18 Chapters
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15 Current Trends and Future Priorities of Nanofertilizers

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

15

Current Trends and Future

Priorities of Nanofertilizers

Carolina Castro Bueno*

Department of Environmental Engineering, São Paulo

State University, Sorocaba, Brazil

15.1 Introduction

The current view of environments and how to fertilize them is based on ­reductionist models, where each part of the environment is studied separately. In other words, the soil is seen as a separate entity; the amount of fertilizer required is another block; the root systems of the crop are another; and so on. A good way to understand this scenario is to visualize how phosphorus is used today and what its fate is.

Being a macroelement indispensable to agriculture, phosphorus has no substitute in food production (Cordell et al., 2011) and is a chemical element that is also essential to life, since it is a key component in cellular communication, cell membranes, ATP, DNA and so on. Currently, agriculture is based on the use of chemical fertilizers, which are applied indiscriminately and at large volumes.

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14 Vanguard Nano(bio)sensor Technologies Fostering the Renaissance of Agriculture

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

14

Vanguard Nano(bio)sensor

Technologies Fostering the

Renaissance of Agriculture

Amina Antonacci,1 Fabiana Arduini2 and Viviana

Scognamiglio1*

Institute of Crystallography, National Research Council, Monterotondo,

Italy; 2Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of

Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

1

14.1 Introduction

In the report, The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and

Agriculture, published in 2011, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the

United Nations (FAO) stated:

Land and water resources are central to agriculture and rural development, and are intrinsically linked to global challenges of food insecurity and poverty, climate change adaptation and mitigation, as well as degradation and depletion of natural resources that affect the livelihoods of millions of rural people across the world.

(FAO, 2011)

In recent years, the challenge of assuring adequate food worldwide has never been harder due to demographic pressure, climate change, and the increased competition for resources, especially in developing countries such as Africa and Asia, where almost 1 billion people are undernourished. The agricultural industry has handled these increasing constraints producing massive food volumes by immoderately exploiting practices that have been used without considering their impact on the environment and human wellbeing. In fact, farming techniques have been oriented towards the indiscriminate use of labour and resources, high-tech machinery, and pesticides in the cultivation of crops to achieve an augmented profit, causing an abuse of the soil and at the same time triggering huge pollution levels in different environmental segments. Watercourses and related ecosystems are facing worrying levels of pollution and degradation due to intense farming that is causing reduced quality, biodiversity injury, water scarcity, damage to territories,

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12 Nanotechnology Application and Emergence in Agriculture

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

12

Nanotechnology Application and Emergence in Agriculture

Semih Otles1* and Buket Yalcin Sahyar1,2

1

Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 2Indesit Company, Manisa, Turkey

12.1 Introduction

Nanotechnology basically can be defined as the science of manufacturing

­materials that have at least one dimension below 100 nanometer (nm) in size, while it can also be described as the study of physical matter and organized structures at the 1–100 nm physical range and also incorporation of these nanostructures into applications (Fig. 12.1). There are lots of differentiations between physical, chemical and biological properties when the scale turns from the micro- to the nanoscale. The major differentiation is larger surface/volume ratio of nanoscale materials. Additionally, nanomaterials reaction to mechanisms, thermodynamics and optical and magnetic properties are different from the same materials at macro levels. Nanoparticles have a different surface structure and composition via different reactivity, according to redox reactions and adsorption mechanisms.

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9 Nanotechnology: Comprehensive Understanding of Interaction, Toxicity and the Fate of Biosynthesized Nanoparticles in the Agroecosystem

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

9

Nanotechnology: Comprehensive

Understanding of Interaction,

Toxicity and the Fate of

Biosynthesized Nanoparticles in the Agroecosystem

Rahul Singh Rajput,1 Jyoti Singh,2 Prachi Singh,1

Manoj Kumar Chitara,1 Ratul Moni Ram,1 Sandhya

Mishra3* and Harikesh B. Singh1

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India; 2Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India; 3Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna

Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

1

9.1 Introduction

The concept of nanotechnology was first given by American theoretical physicist Richard Feynman, 1959 in his classic talk ’There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom’

(Feynman, 1960). The term ’nanotechnology’ was first coined by Norio Taniguchi

(Taniguchi, 1974). It is the science of manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular and supermolecular level. The Royal Society defines nanotechnology as ‘the design, characterization, production, application of structures, devices, and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer scale’ (RSRAE, 2004). The National Nanotechnology

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17 Implication of Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Water and Air Pollution

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

17

Implication of Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Water and Air Pollution

R.K. Chaturvedi*

Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical

Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, China

17.1 Introduction

Due to the revolution in the development of science and technology at the nanoscale, there has been an increase in the ability to fabricate and manipulate the nanosized materials; by which we mean particles smaller than 100 nm. Interest in these nanomaterials has increased tremendously because they produce many opportunities to improve the performance of material. Metal-based nanoparticles, consisting of Cu, Au, Ag, etc., have been generally used as industrial electrode, magnetic materials, chemicals, catalysts and optical media. In agriculture, the use of nanoparticles has just started, but is increasing its dimensions. With the help of nanosciences, plant growth has been enhanced by using a wide range of applications of nanotechnology (Nair et al., 2010).

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