15 Slices
Medium 9781780644479

10: Microencapsulation for Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and Prebiotics

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

10 

Microencapsulation for Controlled

Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and

Prebiotics

Preeti Panthari1,* and Harsha Kharkwal2

Amity Institute of Phytochemistry and Phytomedicine, Amity University, Noida, India;

2

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

1

Abstract

Microencapsulation of bioactive compounds (such as antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, omega-3 lipids and probiotics) has been increasingly studied extensively due to interest in nutraceutical components and functional foods. The main objective of this technique is to protect the bioactive compounds from diminished functionality due to environmental conditions such as oxygen, pH, humidity, light or temperature. Among the different microencapsulation processes, spray drying produces a final powder product with good-quality properties for distribution, transportation and storage. In this regard, a wide variety of encapsulation agents have been studied for increasing the viability of the bioactive compounds and to promote an additional functionality in the final product as well, such as prebiotics. Prebiotics are soluble carbohydrates that humans are unable to digest, which selectively enhance Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus growth (microorganisms commonly present in the human gut). Some examples include inulin, fructans (fructo-oligosaccharides) and galacto-saccharides. In addition, several microorganisms (probiotics) have demonstrated beneficial effects in humans, and these have been attributed to lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid production, as well as to a reduction in the pH of the colon, which causes a decrease in the survival of pathogenic bacteria. This chapter considers the enhanced efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics through microencapsulation in addressing gastrointestinal diseases.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644479

5: Polysaccharide-based Drug Carriers

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

5 

Polysaccharide-based Drug Carriers

Srinivas Janaswamy*

Department of Dairy and Food Science, South Dakota

State University, South Dakota, USA

Abstract

Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, there is a clear need for a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects, and in this regard food-grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Organized polysaccharide networks in particular and the available water pockets are effective in encapsulating and protecting the drug molecules as well as releasing them in a sustained manner.

Overall, human compatible carbohydrate polymers possessing stable architectures will indeed cause a paradigm shift in the design of effective drug delivery systems.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644479

4: Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

4 

Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Anuradha Srivastava3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and

Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar

­Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Biological Sciences and Geology, Queensborough

Community College, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

At the heart of polymer chemistry and biomedical applications lie water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for novel drug delivery systems. Designing multifunctional water-soluble polymer drug conjugates via copolymerization of bioactive compounds, and incorporating hydrophilic groups, makes them extremely water soluble and with improved biocompatibilities. Hydrophobic charged groups can be introduced into the polymers, which enable them to carry out specialized interactions and responses. Water-soluble polymer drug conjugates have the ability to store prodrugs (inactive drugs), facilitating the transfer of drugs passively or actively to the target site then activating them through cellular signalling cascades and bringing about the desired response. This chapter throws light on the advances made in natural and synthetic water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for various different biomedical applications.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644479

15: Bioengineered Wound and Burn Healing Substitutes: Novel Design for Biomedical Applications and General Aspects

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

15 

Bioengineered Wound and Burn

Healing Substitutes: Novel Design for Biomedical Applications and General Aspects

Erdal Cevher1, Ali Demir Sezer2,* and Ayca Yıldız Peköz1

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul ­

University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology,

Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey

1

Abstract

Wound healing is the inherent ability of an organism to protect itself against injuries. Cumulative evidence

­indicates that the healing process patterns in part embryonic morphogenesis and may result in either organ regeneration or scarring, phenomena that are developmental stage- or age-dependent. Tissue regeneration by using biomaterials and skin grafting materials in periapical surgery is an example of tissue engineering technology. Significant progress has been made in the development of in vitro-engineered skin substitutes that mimic human skin, either to be used for the replacement of lost skin or for the establishment of in vitro skin research models. Full-thickness skin deficits are indications to autologic skin graft. In extensive skin injuries an employment of skin substitutes is sometimes necessary. This review presents the classification of skin substitutes (permanent, temporary, biological, synthetic). The different kinds of skin substitutes approved for commercial production are described (epidermal substitutes, dermal substitutes, composite dermo-epidermal substitutes).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644479

3: Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

3 

Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in

Drug Delivery

Neerupma Dhiman*

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, India

Abstract

The application of hydrocolloids in pharmaceutical formulations includes their use in the manufacture of

­implants, films, beads, microparticles, nanoparticles, and inhalable and injectable systems, as well as viscous

­liquid formulations. The biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of hydrocolloid-based hydrogels and their importance are the highlights of this chapter.

Introduction

The design and development of new drug molecules is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Later, they have to be transported in the human and/or animal body and in this regard the drug delivery is an important process.

It is the method of administering the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. The controlled delivery systems or controlled release technology (CRT) provide release at a predetermined, predictable and controlled rate to achieve high therapeutic efficiency with minimal toxicity (Pandey et al., 2012). Hence, the development of novel drug delivery vehicles is an essential step towards controlled and site-­ specific administration of therapeutics. The desirable characteristics are that these should be introduced into the body through minimally invasive means and that these vehicles should

See All Chapters

See All Slices