18 Chapters
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8 Factors Affecting the Fate, Transport, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Nanoparticles in the Agroecosystem

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

8

Factors Affecting the Fate,

Transport, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Nanoparticles in the Agroecosystem

Sudheer K. Yadav,1 Jai Singh Patel,1 Gagan Kumar,2

Arpan Mukherjee,1 Anupam Maharshi,2 Birinchi K.

Sarma,2* Surendra Singh1 and Harikesh B. Singh2

Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India;

Department of Mycology & Plant Pathology, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India

1

2

8.1 Introduction

The basic need for the current scenario is to face the global problem of production, food security and sustainability in constantly changing climatic conditions. The exhaustive use of agrochemicals to increase production has polluted the ground­ water and topsoil. A significant increase in food production is compulsory, but we have to ensure minimal damage to the environment by using new approaches.

One of the new approaches, the use of nanotechnology in the agricultural sector, is very important. The synthesis of nanomaterials through nanotechnology helps slow the release of pesticides and fertilizers, to reduce dosage and waste

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1 Rewinding the History of Agriculture and Emergence of Nanotechnology in Agriculture

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

1

Rewinding the History of

Agriculture and Emergence of

Nanotechnology in Agriculture

Sandhya Mishra,1# Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto,2*

Xiaodong Yang1 and Harikesh B. Singh3*

Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical

Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; 2Laboratory of

Environmental Nanotechnology, São Paulo State University, Brazil;

3

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural

Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, India

1

1.1 Introduction

Agriculture has been the key factor for development and rise of human civilization by nurturing the ever-growing human population. Agricultural history dates back thousands of years when people started to harvest their food from the surroundings about 10,000 years bc (Wieczorek and Wright, 2012). The field of agriculture has witnessed groundbreaking revolutions with the main aim of enhancing food production in order to feed the constantly growing human population. The major concern for agriculturists is to enhance crop production in a sustainable manner with the aim of fulfilling food demand for the ever-growing human population, which is expected to grow to around 9.3 billion in 2050. In this regard, researchers are attempting to bring substantial changes in agricultural technology to shape the infrastructure of modern agriculture (Mba et al., 2012; Mishra et al., 2014b).

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14 Vanguard Nano(bio)sensor Technologies Fostering the Renaissance of Agriculture

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

14

Vanguard Nano(bio)sensor

Technologies Fostering the

Renaissance of Agriculture

Amina Antonacci,1 Fabiana Arduini2 and Viviana

Scognamiglio1*

Institute of Crystallography, National Research Council, Monterotondo,

Italy; 2Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of

Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

1

14.1 Introduction

In the report, The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and

Agriculture, published in 2011, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the

United Nations (FAO) stated:

Land and water resources are central to agriculture and rural development, and are intrinsically linked to global challenges of food insecurity and poverty, climate change adaptation and mitigation, as well as degradation and depletion of natural resources that affect the livelihoods of millions of rural people across the world.

(FAO, 2011)

In recent years, the challenge of assuring adequate food worldwide has never been harder due to demographic pressure, climate change, and the increased competition for resources, especially in developing countries such as Africa and Asia, where almost 1 billion people are undernourished. The agricultural industry has handled these increasing constraints producing massive food volumes by immoderately exploiting practices that have been used without considering their impact on the environment and human wellbeing. In fact, farming techniques have been oriented towards the indiscriminate use of labour and resources, high-tech machinery, and pesticides in the cultivation of crops to achieve an augmented profit, causing an abuse of the soil and at the same time triggering huge pollution levels in different environmental segments. Watercourses and related ecosystems are facing worrying levels of pollution and degradation due to intense farming that is causing reduced quality, biodiversity injury, water scarcity, damage to territories,

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12 Nanotechnology Application and Emergence in Agriculture

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

12

Nanotechnology Application and Emergence in Agriculture

Semih Otles1* and Buket Yalcin Sahyar1,2

1

Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 2Indesit Company, Manisa, Turkey

12.1 Introduction

Nanotechnology basically can be defined as the science of manufacturing

­materials that have at least one dimension below 100 nanometer (nm) in size, while it can also be described as the study of physical matter and organized structures at the 1–100 nm physical range and also incorporation of these nanostructures into applications (Fig. 12.1). There are lots of differentiations between physical, chemical and biological properties when the scale turns from the micro- to the nanoscale. The major differentiation is larger surface/volume ratio of nanoscale materials. Additionally, nanomaterials reaction to mechanisms, thermodynamics and optical and magnetic properties are different from the same materials at macro levels. Nanoparticles have a different surface structure and composition via different reactivity, according to redox reactions and adsorption mechanisms.

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18 Role of Nanotechnology in Insect Pest Management

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

18

Role of Nanotechnology in Insect Pest Management

Deepika Chauhan,1 N.N. Singh2 and Vijay Kumar Mishra2*

Department of Entomology, College of Horticulture, Uttarakhand, India;

Department of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Banaras Hindu

University, Varanasi, India

1

2

18.1 Introduction

A chief consideration for population development is the pertinent need for a boost in food production. A huge proportion of people living in developing countries face the problem of food scarcity as a consequence of ecological forces, namely, rainstorms, floods and droughts on agriculture (Joseph and Morrison, 2006).

Correspondingly, farming and agricultural production are hampered by a number of abiotic and biotic factors. For example, insect pests, diseases and weeds cause substantial injury to prospective agricultural production. Conversely, herbivorous insects, one of the major obstacles in sustainable food production, are said to be accountable for devastating one-fifth of the world’s total crop production annually and losses can occur in the field as well as during storage (Oerke, 2006).

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