21 Chapters
Medium 9780253021021

16 Elusive Ornithischian Tracks in the Famous Berriasian (Lower Cretaceous) “Chicken Yard” Tracksite of Northern Germany: Quantitative Differentiation between Small Tridactyl Trackmakers

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

16.1. Sketch of track 1/3 showing locations of the measured distances taken for quantitative analyses. Abbreviations: LII, length along second digit; LIII, length along third digit, the same as total track length; LIV, length along fourth digit; B, total track width; LIIoM, length of second digit without metatarsal; LIIIoM, length of third digit without metatarsal; LIVoM, length of fourth digit without metatarsal; BbII, width at proximal third or base of second digit; BbIII, width at proximal third or base of third digit; BbIV, width at proximal third or base of fourth digit; BmII, width at mid length of second digit; BmIII, width at mid length of third digit; BmIV, width at mid length of fourth digit; II–III°, divarication angle between digits II and III; III–IV°, divarication angle between digits III and IV; II–IV°, divarication angle between digits II and IV.

Elusive Ornithischian Tracks in the Famous Berriasian (Lower Cretaceous) “Chicken Yard” Tracksite of Northern Germany: Quantitative Differentiation between Small Tridactyl Trackmakers

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14 Dinosaur Tracks as “Four-Dimensional Phenomena” Reveal How Different Species Moved

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

14.1. (A) Tethyan paleogeography for southwestern Europe during the Early Aptian (modified from Skelton, Granier, and Moullade, 2013). (B) Paleogeographic map showing the evolution of Iberia during the Late Barremian to earliest Aptian (modified from Salas et al., 2001). (C) Simplified structural map of the Maestrazgo Basin during the Early Cretaceous (modified from Salas et al., 2001). (D) General stratigraphic column in the area of Río Alcalá tracksite. Abbreviations: AS-1, Rio Alcalá tracksite; BB, Betic Basin; BC, Basque-Cantabrian Basin; EH, Ebro High; FM, formation; IB, Iberian Meseta.

Dinosaur Tracks as “Four-Dimensional Phenomena” Reveal How Different Species Moved

14

Alberto Cobos, Francisco Gascó, Rafael Royo-Torres, Martin G. Lockley, and Luis Alcalá

ALTHOUGH THOUSANDS OF DINOSAUR TRACKS HAVE been found worldwide, three-dimensional (3-D) natural track casts are still relatively poorly documented. Those few that have been published, however, sometimes show impressions of reticulated skin, toe pads, and scratch marks made by scales and may even record how the sole of the foot bore the trackmaker’s weight. In very exceptional circumstances, such casts can even preserve evidence of distal limb kinematics of the trackmaker by recording the movement of the feet during track-making: in other words, footfall or footfall registration dynamics. Here we present a description of natural track casts that show all the features just outlined, allowing the contemplation of a new concept: “four-dimensional (4-D) tracks.” Highly informative and representative examples of such tracks casts come from a new and exceptional Early Cretaceous tracksite in the Province of Teruel (Spain), as well as from selected North American sites. 4-D tracks are defined as true tracks or their infillings showing slide marks or grooves that reveal the trajectory of the trackmaker’s foot within the sediment more completely than do most tracks. Each one of these tracks therefore reflects the time and motion involved in their registration: that is, they more obviously fossilize the fourth dimension of motion and time than typical 3-D tracks do. The Teruel track casts were made by large theropods and ornithopods, possibly spinosaurids and basal hadrosauriforms, walking on deep, firm mud. The infilling sediment responsible for this exceptional preservation consists of fine-grained sandstones with a high proportion of quartz. These were deposited in an estuarine shallow-water carbonate platform with freshwater discharges during the beginning of the Barremian-Aptian transgression of the Tethys Sea in southwestern Europe. Tracks with 4-D characteristics are probably more common than previously thought. Thus, the 4-D track concept has great potential to shed light on foot and distal limb kinematics.

