9 Chapters
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Chapter Seven: Margaret Mahler

Markman Reubins, Beatriz Karnac Books ePub

Biography

Margaret Mahler (1897–1985) was born in Sopron, Hungary, she emigrated to New York in 1938, where she spend the rest of her of life. She died in New York City at eighty-eight years old.

Her father was a general practitioner, her mother was nineteen years old when she married Margaret's father. Margaret was the first-born child of an unhappy marriage. Her mother resented having a child at such a young age, so it was mainly her father who was her caretaker. She grew increasingly more distant from her mother. The definitive moment of rejection was when she overheard her mother telling her sister, four years her junior, that she was her favourite and that she loved and adored her more than anything.

Margaret's situation was a sad example of emotional devastation caused by parental favouritism. She compensated her loveless home atmosphere with an extraordinary success in school, where she excelled in mathematics and science. Margaret Mahler believed that the reason she became interested in paediatrics and psychoanalysis was because of her mother's rejection. She grew up unhappy, with low self-esteem, and deeply jealous of her sister. Her father was very supportive and encouraged her to excel in her intellectual growth. She was the second woman in Sopron to receive higher education, at sixteen years old she went to Budapest and lived with an unkind aunt.

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Chapter Three: Anna Freud

Markman Reubins, Beatriz Karnac Books ePub

Biography

The youngest daughter of Sigmund and Martha Bernays Freud, Anna Freud was born in Vienna, Austria, on 3 December 1895, and died in London on 8 October 1982 at eighty-six years of age.

Anna had a very close relationship with her father, but not with her mother or her siblings. Anna was emotionally and psychologically attached to her Catholic nursemaid, Josephine Cihlarz, who was hired when Anna was born. Josephine took care of Anna and the younger children, Ernst and Sophie, and remained with the Freud family until Anna completed her first year of elementary school, when she left to marry and have a family of her own. Anna was twenty-nine years old when Josephine died in Vienna, and Anna attended her funeral.

Anna Freud became a teacher in 1914, working as an elementary school teacher from 1917 to 1920. While her professional life was centred on childhood education, her home environment provided unique intellectual stimulation that would shape the rest of her life. Anna was frequently present at psychoanalytic discussions held in her home by her father and his colleagues.

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Chapter Five: Donald Woods Winnicott

Markman Reubins, Beatriz Karnac Books ePub

Biography

Donald Woods Winnicott was born in Plymouth, England, on 7 April 1896. He died in London, England, on 28 January 1971, when he was seventy-five years old. In the last years of his life, he suffered from a lung and heart condition but continued working.

Donald was the younger child of three, he had two older sisters. His father was a successful merchant who became the mayor of Plymouth. Winnicott's mother died in 1925 when he was twenty-nine years old. His mother was described as a vivacious and highly intelligent woman with good judgement and a sense of humour.

Donald Winnicott's first marriage ended in divorce. The couple did not have children. Winnicott met his second wife, Clare Britton, a psychiatric social worker, when he was working at the Evacuation Project. They were married in 1951, and they had an excellent marriage. They always interacted with love and companionship, sharing work and ideas, but not children.

He attended medical school in Cambridge, England, and in 1918, at the end of the First World War, he finished his medical training at St Bartholomew Hospital in London. In 1920, he qualified as a paediatrician. When he was twenty-three, he became familiar with Freud's ideas. In 1923, Winnicott began his own psychoanalytic treatment with James Strachey (Freud's translator of the Standard Edition), which lasted ten years.

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Chapter Four: Melanie Klein

Markman Reubins, Beatriz Karnac Books ePub

Biography

Melanie Reizes Klein was born in Vienna, Austria, on 30 March 1882, and died in London on 22 September 1960 at the age of seventy-eight. Her father, Moriz Reizes, was a Jewish doctor of Polish origin who came from a traditional Jewish religious background. Born in Lember, Galitzia (now Lvov, Ukraine), Dr Reizes had an early first marriage which ended in divorce. When he was forty-four, he met Libussa Deutsch, who was then twenty-five. At the time Dr Reizes married Libussa, who was from Warkotz, Slovakia, he was forty-seven.

After the marriage, the couple settled in Deutschkreutz, Hungary (now Bergenland, Austria), but in 1882 they decided to move to Vienna, where Melanie Klein was born. The couple had four children, of whom Melanie was the youngest:

Dr Reizes was in his fifties at the time of Melanie's birth. Melanie's mother, Libussa, was young and energetic. This may explain why Melanie felt closer to her mother and more distant from her father; nevertheless, Melanie remembered that her family life was surrounded by love and togetherness, although with three tragic moments: the death of her father, her sister, and her brother Emmanuel. Emmanuel was the “genius” of the family, Emily was her father's favourite, and Sidonie was the best-looking of the children and her mother's favourite.

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Chapter One: Sigmund Freud

Markman Reubins, Beatriz Karnac Books ePub

Volumes have been written concerning the subject of Freud's life and work. In this chapter, the focus is narrowed to Freud's immediate family, his parents, siblings, children, and grandchildren. The history of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, Freud's circle of friends and the pioneers of what became the International Psychoanalytic Society, is also highlighted.

Freud and his siblings

Sigmund Freud was born on 6 May 1856, in the Moravian town of Freiberg (now known as Píbor, in the Czech Republic), during the era of the Austrian Empire. His parents were of Jewish Galitzian descent. His father, Jacob Freud (1815–1896), was born in Tysmenitz, Galitzia, a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1886, at the age of forty-one, Jacob married his second (or possibly third) wife and Sigmund Freud's mother, Amalia Malka Nathansohn, a woman twenty-one years her husband's junior. Sigmund was their first child.

Jacob Freud had two children from his first marriage to Sally Kanner (1829–1852), Emanuel (1833–1914) and Philipp (1836–1911). Both children were born in Tysmenitz in Galitzia. It is not known and questionable whether Jacob had a second wife, Rebecca, who died after three years of marriage (1852–1855).

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