23 Chapters
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11 Business Sector and Global Sustainable Future

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11 

Business Sector and Global

Sustainable Future

Felix Moses Edoho1a and Robert Dibieb

Lincoln University, Jefferson City, Missouri, USA; bIndiana University Kokomo,

Indiana, USA

1a

Introduction

The global environmental challenges of our time range from global warming, ozone depletion,

­deforestation and desertification, acid rain and declining biodiversity to toxic wastes (Millen­ nium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005; WWF, 2010;

Worldwatch Institute, 2010, 2011). Corporate industrial production has contributed significantly to these phenomena (Anderson, 2015; Kraft and

Furlong, 2017). It also accounts for the destruction of the natural habitats and colonies; contamination of ground waters and fish ponds; and release of greenhouse gas and toxic chemicals into the atmosphere (Bergesen and Parmann,

1995; Anderson, 2002; Shisanto, 2005; Utting and Ives, 2006; Mesa, 2007; Edoho, 2013;

­Anderson, 2015). Corporations in the resource extraction industries wreak havoc on the environment because they directly disturb and dislocate the ecosystems, causing the most severe impacts (Cragg and Greenbaum, 2002; Kapelus,

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2 Operationalizing Concepts of Sustainable Development in Africa

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2 

Operationalizing Concepts of

Sustainable Development in Africa

Valentine Udoh James1

Clarion University of Pennsylvania, USA

Introduction

Since the achievement of political independence in most African countries, there have been efforts by African governments to find the right formula for development strategies that would bring sustained economic, social and political advancement and stability. African economies have invariably depended on export of renewable and non-renewable natural resources and cash crops for their foreign exchange earnings. This reliance on commodities and natural resources has made it difficult to sustain development efforts. The current literature on Africa’s development is replete with descriptions of economic, social and ecological systems that have declined significantly.

The stress that African economic, social and ecological systems are experiencing can be attributed to many endogenous and exogenous factors.

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19 Oil, Conflict and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

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19 

Oil, Conflict and Sustainable

Development in Nigeria

James Olusegun Adeyeri1

Lagos State University, Ojo, Nigeria

Introduction

The search for crude oil in Nigeria dates back to

1908 via the efforts of a German firm, the Nigerian Bitumen Corporation (Shrivastava, 2007).

Eventually, oil was discovered in commercial quantity at Otagbagi near Oloibiri, present-day

Bayelsa State, in February 1956 (Preboye,

2005). Nigeria joined the ranks of oil-producing states with the maiden shipment of Nigerian oil to Europe by Shell BP in 1958. Other firms, including Mobil, Texaco, Agip and ELF etc. made their entry into the nascent Nigerian oil industry afterwards. Due to the desirability of effective state participation and control in the industry, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) created the Nigeria National Oil Corporation (NNOC) in

1971 to undertake exploration, prospection, production, transportation, storage and marketing of crude oil and its refined products. As a result of operational difficulties-induced inefficiency of the NNOC, the government abolished the outfit in 1977 and replaced it with a new one, the

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5 Understanding Capacity Building for Sustainable Tourism in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

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5 

Understanding Capacity Building for

Sustainable Tourism in the Niger Delta,

Nigeria

Luke Amadi1

University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Introduction

From the early 1970s, novel thinking on ‘capacity development’ emerged. This was strengthened within the United Nations (UN) system in the context of ‘institution building’. This encompassed impacting on the ability of institutions for improved and efficient performance.

By 1991 the term had transformed into

‘capacity building’ following the increasing need to incorporate the ‘individual’ components. The terms capacity building and capacity development are used in numerous contexts to describe a wide array of activities. Capacity building aims to strengthen the ability of both individual and institutional entities to work together for their mutual benefits by deploying relevant skills and tools needed to identify and resolve problems.

The UN specialized agencies were charged with the responsibility of ensuring that various institutional capacity building bodies were developed within a wide range of sectors such as environment (UNEP: UN Environment Pro­ gramme), cultural (UNESCO: UN Educational,

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13 Subaltern Hydro-struggles Against Unsustainable Commercial Diamond-mining Practices in Chiadzwa, Zimbabwe (2009–2013)

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13 

Subaltern Hydro-struggles Against

Unsustainable Commercial

Diamond-mining Practices in

Chiadzwa, Zimbabwe (2009–2013)

Fidelis Peter Thomas Duri1

Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

Introduction

Instead of alleviating the plight of the common people in a country engulfed in a socio-economic meltdown which became so manifest from 2000, the diamond rush in the Chiadzwa area under

Chief Marange in Zimbabwe’s Manicaland province since 2006 actually generated a multiplicity of crises. These included environmental degradation and the illegal panning and smuggling of the mineral. The Zimbabwean government cordoned off the diamond fields and displaced some African communities from the mining area and its

­vicinity. It then invited local and international companies to apply for diamond mining rights.

Commercial diamond m

­ ining began at Chiadzwa in 2009 after most of the rights had been granted to companies jointly owned by foreigners and the Zimbabwean elite. This move exacerbated the crisis and triggered a plethora of struggles and contestations as local communities felt that they were not benefiting from their indigenous resources. Commercial mining operations involving heavy earth-­moving machinery ravaged the terrain of the Chiadzwa area and its vicinity, resulting in the unprecedented siltation of water bodies. The careless disposal of mine waste polluted rivers to the extent that rural African communities living downstream

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