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15 Analyzing and Resolving Cretaceous Avian Ichnotaxonomy Using Multivariate Statistical Analyses: Approaches and Results

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

15.1. Ichnofamilies considered in this study. (A) Magnoavipes, a previously contentious ichnogenus originally described as the trace of a large avian but now considered to be that of a nonavian theropod (Matsukawa et al., 2014). (B) Avipedidae and Limiavipedidae: (upper left) Avipeda (modified from Vialov, 1965); (upper right) Aquatilavipes swiboldae, scale = 1.0 cm (modified from Currie, 1981); (lower right) Aquatilavipes izumiensis, scale = 1.0 cm (modified from Azuma et al., 2002); (lower left) Limiavipes curriei, scale = 5.0 cm (reassigned from Aquatilavipes curriei, McCrea and Sarjeant, 2001; McCrea et al., 2014). L. curriei is much larger than any Mesozoic ichnospecies of Aquatilavipes. (C) Ignotornidae: (top) Ignotornis mcconnelli, holotype (Lockley et al., 2009); (lower left) Goseongornipes markjonesi (Lockley, Houck, et al., 2006); (bottom center) Ignotornis yangi (Kim et al., 2006); (lower right) Hwangsanipes choughi (Yang et al., 1995). Scale divisions in centimeters. (D) Koreanaornipodidae: (top) Koreanaornis hamanensis (Kim, 1969); (lower left) Pullornipes aureus (Lockley, Matsukawa, et al., 2006); (lower right) Koreanaornis dodsoni (Xing et al., 2011). Scale bar = 5.0 cm. (E) Jindongornipodidae. Jindongornipes kimi (Lockley and Rainforth, 2002). Scale = 5.0 cm. (F) Shandongornipodidae. Shandongornipes muxiai (Lockley et al., 2007): (left) left track LRH-DZ70 and (right) right track LRH-DZ67 (from the Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology). Both tracks from S. muxiai holotype trackway LRH-DH01. Scale = 2.0 cm.

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12 Diversity, Ontogeny, or Both? A Morphometric Approach to Iguanodontian Ornithopod (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) Track Assemblages from the Berriasian (Lower Cretaceous) of Northwestern Germany

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

12.1. (A) Locality map and (B) stratigraphic position of the material studied herein.

Diversity, Ontogeny, or Both?: A Morphometric Approach to Iguanodontian Ornithopod (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) Track Assemblages from the Berriasian (Lower Cretaceous) of Northwestern Germany

12

Jahn J. Hornung, Annina Böhme, Nils Schlüter, and Mike Reich

IDENTIFYING THE CAUSES OF MORPHOLOGICAL VARIAtion (including taxonomic diversity, ontogeny, sexual dimorphism, and individual variation) observed in a set of vertebrate tracks – especially from different closely related trackmaker species – is difficult and often not straightforward due to imperfect knowledge of biological variation in the autopodia of the trackmakers, and a number of ethological, preservational, and taphonomical influences. Here we use multivariate data sets obtained from 14 homologous two-dimensional (2-D) landmarks to evaluate the range and potential causes of variation in iguanodontian ornithopod pes tracks from the Berriasian of northwestern Germany.

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11 Two-Toed Tracks through Time: On the Trail of “Raptors” and Their Allies

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

11.1. Map showing the localities of Cretaceous, didactyl tracks worldwide. The star indicates Early-“middle” Cretaceous and the diamond u, Late Cretaceous tracks. Abbreviations: Dh, Dromaeosauripus hamanensis; Di, Dromaeosauripus isp.; Dj, Dromaeosauripus jinjuensis; Ds, Dromaeopodus shandongensis; Du, Dromaeopodus isp.; Dy, Dromaeosauripus yongjingensis; Ms, Menglongipus sinensis; U, unnamed/unattributed; Vi, Velociraptorichnus isp.; Vs, Velociraptorichnus sichuanensis; Vz, Velociraptorichnus zhangi.

Two-Toed Tracks through Time: On the Trail of “Raptors” and Their Allies

11

Martin G. Lockley, Jerald D. Harris, Rihui Li, Lida Xing, and Torsten van der Lubbe

THE TWO-TOED, OR DIDACTYL, TRACKS OF DEINONYCHOsaurian dinosaurs, popularly known as “raptors,” are among the most distinctive theropod tracks known. Including the first confirmed report from China in 1994, a total of 16 track-sites have been recognized, all from Cretaceous strata. These include nine Chinese, two Korean, three North American, and two European occurrences. Many of these tracks have been assigned to four ichnogenera: Velociraptorichnus (two ichnospecies), Dromaeopodus, Menglongipus, and Dromaeosauripus (three ichnospecies). Most of the tracks have been attributed to dromaeosaurid theropods, but in the case of the largest sample, from Germany, a troodontid trackmaker is inferred.

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