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10 Implementation: Organizational Level

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248

OVERVIEW At the organizational level, the most important interventions improve strategic thinking and strategic alignment. Important OD contributions to this process included in this chapter are organization design; company-wide survey; learning organization; organizational learning; culture change; accountability and reward systems; succession planning; valuing differences/diversity; mission, vision, values, and philosophy development; strategic planning; large-scale interactive events; open systems mapping; future search; and open space technology meetings.

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e turn now to those interventions that are intended to impact the whole organization. As recognized in Chapter 5, however, within systems theory, all of the levels covered in the preceding chapters also impact the whole organization in some way. Although I have categorized the interventions to fit into different levels of targets of impact, the distinction in levels (and thus in these chapters) is somewhat artificial.

Implementation targeted specifically at the organizational level is one more aspect of the implementation phase, as identified in Figure 10.1.

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5 Action Planning and Introduction to Interventions

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102

OVERVIEW Based on the findings of the assessment, an action plan must be created. What goals and objectives will the organization establish, and what will the organization do as a result of the assessment and feedback? This chapter includes a form to assist practitioners in the process of doing action planning as a collaborative group, relying heavily on the use of the affinity diagram process described in the previous chapter. An overview of implementation options will be included in this chapter to suggest approaches that might be included in action plans.

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ith the assessment and feedback completed, and with the input of those receiving the feedback, the steering team can now begin the process of deciding what to do in response to the assessment. This step, the Action Planning phase, is shown in Figure 5.1.

A wide range of interventions is available to OD professionals. (An intervention is an activity designed to help achieve the goals and objectives established in the Action Planning phase.) What follows in this chapter is, first, a discussion of a process for separating training needs from other types of OD needs. This will be followed by a description of one approach to creating an action plan, followed by a brief overview of the range of implementation interventions available.

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4 Organizational Assessment and Feedback

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72

OVERVIEW Assessment is carried out in four ways, either singularly or in combination: observation, secondary data, interview, and survey. The pros and cons of each approach will be presented, along with specifics on how to make each one most useful. We will consider differences between the organization development process model and the appreciative inquiry model. Issues related to triangulation, customized versus standardized instruments, and psychometrics will be included. Finally, a keystone of OD is providing feedback on the outcome of assessment, so we will consider a rationale for feedback. Deciding to whom feedback should be provided, by whom, and in what format will also be discussed.

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nce the Entry and Start-up phases are complete, or nearly so, you are then ready to conduct an organizational assessment—also called diagnosis, check-up, cultural survey, employee survey, and many other terms. See Figure 4.1 to see where the Assessment and Feedback phase fits into the organization development process model cycle.

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15 Ethics and Values Driving OD

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352

OVERVIEW OD is a values-driven field. This quality is sometimes seen as one of its challenges. In determining what values should drive the

field, there is the potential for conflict with the values of clients, especially those clients in the for-profit sector. In this chapter, areas that are particularly difficult ethically for OD practitioners will be presented and discussed, with suggestions of ways ethical decisions can be made.

Reference will be made to the various professional ethics statements currently available. Values presented come heavily from my own practice and from the OD Principles and Practices on the OD Network Web site.

The chapter includes a proposed flowchart for making ethical decisions.

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ou may often have heard, “Just do the right thing!” If it were that easy, there would be relatively little to include in this chapter; I could simply refer you to one of the codes of ethics and be done. The reality, however, is that there are many times when determining the

“right thing” to do is extremely difficult, especially when two or more desirable values come in conflict with each other. From my theological training comes this meaningful quote from Tillich (1963): “Life at every moment is ambiguous” (p. 32). A more down-to-earth way of stating this comes from Tom McLean, protagonist in the novel China White:

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1 What Is Organization Development?

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2

OVERVIEW This chapter presents the definitional issues, the business case for OD, two primary models with their strengths and weaknesses

(action research, appreciative inquiry), and the importance of organizational context. It also contains the historical roots of the field, as well as its values and principles. Concepts of organizational culture and change management are also explored briefly.

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elcome to the world of organization development (OD)! Every reader of this book comes with multiple experiences in organizations—from your family to your schools; churches, synagogues, temples, and mosques; workplaces; charitable organizations; government agencies; sports teams; social clubs; labor unions; and so on. Some of these experiences have probably been positive, while some have probably been negative. That’s the nature of the world in which we live. In this book, you will learn some of the approaches that professionals in the field of OD use to turn negative experiences into positive ones, and how good OD practice that relies on solid OD theory can help organizations to be more productive, more satisfying, and more effective and efficient.

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