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3: Organic and Fairtrade Production Worldwide

Parvathi, P.; Grote, U.; Waibel, H. CABI PDF

3 

Organic and Fairtrade Production

Worldwide

Julia Lernoud and Helga Willer*

Department of Extension, Training and Communication,

Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick, Switzerland

3.1 Introduction

In this chapter, data on certified organic agriculture and Fairtrade International certified agriculture are presented. For the organic data, the

­results of the 2016 global organic survey, carried out by the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), are used (Willer and Lernoud, 2016).

For Fairtrade, the data as published by Fairtrade

International are shown (Fairtrade International,

2015).(1) Unless otherwise stated, the source of the data is the above-mentioned publications from

FiBL and Fairtrade International. For this chapter, we focus on Africa, Asia and Latin America. However, an overview of the global picture of the organic and the Fairtrade sector is also provided.

For the retail sales, 2015 data were available and were used in this chapter. However, for the other indicators covered in this chapter

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12: The Impact of Certification on Material Input Costs in India

Parvathi, P.; Grote, U.; Waibel, H. CABI PDF

12 

The Impact of Certification on Material Input Costs in India

Priyanka Parvathi* and Hermann Waibel

Institute of Development and Agricultural Economics, Leibniz University

Hannover, Germany

12.1 Introduction

There has been an upsurge in the growth of organic and Fair Trade markets as elaborated in

Chapters 2 and 3. Also, these systems have resulted in positive impacts on rural smallholder producer livelihoods as discussed in many studies (e.g. Bacon, 2005; Kleemann and Abdulai,

2013; Parvathi and Waibel, 2015b). However, organic farming is widely criticized for low yields

(de Ponti et al., 2012).

Organic yields are largely reliant on quantity and quality of inputs like manure. The availability and economic accessibility of non-chemical inputs are vital for maintaining and increasing yields in organic agriculture (Brunelle et al., 2015).

While these non-chemical inputs are perceived to be cheaper (Seufert et al., 2012), nevertheless studies have pointed out that they can also be expensive, constraining especially organic smallholder farmers from using them adequately and efficiently (e.g. Valkila, 2009; Beuchelt and Zeller,

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11: Assessing the Benefits of Organic and Fair Trade Production for Small-scale Farmers in Asia

Parvathi, P.; Grote, U.; Waibel, H. CABI PDF

11 

Assessing the Benefits of Organic and Fair Trade Production for Small-scale

Farmers in Asia

Yuhui Qiao*

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University,

Beijing, China

Organic agriculture and Fair Trade have the

­potential to provide improved livelihood opportunities, increased income and social benefits for small-scale farmers. The combination has thus become a popular strategy to reduce poverty in many developing countries. Cases of small-scale farmers who have both organic and Fair Trade certification in Asia will be analysed and summarized in this chapter.

11.1  Combination and

­ omplementarity of Organic and

C

Fair Trade Production: from Theory to Practice

Small-scale farmers in developing countries of

Asia, Latin America and Africa produce many bulk agricultural commodities. Most of them depend on agriculture as their main income

­ source, but sometimes they are faced with problems of low productivity, low prices received for their products and degradation of agroecological conditions. The majority of farmers in poverty worldwide depend on this sector for their livelihood; roughly 730 million are employed in agriculture in Asia, mostly as informal workers

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5: Methodological Toolbox

Parvathi, P.; Grote, U.; Waibel, H. CABI PDF

5 

Methodological Toolbox

Hermann Waibel and Priyanka Parvathi*

Institute of Development and Agricultural Economics, Leibniz University

Hannover, Germany

5.1 Introduction

Rigorous scientific studies on organic and Fair

Trade agriculture can be undertaken with standard economic methodologies such as adoption studies, impact assessment, cost–benefit analysis and environmental economic analysis. However, organic and Fair Trade agriculture is expected to have effects that cannot be fully captured by standard economic analysis that is focused on economic efficiency criteria. Organic products address the health and environmental concerns of consumers and therefore environmental sustainability and health economics should be

­incorporated in the analysis. Fair Trade incorporates a pro-poor social premium in the price of their products and so distributional aspects with regards to wealth and access to resources should be included in the study. Methods that go beyond neoclassic welfare analysis, like assessment of indicators for ecological and social sustainability, poverty reduction and long-term wealth effects, are necessary tools that complement

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10: Fair Trade Certification on Plantations: Household Wealth and Welfare Implications for Hired Labour

Parvathi, P.; Grote, U.; Waibel, H. CABI PDF

10 

Fair Trade Certification on Plantations:

Household Wealth and Welfare

Implications for Hired Labour

1

Katharina Krumbiegel* and Meike Wollni

University of Goettingen, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Germany

10.1 Introduction

10.1.1  Fair Trade certified plantation agriculture

About 1.3 billion workers are employed in the agricultural sector worldwide, of which about

500 million work as casual, temporary or permanent workers on plantations. Hired labour on plantations or in factories are considered one of the most vulnerable groups in the global trade system. They are often exposed to discrimination, difficult working conditions, low wages and lack of bargaining opportunities. In recent years, however, consumers have become increasingly aware of unfavourable employment conditions in the food producing industry. This awareness has been mirrored by the rise of private food and sustainability standards, such as Fair Trade.

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