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12 Immunological Diagnosis

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF


Immunological Diagnosis

Ray Waters1,* and Martin Vordermeier2


Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States

Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, USA; 2Tuberculosis Research Group,

Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK

12.1 Introduction

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is generally considered a slowly progressive disease of extended duration (lasting years), and most cattle do not exhibit readily apparent clinical signs of infection until late in the course of disease (Waters,

2015). Currently, agent-based strategies for the detection of tuberculous cattle, such as detection of bacilli within bodily excretions, are generally unreliable for use as ante-mortem tests, possibly due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease resulting in a transient and low level of bacterial shedding (Good and Duignan, 2011).

Thus, traditional clinical and microbiological techniques are rarely used for the ante-mortem diagnosis of bovine TB. Fortunately, Mycobacterium bovis is highly immunogenic in cattle, eliciting robust cell-mediated immune (CMI)

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11 Adaptive Immunity

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Adaptive Immunity

Jayne Hope1,* and Dirk Werling2


Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK;

2The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK

Immunity to mycobacterial infections is an interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses; both cellular and humoral mechanisms are involved. While it is clear that the response to mycobacterial infection is driven and shaped by the initial innate immune response, defining the mechanisms of adaptive immunity underpins on-going efforts to develop effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccines for humans and

­cattle. Importantly, definition of correlates of protective immunity that can be measured readily will facilitate the development and screening of vaccine candidates and assessment of their success. However, it must also be stressed that in the case of mycobacterial infection, these correlates of protective immunity must be defined carefully. They not only include an ‘absence of clinical symptoms’, a definition used for many other veterinary vaccines, but must be defined as ‘protection to infection’, given the socio-­ economic importance of infection with Mycobacterium bovis. In addition, since measurement of the adaptive immune response through tuberculin skin testing or assessment of antigenspecific IFN-g release forms the basis of currently used diagnostic tests (Waters et al 2011; Pai et al., 2014), increased knowledge of the immune response associated with infection or induced by vaccination is required for improved surveillance.

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7 Role of Wildlife in the Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF


Role of Wildlife in the Epidemiology of

Mycobacterium bovis

Naomi J. Fox,1 Paul A. Barrow2 and Michael R. Hutchings1,*


Edinburgh, UK; 2The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

Although Mycobacterium bovis is classically thought of as a cattle disease, this name belies its diverse range of hosts. M. bovis has one of the widest known host ranges of any zoonotic pathogen, and has been isolated from multiple members of a majority of mammal orders, from rodents and insectivores, to primates and carnivores (O’Reilly and Daborn, 1995; Coleman and

Cooke, 2001; Delahay et al., 2002).

The presence of wildlife hosts may hinder attempts to eradicate M. bovis in livestock. However, the isolation of M. bovis from an animal population does not necessarily implicate that species as important in disease outbreaks. A host’s role in disease dynamics is dependent on a plethora of interacting factors, including the structure and location of lesions determining levels and routes of excretion, host behaviour, and likelihood of contact (direct and indirect) between infectious and susceptible individuals.

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1 Bovine Tuberculosis: Worldwide Picture

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Bovine Tuberculosis:

Worldwide Picture

Lina Awada, Paolo Tizzani, Elisabeth Erlacher-Vindel,

Simona Forcella and Paula Caceres*

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), Paris, France

1.1 Introduction

Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a disease of livestock and wildlife and causes global economic losses, including those resulting from trade barriers (OIE, 2015), estimated at several billion USD annually despite widespread control efforts (Schiller et al., 2010).

The objective of this chapter is to provide information on the worldwide bovine tuberculosis situation, using data from the OIE. The OIE’s

World Animal Health Information System

(WAHIS), is a reference for conducting global analyses in this field.

1.1.1  The World Organisation for

Animal Health and the World Health

Information System

The dissemination of rinderpest in Europe in

1920, resulting from a shipment of infected zebu cattle originating from India and destined for Brazil transiting through the Belgium port of

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6 Bovine Tuberculosis in Other Domestic Species

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF


Bovine Tuberculosis in Other

Domestic Species

Anita L. Michel*

Department Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis

Research Programme, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria,

Onderstepoort, South Africa

6.1 Introduction

The ability of Mycobacterium bovis to cause

­disease in a wide range of domestic and wild mammal species classifies this pathogen among the globally most widespread infectious causes of livestock production losses across many, highly diverse animal production systems (Buhr et al., 2009; Humblet et al., 2009; Schiller et al.,

2011; Food and Agriculture Organisation,

2012). In the World Organisation for Animal

Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code, bovine tuberculosis (TB) is currently listed within the categories of diseases of cattle and those of farmed Cervidae, which indicates a recognition by the OIE of the rising importance of

M. bovis infections in production animals other than domestic cattle in terms of global trade

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