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13 Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Infections

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

13 

Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Complex Infections

Sylvia I. Wanzala1 and Srinand Sreevatsan2,*

1Department

of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University,

East Lansing, Michigan, USA; 2Department of Veterinary Population Medicine,

College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota, USA

13.1 Introduction

laborious multistep procedure involving the caudal fold test (CFT) and the comparative cerviBovine tuberculosis (bovine TB) is a zoonotic cal test (CCT) or g-interferon release assays. The infection in cattle caused by the intracellular current diagnostics are problematic: CFT lacks bacterium, Mycobacterium bovis that belongs to specificity for M. bovis and fails to detect all disthe Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB eased cattle, while the g-interferon assay is costly complex), a group of related mycobacteria that and requires blood samples to be processed cause TB in mammals. Bovine TB is the most within 24 hours of collection. Moreover, early prevalent infectious disease of dairy cattle detection of subclinical infection by serological worldwide (Cosivi et al., 1998), causing a con- tests is hindered, since the humoral immune servative annual loss of about US$3 billion response in bovine TB occurs at a late stage of

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12 Immunological Diagnosis

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

12 

Immunological Diagnosis

Ray Waters1,* and Martin Vordermeier2

1National

Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States

Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, USA; 2Tuberculosis Research Group,

Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK

12.1 Introduction

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is generally considered a slowly progressive disease of extended duration (lasting years), and most cattle do not exhibit readily apparent clinical signs of infection until late in the course of disease (Waters,

2015). Currently, agent-based strategies for the detection of tuberculous cattle, such as detection of bacilli within bodily excretions, are generally unreliable for use as ante-mortem tests, possibly due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease resulting in a transient and low level of bacterial shedding (Good and Duignan, 2011).

Thus, traditional clinical and microbiological techniques are rarely used for the ante-mortem diagnosis of bovine TB. Fortunately, Mycobacterium bovis is highly immunogenic in cattle, eliciting robust cell-mediated immune (CMI)

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1 Bovine Tuberculosis: Worldwide Picture

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

1 

Bovine Tuberculosis:

Worldwide Picture

Lina Awada, Paolo Tizzani, Elisabeth Erlacher-Vindel,

Simona Forcella and Paula Caceres*

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), Paris, France

1.1 Introduction

Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a disease of livestock and wildlife and causes global economic losses, including those resulting from trade barriers (OIE, 2015), estimated at several billion USD annually despite widespread control efforts (Schiller et al., 2010).

The objective of this chapter is to provide information on the worldwide bovine tuberculosis situation, using data from the OIE. The OIE’s

World Animal Health Information System

(WAHIS), is a reference for conducting global analyses in this field.

1.1.1  The World Organisation for

Animal Health and the World Health

Information System

The dissemination of rinderpest in Europe in

1920, resulting from a shipment of infected zebu cattle originating from India and destined for Brazil transiting through the Belgium port of

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11 Adaptive Immunity

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

11 

Adaptive Immunity

Jayne Hope1,* and Dirk Werling2

1The

Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK;

2The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK

Immunity to mycobacterial infections is an interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses; both cellular and humoral mechanisms are involved. While it is clear that the response to mycobacterial infection is driven and shaped by the initial innate immune response, defining the mechanisms of adaptive immunity underpins on-going efforts to develop effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccines for humans and

­cattle. Importantly, definition of correlates of protective immunity that can be measured readily will facilitate the development and screening of vaccine candidates and assessment of their success. However, it must also be stressed that in the case of mycobacterial infection, these correlates of protective immunity must be defined carefully. They not only include an ‘absence of clinical symptoms’, a definition used for many other veterinary vaccines, but must be defined as ‘protection to infection’, given the socio-­ economic importance of infection with Mycobacterium bovis. In addition, since measurement of the adaptive immune response through tuberculin skin testing or assessment of antigenspecific IFN-g release forms the basis of currently used diagnostic tests (Waters et al 2011; Pai et al., 2014), increased knowledge of the immune response associated with infection or induced by vaccination is required for improved surveillance.

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3 Economics of Bovine Tuberculosis: A One Health Issue

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

3 

Economics of Bovine Tuberculosis:

A One Health Issue

Hind Yahyaoui Azami1,2,3 and Jakob Zinsstag2,3,*

1Institut

Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco; 2Swiss Tropical and

Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; 3University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

This chapter is focused on the economics of bovine tuberculosis (TB), taking into consideration the burden of this disease for livestock and also for human health, with a strong emphasis on One Health (OH) as a control approach. The current chapter starts with an overview of One

Health, followed by a review of the economics of bovine TB as an OH issue, through a summary of One Health and its added value for bovine TB and human TB control.

3.1  One Health

OH can be defined as the added value of closer cooperation between human and animal health in terms of better health of humans and animals, financial savings and improved ecosystem services (Zinsstag et al., 2015). OH is part of the broader consideration of ecology and health. It contributes to improving health by engaging different institutions and disciplines in a closer way by improved communication, closer collaboration and better information sharing based on the recognition that human and animal health are mutually dependent.

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