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3 Hatch, Survival and Sensory Perception

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF

3 

1

Hatch, Survival and Sensory

Perception

Edward P. Masler1 and Roland N. Perry2,3

USDA-ARS, Beltsville, Maryland, USA; 2University of Hertfordshire,

Hatfield, UK; 3Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

3.1 Introduction

3.2  Biology of Hatching

3.3 Survival

3.4  Sensory Perception

3.5  Conclusions and Future Prospects

3.6 References

3.1 Introduction

The need to understand the functional biology of nematodes is central both to fundamental science and to practical aspects. Research on the biology of economically important cyst nematodes frequently has the declared aim of identifying novel control targets based on disruption of the nematode life cycle. The knowledge from such research also provides a fascinating exposition of the complex aspects of host–parasite interactions and the sophisticated mechanisms involved. In this chapter we focus on three aspects, hatching, survival and sensory perception, and explore the links among them and the associated interfaces between the cyst nematodes and their hosts.

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7 Quarantine, Distribution Patterns and Sampling

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF

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Quarantine, Distribution Patterns and Sampling

Jon Pickup1, Adrian M.I. Roberts2 and Loes J.M.F. den Nijs3

Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture, Edinburgh UK; 2Biomathematics and

Statistics Scotland, Edinburgh, UK; 3National Plant Protection Organisation/

Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Wageningen,

The Netherlands

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Quarantine

7.3  Phytosanitary Status

7.4  Soil Sampling

7.5  Laboratory Diagnosis

7.6  Conclusions and Future Prospects

7.7 References

7.1 Introduction

Under the guidelines set out within the International Standard on Phytosanitary Measures

(ISPM) 16 (FAO, 2002), quarantine pest status implies that specific regulations are implemented to ensure that phytosanitary measures address all transmission pathways to ensure that such pests are not introduced into or spread within the country, and that, if found, official control measures are implemented with the aim of eradication or containment. It is generally the responsibility of individual countries to make decisions of whether a pest is treated as a quarantine species.

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5 Biochemistry

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF

5 Biochemistry

David J. Chitwood and Edward P. Masler

USDA-ARS, Beltsville, Maryland, USA

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Lipids

5.3 Carbohydrates

5.4 Proteins

5.5  Conclusions and Future Prospects

5.6 References

5.1 Introduction

Part of the framework for effective control or management of cyst nematodes is the detailed understanding of their biology. There is also the fascination in examining mechanisms and their interactions from a purely academic perspective to acquire new knowledge. Some of the information on individual components of the biological system is dated. There is a paucity of research directly examining aspects of biochemistry, perhaps because of the difficulties associated with the microscopic size of cyst nematodes as experimental animals, and perhaps because funding agencies have not viewed these areas of research as top priority.

However, burgeoning genomic data now provide opportunities to make inferences about biochemical pathways through bioinformatic analyses of nematode gene content and expression. There are numerous genome projects, either completed or in progress, and the emphasis is on how the genes and the proteins

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2 Genomics and Transcriptomics – a Revolution in the Study of Cyst Nematode Biology

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF

2 

Genomics and Transcriptomics – a

Revolution in the Study of Cyst Nematode

Biology

Sebastian Eves-van den Akker1,2 and John T. Jones3,4,5

Division of Plant Sciences, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee,

Dundee, UK; 2Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich

Research Park, Norwich, UK; 3The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee,

UK; 4The University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, UK; 5Ghent

­University, Ghent, Belgium

1

2.1 Introduction

2.2  A Note of Caution

2.3 �Current Status of Genome and Transcriptome Projects for

Cyst Nematodes and Other Plant-parasitic Nematodes�

2.4  Key Findings from Genome/Transcriptome Projects

2.5  Population Genetics and Metagenetics

2.6  Identification of Key Biochemical Pathways and Targets for Control

2.7  Mitochondrial Genomes

2.8  Horizontal Gene Transfer

2.9 Accessibility

2.10  Conclusions and Future Prospects

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12 Interactions with Other Pathogens

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF

12 

Interactions with Other Pathogens

Horacio D. Lopez-Nicora and Terry L. Niblack

Department of Plant Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

12.1 Introduction

12.2  Defining Interactions

12.3 �Methodologies for Investigation of Interactions between

Nematodes and Other Organisms

12.4  Biological and Statistical Evidence of Interactions

12.5  Mechanisms of Interactions

12.6  Interactions between Cyst Nematodes and Other Organisms

12.7  Conclusions and Future Prospects

12.8 References

12.1 Introduction

Interactions between nematodes and other organisms are one component of the vast ecological network of biotic and abiotic interactions with plants. Quantifying the effect of each component alone is not easy and multiple components (‘determinants’) present larger challenges

(Wallace, 1978, 1989). Complex interactions between plant-parasitic nematodes and other pathogenic organisms generate uncertainties in our abilities to predict host damage. The lack of comprehension of the mechanisms of these interactions and under- or overestimation of damage and economic thresholds impede the development and implementation of management strategies.

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