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9 Implementation: Global Level

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198

OVERVIEW This chapter explores the meaning of culture in a country context, describes the difficulties of changing organizational culture in the midst of varying country cultures, and suggests implications for OD practice in organizations consisting of varying country cultures and subcultures. In addition to considering specific OD-related issues, it also discusses common theories of culture applicable across disciplines, explores the emotional issue of globalization, and provides a self-assessment instrument for discussion purposes.

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f all of the issues confronting the OD field, perhaps one of the most difficult yet most important is the issue of doing OD work across national cultures and borders. We live in a world that is becoming increasingly small, given advances in technology—computers

(including e-mail and the Internet), satellite and cable television, and cell phones, all of which enable us to be in touch instantly and always with any part of the world (almost). With few exceptions, all business organizations are impacted by the growing global economy: investment capital flows across the world; currency is exchanged as a commodity; purchases are made from around the globe, frequently from low-wage countries; workers are hired from across the globe (often not even requiring them to relocate); raw materials come from around the globe; the food we eat and the clothes we wear come from a myriad of countries; work is outsourced so that customer service problems in the U.K., for instance, are being addressed by workers in India; and so forth.

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6 Implementation: Individual Level

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128

OVERVIEW The individual-level OD interventions provided in Chapter 5 are the subject of this chapter. Whereas Chapter 5 provided a brief description of each of the individual interventions, this chapter focuses on the process of implementation, along with strengths and weaknesses of each approach where appropriate. The interventions described in this section include T-groups; coaching; mentoring; self-awareness tools; reflection; training, education, and development; leadership development; multirater (360-degree) feedback; job design; job descriptions; responsibility charting; policies manual; values clarification and values integration; conflict management; and action learning.

OD

interventions at the individual level are perhaps the most challenging for OD professionals because they are asked to be aware of their boundaries of competence. Many of the interventions discussed in this chapter have the potential to raise serious issues related to mental health for the targeted individuals that go beyond the competence of most OD professionals. The role of the OD professional in such a situation must be to recognize that such a problem exists and to refer the individual(s) involved to appropriate professionals (therapists, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, etc.). This concern is explored in much more detail in Chapter 15, “Ethics and Values Driving OD.”

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12 Evaluation of Processes and Results

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302

OVERVIEW Unfortunately, evaluation is often ignored by OD professionals and their clients. In this chapter, the importance of evaluation is stressed, along with some suggestions of how evaluation can be done so as to counter the objections often put forward. Many approaches to evaluation are reviewed, with advantages and disadvantages of each.

Again, because it is always impossible to prove direct cause and effect with OD, triangulation (use of multiple approaches) is emphasized.

Formative (during the process), summative (at the end of the process), and longitudinal (over time) evaluation are discussed. (This chapter draws heavily from McLean, 2005.)

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valuation is an important phase often overlooked by practitioners.

The difficulty in conducting a viable evaluation is often cited as the reason why evaluations are not conducted. This chapter explores the reasons for conducting evaluation, the pros and cons of the most popular approaches to evaluation, and suggestions for a workable, though not perfect, means of carrying out acceptable evaluations.

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1 What Is Organization Development?

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2

OVERVIEW This chapter presents the definitional issues, the business case for OD, two primary models with their strengths and weaknesses

(action research, appreciative inquiry), and the importance of organizational context. It also contains the historical roots of the field, as well as its values and principles. Concepts of organizational culture and change management are also explored briefly.

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elcome to the world of organization development (OD)! Every reader of this book comes with multiple experiences in organizations—from your family to your schools; churches, synagogues, temples, and mosques; workplaces; charitable organizations; government agencies; sports teams; social clubs; labor unions; and so on. Some of these experiences have probably been positive, while some have probably been negative. That’s the nature of the world in which we live. In this book, you will learn some of the approaches that professionals in the field of OD use to turn negative experiences into positive ones, and how good OD practice that relies on solid OD theory can help organizations to be more productive, more satisfying, and more effective and efficient.

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7 Implementation: Team and Interteam Levels

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162

OVERVIEW This level of intervention includes interventions to strengthen teams or formal groups and improve the relationships between teams or groups. These interventions include dialogue sessions, team building (the most common OD intervention), process consultation, team effectiveness, meeting facilitation, fishbowls, brainstorming, interteam conflict management, and strategic alignment assessment.

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atzenbach and Smith (1993) suggested that a team is a group of interdependent people sharing a common purpose, having common work methods, and holding each other accountable. This chapter focuses on the teams that exist in organizations. Team/work group and interteam interventions are part of the Implementation phase shown in

Figure 7.1.

The number of intervention types focused on the team or group level is almost endless. This chapter will expand on a few of them in some detail as examples of what an OD professional might find appropriate in helping improve team or group functioning. The OD professional needs to be sure to use team interventions only when there is a need for people to work together interdependently. Using the intervention for the sake of having an intervention, rather than for the purpose of transforming the team, is neither effective nor productive. Many of the basic definitions of the interventions presented here were covered in

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