18 Chapters
Medium 9781786391445

13 Positive and Negative Effects of Nanotechnology

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

13

Positive and Negative Effects of Nanotechnology

Amira S. Soliman*

Natural Resources Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

13.1 Introduction

New technologies are always applied in an area such as agriculture to improve the

­production of crops. For the last decade or so, nanomaterials have been widely used in the world, such as the use of nanoparticles in agriculture, with the particles having certain valuable effects on the crops (Morla et al., 2011; Mishra et al., 2014). Nanoparticles have enhanced interaction, due to an increase in each of the following: reactive area; specific surface area; or responsiveness of these particles along the particle surfaces.

Nanotechnology can provide solutions to increasing agricultural productivity and decreasing environmental problems (Mishra and Singh, 2015; Mishra et al., 2017).

With the use of nanoparticles and nanopowders, researchers can produce controlledor delayed-release fertilizers (Roghayyeh et al., 2010; Kottegoda et al., 2011). On the other hand, there is now extensive argument about the hazards of releasing nanomaterials into the environment (USEPA, 2007), so many researchers are operating with increasing awareness of this topic in order to evaluate the potentially negative effects on the environment and on human health (Ruffini and Roberto, 2009). Therefore, this chapter highlights the importance of nanotechnology in improving agricultural productivity, and its ability to improve plant growth under normal and environmental stresses. Further, it will also shed light on some of the negative effects of nanotechnology that affect plants in particular and the environment in general.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786391445

10 Global Market of Nanomaterials and Colloidal Formulations for Agriculture: An Overview

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

10

Global Market of Nanomaterials and Colloidal Formulations for Agriculture: An Overview

Estefânia V.R. Campos,1 Jhones L. de Oliveira,1

Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto1 and Renato Grillo2*

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Institute of Science and Technology of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil; 2São Paulo State University (UNESP),

Department of Physics and Chemistry, São Paulo, Brazil

1

10.1 Introduction

The increase in the growth rate of the global population, together with the need to produce greater amounts of high-quality food in smaller areas, has contributed to an expansion of the agricultural sector in recent years. New tools and farming policies have emerged, ranging from sustainable agriculture to mechanization, biotechnology and nanotechnology (Dethier, 2011; Unsworth et al., 2016). In this chapter, we will focus on nanotechnology, whose activity is related to the creation, processing, characterization and application of materials at the nanoscale

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786391445

5 Multifarious Applications of Nanotechnology for Enhanced Productivity in Agriculture

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

5

Multifarious Applications of

Nanotechnology for Enhanced

Productivity in Agriculture

K.S. Subramanian,* K. Raja and S. Marimuthu

Department of Nano Science & Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural

University, Coimbatore, India

5.1 Introduction

Global agriculture underwent a series of metamorphoses that has led to the

­paradigm shift from traditional farming to precision agriculture. Such a shift is phenomenal in tropical agricultural production systems, particularly in India, where farming has faced a wide array of challenges. In the past decade, agriculture is being threatened by a burgeoning population, shrinking farmland, restricted water availability, imbalanced crop nutrition, multinutrient deficiencies in crops, yield stagnation and decline in organic matter. In order to overcome challenges ahead, people think of an alternate technology such as ‘nanotechnology’ to precisely detect and deliver the correct quantity of agri-inputs required by crops that promote productivity with environmental safety. Nanotechnology is highly exploited in energy, environment, electronics, medicine and health sciences while its application in agricultural sciences is yet to scratch the surface.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786391445

2 Use of Nanomaterials in Agriculture: Potential Benefits and Challenges

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

2

Use of Nanomaterials in Agriculture: Potential

Benefits and Challenges

Daiana Silva Ávila,1* Solange Cristina Garcia,2*

Marcelo Dutra Arbo,2 Jessica Nardi2 and Maurício

Tavares Jacques1

Grupo de Pesquisa em Bioquímica e Toxicologia em Caenorhabditis elegans, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Brazil;

2

Laboratório de Toxicologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

1

2.1 Introduction

Agrochemicals are essential to increase the quantity of food; additionally, they are an ­important way to decrease or eradicate pests. On the other hand, with the development and adoption of transgenic crop plants, more agrochemicals, especially pesticides, are being utilized. Because of increased pesticide residues, there is more contamination of food and water. Novel technologies are becoming available for example, nanotechnology, including agrochemicals, is currently an emerging technology, and may soon be in everyday use. In the last decade, the area of nanotechnology has grown enormously from patents to scientific publications, in a variety of areas, such as energy production, electronics, medicine and agriculture (Chen et al., 2013; Cozzens et al., 2013; Kah, 2015). In the area of agriculture, scientific production is evident, concentrating on nanoagrochemicals, from nanopesticides to nanofertilizers (Kah, 2015; Mishra et  al., 2016;

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786391445

18 Role of Nanotechnology in Insect Pest Management

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

18

Role of Nanotechnology in Insect Pest Management

Deepika Chauhan,1 N.N. Singh2 and Vijay Kumar Mishra2*

Department of Entomology, College of Horticulture, Uttarakhand, India;

Department of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Banaras Hindu

University, Varanasi, India

1

2

18.1 Introduction

A chief consideration for population development is the pertinent need for a boost in food production. A huge proportion of people living in developing countries face the problem of food scarcity as a consequence of ecological forces, namely, rainstorms, floods and droughts on agriculture (Joseph and Morrison, 2006).

Correspondingly, farming and agricultural production are hampered by a number of abiotic and biotic factors. For example, insect pests, diseases and weeds cause substantial injury to prospective agricultural production. Conversely, herbivorous insects, one of the major obstacles in sustainable food production, are said to be accountable for devastating one-fifth of the world’s total crop production annually and losses can occur in the field as well as during storage (Oerke, 2006).

See All Chapters

See All Chapters