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10 Implementation: Organizational Level

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248

OVERVIEW At the organizational level, the most important interventions improve strategic thinking and strategic alignment. Important OD contributions to this process included in this chapter are organization design; company-wide survey; learning organization; organizational learning; culture change; accountability and reward systems; succession planning; valuing differences/diversity; mission, vision, values, and philosophy development; strategic planning; large-scale interactive events; open systems mapping; future search; and open space technology meetings.

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e turn now to those interventions that are intended to impact the whole organization. As recognized in Chapter 5, however, within systems theory, all of the levels covered in the preceding chapters also impact the whole organization in some way. Although I have categorized the interventions to fit into different levels of targets of impact, the distinction in levels (and thus in these chapters) is somewhat artificial.

Implementation targeted specifically at the organizational level is one more aspect of the implementation phase, as identified in Figure 10.1.

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3 Start-up and Systems Theory

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60

OVERVIEW What are the first steps that an OD professional carries out in entering an organization or a subpart of an organization? A critical component is setting project management in place. Establishing partnerships within the organization is also critical to the ultimate success of the project. How this is done, and with whom, will be explored in this chapter. Determining when it is time to move on to the next phase will be discussed as well. The entire OD process must be set in the context of systems thinking. A brief overview of systems theory is also presented in this chapter.

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ou have been successful in connecting with a client, and you now have a contract in hand. What happens next? The Start-up phase is important in establishing an infrastructure, including project management, that will support the work being done in the organization or subpart of the organization, though in some cases parts of this stage might have been addressed in the contracting component of the Entry phase, illustrating that there is not a clear distinction between phases of the

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1 What Is Organization Development?

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2

OVERVIEW This chapter presents the definitional issues, the business case for OD, two primary models with their strengths and weaknesses

(action research, appreciative inquiry), and the importance of organizational context. It also contains the historical roots of the field, as well as its values and principles. Concepts of organizational culture and change management are also explored briefly.

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elcome to the world of organization development (OD)! Every reader of this book comes with multiple experiences in organizations—from your family to your schools; churches, synagogues, temples, and mosques; workplaces; charitable organizations; government agencies; sports teams; social clubs; labor unions; and so on. Some of these experiences have probably been positive, while some have probably been negative. That’s the nature of the world in which we live. In this book, you will learn some of the approaches that professionals in the field of OD use to turn negative experiences into positive ones, and how good OD practice that relies on solid OD theory can help organizations to be more productive, more satisfying, and more effective and efficient.

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12 Evaluation of Processes and Results

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302

OVERVIEW Unfortunately, evaluation is often ignored by OD professionals and their clients. In this chapter, the importance of evaluation is stressed, along with some suggestions of how evaluation can be done so as to counter the objections often put forward. Many approaches to evaluation are reviewed, with advantages and disadvantages of each.

Again, because it is always impossible to prove direct cause and effect with OD, triangulation (use of multiple approaches) is emphasized.

Formative (during the process), summative (at the end of the process), and longitudinal (over time) evaluation are discussed. (This chapter draws heavily from McLean, 2005.)

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valuation is an important phase often overlooked by practitioners.

The difficulty in conducting a viable evaluation is often cited as the reason why evaluations are not conducted. This chapter explores the reasons for conducting evaluation, the pros and cons of the most popular approaches to evaluation, and suggestions for a workable, though not perfect, means of carrying out acceptable evaluations.

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4 Organizational Assessment and Feedback

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72

OVERVIEW Assessment is carried out in four ways, either singularly or in combination: observation, secondary data, interview, and survey. The pros and cons of each approach will be presented, along with specifics on how to make each one most useful. We will consider differences between the organization development process model and the appreciative inquiry model. Issues related to triangulation, customized versus standardized instruments, and psychometrics will be included. Finally, a keystone of OD is providing feedback on the outcome of assessment, so we will consider a rationale for feedback. Deciding to whom feedback should be provided, by whom, and in what format will also be discussed.

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nce the Entry and Start-up phases are complete, or nearly so, you are then ready to conduct an organizational assessment—also called diagnosis, check-up, cultural survey, employee survey, and many other terms. See Figure 4.1 to see where the Assessment and Feedback phase fits into the organization development process model cycle.

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