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2 Genomics and Transcriptomics – a Revolution in the Study of Cyst Nematode Biology

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF

2 

Genomics and Transcriptomics – a

Revolution in the Study of Cyst Nematode

Biology

Sebastian Eves-van den Akker1,2 and John T. Jones3,4,5

Division of Plant Sciences, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee,

Dundee, UK; 2Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich

Research Park, Norwich, UK; 3The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee,

UK; 4The University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, UK; 5Ghent

­University, Ghent, Belgium

1

2.1 Introduction

2.2  A Note of Caution

2.3 �Current Status of Genome and Transcriptome Projects for

Cyst Nematodes and Other Plant-parasitic Nematodes�

2.4  Key Findings from Genome/Transcriptome Projects

2.5  Population Genetics and Metagenetics

2.6  Identification of Key Biochemical Pathways and Targets for Control

2.7  Mitochondrial Genomes

2.8  Horizontal Gene Transfer

2.9 Accessibility

2.10  Conclusions and Future Prospects

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12 Interactions with Other Pathogens

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF

12 

Interactions with Other Pathogens

Horacio D. Lopez-Nicora and Terry L. Niblack

Department of Plant Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

12.1 Introduction

12.2  Defining Interactions

12.3 �Methodologies for Investigation of Interactions between

Nematodes and Other Organisms

12.4  Biological and Statistical Evidence of Interactions

12.5  Mechanisms of Interactions

12.6  Interactions between Cyst Nematodes and Other Organisms

12.7  Conclusions and Future Prospects

12.8 References

12.1 Introduction

Interactions between nematodes and other organisms are one component of the vast ecological network of biotic and abiotic interactions with plants. Quantifying the effect of each component alone is not easy and multiple components (‘determinants’) present larger challenges

(Wallace, 1978, 1989). Complex interactions between plant-parasitic nematodes and other pathogenic organisms generate uncertainties in our abilities to predict host damage. The lack of comprehension of the mechanisms of these interactions and under- or overestimation of damage and economic thresholds impede the development and implementation of management strategies.

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15 Taxonomy, Identification and Principal Species

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF

15 

Taxonomy, Identification and

Principal Species

Zafar A. Handoo1 and Sergei A. Subbotin2, 3

USDA, ARS, Beltsville, Maryland, USA; 2California Department of Food and

Agriculture, Sacramento, California, USA; 3Center of Parasitology of A.N.

Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscow, Russia

1

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Identification

15.3  Systematic Position

15.4  Subfamily Heteroderinae Diagnosis

15.5 Genus Heterodera Schmidt, 1871

15.6  Subfamily Punctoderinae Diagnosis

15.7 Genus Globodera Skarbilovich, 1959

15.8 Genus Punctodera Mulvey & Stone, 1976

15.9 Genus Cactodera Krall & Krall, 1978

15.10 Genus Dolichodera Mulvey & Ebsary, 1980

15.11 Genus Betulodera Sturhan, 2002

15.12 Genus Paradolichodera Sturhan, Wouts & Subbotin, 2007

15.13 Genus Vittatidera Bernard, Handoo, Powers, Donald & Heinz, 2010

15.14  Conclusions and Future Prospects

15.15 Acknowledgements

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6 Role of Population Dynamics and Damage Thresholds in Cyst Nematode Management

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF

6 

Role of Population Dynamics and

Damage Thresholds in Cyst Nematode

Management

George W. Bird1, Inga A. Zasada2 and Gregory L. Tylka3

Michigan State University, East Lancing, Michigan, USA; 2USDA-ARS, Corvallis,

Oregon, USA; 3Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA

1

6.1 Introduction

6.2  Heterodera schachtii (Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode)

6.3  Globodera spp. (Potato Cyst Nematodes)

6.4  Heterodera glycines (Soybean Cyst Nematode)

6.5  The Rest of the Heteroderinae

6.6  Conclusions and Future Prospects

6.7 References

6.1 Introduction

Nematode population dynamics and damage thresholds are applied aspects of population ecology. The domain of population ecology had its origins in the works of Lotka (1925) and

Volterra (1926), leading to the contributions of  Lack (1954) and Huffaker (1958). With the publication of Odum’s Fundamentals of Ecology

(1959), the basic principles and concepts pertaining to organization at the species population level were established. Currently, population ecology is a vibrant discipline, essential for developing a true understanding of how ecosystems work (Rockwood, 2015). It involves how a definable group of individuals of a single species interact with the biotic and abiotic attributes of their environment.

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17 Biochemical and Molecular Identification

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17 

Biochemical and Molecular

Identification

Lieven Waeyenberge

ILVO, Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Merelbeke, Belgium

17.1  Statutory and Non-statutory Issues

17.2  Biochemical and Molecular Identification

17.3  Conclusions and Future Prospects

17.4 References

17.1  Statutory and Non-statutory

Issues

The International Plant Protection Convention

(IPPC) was founded on 6 December 1951 at the

6th Conference of the Food and Agriculture

­Organization of the United Nations (FAO-UN). Its mission is ‘to secure cooperation among nations in protecting global plant resources from the spread and introduction of pests of plants, in order to preserve food security, biodiversity and to facilitate trade’ (www.ippc.int). To consolidate the objectives of the IPPC, National Plant Protection

Organizations (NPPOs) were initiated or further fortified. These organizations developed their own plant health regulations in agreement with the principles of the World Trade Organizations

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