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14 Aeromonas salmonicida and A. hydrophila

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF

14

Aeromonas salmonicida and A. hydrophila

Bjarnheidur K. Gudmundsdottir1* and Bryndis

Bjornsdottir2

1

Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland;

Matís, Reykjavik, Iceland

2

14.1  Introduction

Aeromonas belongs to the family Aeromonadales within the class Gammaproteobacteria (Colwell et al.,

1986). Aeromonads occur in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments, invertebrates, vertebrates and soils (Janda and Abbott, 2010). The type species is the motile A. hydrophila, an animal pathogen; in contrast, the species A. salmonicida, a fish pathogen, is non-motile. Aeromonads induce furunculosis, atypical furunculosis, ulcerative diseases, motile

Aeromonas septicaemia (MAS) and tail and fin rot in fishes (Cipriano and Austin, 2011). A. hydrophila and other motile species (e.g. A. veronii biovar. sobria, A. bestiarum, A. dhakensis) cause diseases in aquaculture and are potentially zoonotic pathogens (Rahman et  al., 2002; Janda and Abbott,

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6 Infectious Salmon Anaemia

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF

6

Infectious Salmon Anaemia

Knut Falk* and Maria Aamelfot

The Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway

6.1  Introduction

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a significant infectious viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon,

Salmo salar L., that was first reported in Norway during 1984 (Thorud and Djupvik, 1988).

Outbreaks of ISA have an impact on the economy of the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, and this has led to the implementation of large-scale biosecurity measures. Outbreaks have now been reported in most Atlantic salmon farming areas, including the east coast of Canada and the USA,

Scotland, Norway, the Faroe Islands and Chile

(Rimstad et al., 2011). In Chile and the Faroe

Islands, the disease caused major economic setbacks and left the entire industry with an uncertain future (Mardones et al., 2009; Christiansen et al.,

2011) in a manner similar to that in Norway in and after 1989 (Håstein et al., 1999; Rimstad et al.,

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16 Flavobacterium spp.

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF

16

�Flavobacterium spp.

Thomas P. Loch* and Mohamed Faisal

Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary

Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

16.1  Introduction

Flavobacterial diseases in fish are mainly attributed to three Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented bacteria: Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the cause of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS; Davis, 1946; Borg,

1948; Holt, 1987; Bernardet and Grimont, 1989);

F. columnare, the cause of Columnaris disease (CD;

Davis, 1922; Ordal and Rucker, 1944; Bernardet and Grimont, 1989); and F. branchiophilum, the putative agent of bacterial gill disease (BGD;

Wakabayashi et al., 1989).

16.1.1  Flavobacterium psychrophilum

Description of the microorganism

Borg (1948) described epizootics at water temperatures of 6–10°C in farmed coho salmon

(Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry and fingerlings that were caused by masses of bacterial rods, now known as F. psychrophilum. The bacterium underwent multiple taxonomic reappraisals and was eventually placed within the genus Flavobacterium

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24 Weissella ceti

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF

24

Weissella

ceti

Timothy J. Welch,1* David P. Marancik2 and Christopher

M. Good3

1

US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, Kearneysville, West Virginia, USA;

2

Department of Pathobiology, St. George’s University of Veterinary Medicine,

True Blue, St. George’s, Grenada, West Indies; 3The Conservation Fund’s

Freshwater Institute, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, USA

24.1  Introduction

Weissella species are usually not associated with disease; however, novel strains of Weissella ceti were recently recognized as pathogens for rainbow trout

(Oncorhynchus mykiss). W. ceti was identified in

2007 at a commercial rainbow trout farm in China

(Liu et al., 2009) and later in farmed rainbow trout within Brazil (Figueiredo et al., 2012; Costa et al.,

2015) and North Carolina (Welch and Good,

2013). Genome sequences of representative US and

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8 Channel Catfish Viral Disease

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF

8

Channel Catfish Viral Disease

Larry A. Hanson1* and Lester H. Khoo2

1

Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi

State University, Mississippi,USA; 2Thad Cochran Warmwater Aquaculture

Center, Stoneville, Mississippi, USA

8.1  Introduction

Channel catfish viral disease (CCVD) is an acute viraemia that occurs primarily among young (0–4 month old) channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in aquaculture. CCVD outbreaks occur almost exclusively in the summer when water temperatures exceed 25°C and may exceed 90% mortality in less than 2 weeks. Older fish may experience a more chronic outbreak, often with secondary Flavo­ bacterium columnare or Aeromonas infections that can mask the underlying CCVD (Plumb, 1978).

Pond-to-pond spread is often reported within fingerling production facilities. The disease was first described by Fijan et al. (1970) and the most notable clinical signs were exophthalmia, abdominal distension, disoriented swimming and rapidly increasing mortality.

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