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7 Implementation: Team and Interteam Levels

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162

OVERVIEW This level of intervention includes interventions to strengthen teams or formal groups and improve the relationships between teams or groups. These interventions include dialogue sessions, team building (the most common OD intervention), process consultation, team effectiveness, meeting facilitation, fishbowls, brainstorming, interteam conflict management, and strategic alignment assessment.

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atzenbach and Smith (1993) suggested that a team is a group of interdependent people sharing a common purpose, having common work methods, and holding each other accountable. This chapter focuses on the teams that exist in organizations. Team/work group and interteam interventions are part of the Implementation phase shown in

Figure 7.1.

The number of intervention types focused on the team or group level is almost endless. This chapter will expand on a few of them in some detail as examples of what an OD professional might find appropriate in helping improve team or group functioning. The OD professional needs to be sure to use team interventions only when there is a need for people to work together interdependently. Using the intervention for the sake of having an intervention, rather than for the purpose of transforming the team, is neither effective nor productive. Many of the basic definitions of the interventions presented here were covered in

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6 Implementation: Individual Level

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128

OVERVIEW The individual-level OD interventions provided in Chapter 5 are the subject of this chapter. Whereas Chapter 5 provided a brief description of each of the individual interventions, this chapter focuses on the process of implementation, along with strengths and weaknesses of each approach where appropriate. The interventions described in this section include T-groups; coaching; mentoring; self-awareness tools; reflection; training, education, and development; leadership development; multirater (360-degree) feedback; job design; job descriptions; responsibility charting; policies manual; values clarification and values integration; conflict management; and action learning.

OD

interventions at the individual level are perhaps the most challenging for OD professionals because they are asked to be aware of their boundaries of competence. Many of the interventions discussed in this chapter have the potential to raise serious issues related to mental health for the targeted individuals that go beyond the competence of most OD professionals. The role of the OD professional in such a situation must be to recognize that such a problem exists and to refer the individual(s) involved to appropriate professionals (therapists, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, etc.). This concern is explored in much more detail in Chapter 15, “Ethics and Values Driving OD.”

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17 Issues Facing OD and Its Future

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406

OVERVIEW This chapter explores many of the issues and controversies that exist in OD. Consistent with the ambiguities addressed throughout the book, this chapter raises more questions than it answers. Next, the future of the field will be explored, including my vision for the future of OD. The book will conclude with a statement of the benefits of OD.

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s I have often suggested throughout this book, there are multiple aspects of OD for which a consensus has not been reached. Competent practitioners and theoreticians have reached different conclusions about many critical aspects of OD practice. What follows is a balanced perspective of several of these issues, followed by a series of questions still facing OD. From there, varying perspectives of the future of OD are presented, followed by my personal vision for the field of OD.

ISSUES

An issue is a controversial aspect of a field for which more than one viable, often conflicting, response exists. The intent here is to suggest that these are questions that must be addressed by the field as a whole, not necessarily by each person working in OD. Some of the questions come from Provo, Tuttle, and Henderson (2003), as suggested at a preconference on OD at the Academy of Human Resource Development

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14 Reasons for Separation from the Organization

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338

OVERVIEW Periodically, it is essential for clients and OD professionals to explore their relationship to see whether there is still a need for the relationship on the part of the client, and to see whether the OD professional still believes that value is being added to the organization through the relationship. This stage becomes difficult for internal OD professionals as they are gradually co-opted by the organization’s culture.

Both the organization and the OD professional must avoid overdependency. How can a healthy relationship be maintained so that separation is not needed? How can it be determined that separation is appropriate and benefits both parties? How should separation be handled?

T

he final phase of the ODP model is Separation. This phase is not central to the ongoing flow of the model, as seen in Figure 14.1, because Separation ends the involvement of the client and the OD professional. A good ending is critical to support the work that has gone before it. In the ensuing conversation, it is important to discuss what each party learned from the process, suggest ways for each to improve working relationships in the future, and keep the door open for future work as circumstances change.

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16 Competencies for OD

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388

OVERVIEW This chapter opens with a discussion of competencies— their definition and the reason for their use. Then, the following questions are addressed: What are the competencies required by OD professionals for working successfully? Does the professional need to have all of the competencies or only a subset? What competencies will be needed in the future? Several attempts to provide OD competencies have been undertaken. A list of competencies developed for The OD

Institute has been adapted for this chapter, providing a self-check list for the individual considering entering the OD field. The instrument can also be used for colleagues to complete in a form of multirater feedback. Finally, the results of a Delphi study looking at the future competencies needed by OD professionals are presented.

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his chapter focuses on competencies needed by professionals who wish to do OD work. Competencies are “a descriptive tool that identifies the skills, knowledge, personal characteristics, and behavior needed to effectively perform a role in the organization and help the business meet its strategic objectives” (Lucia & Lepsinger, 1999, p. 5).

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