­regions in Eastern Europe and Asia Minor

(Faust and Surányi, 1997). In these regions, sour cherry is not reproductively isolated from its progenitor species, and this continual gene flow has contributed to this high level of diversity. For example, sour cherry individuals with more sweet cherry- or ground cherry-like traits occur and probably represent individuals that have resulted from a ‘backcross’ to one of the two progenitor species (Hillig and Iezzoni, 1988). From this rich genetic diversity, human selection has resulted in the ­ proliferation of many local landraces. For e­xample, local landraces were selected in Hungary (‘Pándy’

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2: Flowering, Fruit Set and Development

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2 

Flowering, Fruit Set and Development

Maria Herrero,1* Javier Rodrigo2 and Ana Wünsch2

Estación Experimental Aula Dei, CSIC, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Unidad de

Hortofruticultura, Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de

Aragón, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón – IA2 (CITA-Universidad de Zaragoza), Zaragoza, Spain

1

2.1 Introduction

Cherry trees are a paradigm of how flower biology influences the final crop. While some

8 weeks elapse from flower to mature fruit, the crop load is established very early after flowering, within approximately 4  weeks, although preharvest fruit abscission (‘June drop’) can modify the apparent crop load in some years. Differences between growing and non-growing flowers are determined as early as 1 week after pollination, a time that is concomitant with fertilization (Hedhly et al.,

2007). What occurs during this short bloom time, along with the prebloom stages of flower development, are critical to understand fruit set.

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20: Processing for Industrial Uses

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20 

Processing for Industrial Uses

Martin Jensen*

Aarhus University, Aarslev, Denmark

20.1 Introduction

The season for fresh cherry fruit is short in one cultivation area, and even when combining different growing regions of the world, it is not possible to supply fresh fruit throughout the year.

Storage of fresh cherry fruit is limited by a short shelf life of 2–4 weeks at 0°C with 90–95% relative humidity (Manganaris et  al., 2007;

­Valero, 2015). Processing of fruit to prolong the shelf life is an important way to offer a diverse array of cherry products year-round. The large diversity of products requires a similar diversity in processing technology. This review provides an overview of some key processing steps, and highlights selected recent research and developments in sweet and sour cherry processing targeting selected products, and focuses on how processing methods influence product quality.

Chapter 17 (this volume). Cultivar studies of fruit quality have demonstrated a large variation in primary and secondary metabolites as well as size, structure, firmness, colour, bioactive compounds, sensory attributes and consumer preferences in sweet and sour cherry. Cultivars should not only be evaluated by their raw fruit quality but also by their ability to form new compounds or resist degradation of important compounds during processing and storage of products. The large variation in quality often only refers to released cultivars or selected promising lines, whereas the much larger variation found in breeding germplasm, including local landraces, may provide resources that could also be exploited. The emphasis on breeding for yield, visual quality, sugar and acidity may in the future be supplemented by a search for more product-specific cultivars and more focus on aroma and sensory aspects.

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16: Viruses, Viroids, Phytoplasmas and Genetic Disorders of Cherry

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16 

Viruses, Viroids, Phytoplasmas and Genetic Disorders of Cherry

Delano James,1* Mirosława Cies´lin´ska,2 Vicente Pallás,3 Ricardo Flores,3 Thierry

Candresse4 and Wilhelm Jelkmann5

1

Sidney Laboratory – Centre for Plant Health, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, North

Saanich, British Columbia, Canada; 2Research Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice,

Poland; 3Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas (UPV-CSIC), Universidad

Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 4Equipe de Virologie, UMR 1332 Biologie du

Fruit et Pathologie, INRA et Université de Bordeaux, Villenave d’Ornon Cedex, France;

5

Julius Kuhn Institute, Institute for Plant Protection in Fruit Crops and Viticulture,

Dossenheim, Germany

16.1 Introduction

Cherries are infected by a range of viruses, viroids and phytoplasmas. Some of these cause severe diseases, having a significant impact on commercial cherry production.

Viruses such as prune dwarf virus (PDV) and

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