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9: Protein–Drug Conjugates: A New Class of Biotherapeutics

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

9 

Protein–Drug Conjugates: A New

Class of Biotherapeutics

Deepshikha Pande Katare1,*, Savita Mishra1, Harsha Kharkwal2 and S.K. Jain3

Centre for Medical Biotechnology, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University

Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and

Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University

Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and

Research, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India

1

Abstract

There is an increasing need for a novel drug delivery system in the current clinical scenario. Over the past few decades recombinant human proteins, enzymes, monoclonal antibodies and drug conjugates (ADCs) have changed the pharmaceutical industry. This chapter highlights current and emerging methods for the development of stable and effective antibody–drug conjugates that provide target-specific therapy for various life-threatening diseases such as cancer.

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10: Microencapsulation for Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and Prebiotics

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

10 

Microencapsulation for Controlled

Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and

Prebiotics

Preeti Panthari1,* and Harsha Kharkwal2

Amity Institute of Phytochemistry and Phytomedicine, Amity University, Noida, India;

2

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

1

Abstract

Microencapsulation of bioactive compounds (such as antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, omega-3 lipids and probiotics) has been increasingly studied extensively due to interest in nutraceutical components and functional foods. The main objective of this technique is to protect the bioactive compounds from diminished functionality due to environmental conditions such as oxygen, pH, humidity, light or temperature. Among the different microencapsulation processes, spray drying produces a final powder product with good-quality properties for distribution, transportation and storage. In this regard, a wide variety of encapsulation agents have been studied for increasing the viability of the bioactive compounds and to promote an additional functionality in the final product as well, such as prebiotics. Prebiotics are soluble carbohydrates that humans are unable to digest, which selectively enhance Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus growth (microorganisms commonly present in the human gut). Some examples include inulin, fructans (fructo-oligosaccharides) and galacto-saccharides. In addition, several microorganisms (probiotics) have demonstrated beneficial effects in humans, and these have been attributed to lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid production, as well as to a reduction in the pH of the colon, which causes a decrease in the survival of pathogenic bacteria. This chapter considers the enhanced efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics through microencapsulation in addressing gastrointestinal diseases.

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8: Polymer–Drug Conjugates: Targeted Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

8 Polymer–drug Conjugates: Targeted

Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Amit Kumar Tyagi3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity

Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh,

Noida, India; 3Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Division of Cancer

­Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA

1

Abstract

Polymer therapeutics is a promising area in medicine and has led to the recent development of enhanced, ­targeted drug delivery systems. The fast-growing field of polymeric drug conjugates, almost a dozen of which are close to the clinical trial stage, have demonstrated several advantages over the parent drugs. These include ease of drug administration with fewer side effects, improved patient compliance, enhanced therapeutic efficacy, concentration and absorption, improved pharmacokinetics and stability. This chapter considers the potential of polymer– drug conjugates, which are going beyond classical methodologies, and their utility for treating major human diseases and new targets.

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3: Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in Drug Delivery

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3 

Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in

Drug Delivery

Neerupma Dhiman*

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, India

Abstract

The application of hydrocolloids in pharmaceutical formulations includes their use in the manufacture of

­implants, films, beads, microparticles, nanoparticles, and inhalable and injectable systems, as well as viscous

­liquid formulations. The biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of hydrocolloid-based hydrogels and their importance are the highlights of this chapter.

Introduction

The design and development of new drug molecules is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Later, they have to be transported in the human and/or animal body and in this regard the drug delivery is an important process.

It is the method of administering the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. The controlled delivery systems or controlled release technology (CRT) provide release at a predetermined, predictable and controlled rate to achieve high therapeutic efficiency with minimal toxicity (Pandey et al., 2012). Hence, the development of novel drug delivery vehicles is an essential step towards controlled and site-­ specific administration of therapeutics. The desirable characteristics are that these should be introduced into the body through minimally invasive means and that these vehicles should

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14: Polymers Targeting Habitual Diseases

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Polymers Targeting Habitual Diseases

Bhanu Malhotra1, Preeti Panthari2, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Madhav P. Yadav3

1

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research, Amity University Uttar

Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Sustainable Biofuels and Co-Products Research Unit,

USDA, Wyndmoor, Pennyslvania, USA

Abstract

The use of polymeric drug conjugates mainly as a cancer therapy treatment has been addressed, but these

­polymers also find their way into the treatment of various lifestyle disorders such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Focus is on the development of biodegradable, polymer-based drug conjugates which can be administered easily and pose no side effects. This chapter illustrates the role and applications of polymer− drug conjugates for the treatment of diabetes, atherosclerosis and colon-specific diseases, and their future prospects. Although cutting-edge research is yet to emerge, polymeric drugs stand out as an exciting example of how their horizon is expanding beyond cancer therapy to other therapeutic applications.

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