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8: Polymer–Drug Conjugates: Targeted Drug Delivery

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8 Polymer–drug Conjugates: Targeted

Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Amit Kumar Tyagi3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity

Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh,

Noida, India; 3Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Division of Cancer

­Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA

1

Abstract

Polymer therapeutics is a promising area in medicine and has led to the recent development of enhanced, ­targeted drug delivery systems. The fast-growing field of polymeric drug conjugates, almost a dozen of which are close to the clinical trial stage, have demonstrated several advantages over the parent drugs. These include ease of drug administration with fewer side effects, improved patient compliance, enhanced therapeutic efficacy, concentration and absorption, improved pharmacokinetics and stability. This chapter considers the potential of polymer– drug conjugates, which are going beyond classical methodologies, and their utility for treating major human diseases and new targets.

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13: Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

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13 

Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

Bhanu Malhotra1,*, Harsha Kharkwal2 and Anupam Pradhan3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate

Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity

University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Global Health, College of Public Health

University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA and Queensborough Community

College, City University of New York, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

Topical eye drugs are the most convenient and conventional ways of drug administration to the eyes, especially in the cases of anterior segment ailments. Drug delivery is restricted due to the presence of various static barriers such as the presence of the corneal layer, sclera, retina, blood retina barriers, and certain dynamic barriers including lymphatic clearance, conjunctival blood flow and tear dilution. A major challenge of the ocular drug systems is the delivery of drugs to the posterior segments of the eye. In recent years certain influx transporters to the ocular tissues have been researched and discovered. Liposome-, nanoparticle- and nanomicelle-mediated drug transport can overcome static and dynamic barriers to drug delivery in the eye. The use of biodegradable polymer materials as novel drug carriers for sustained release of the drug at the target site is nowadays a thoroughly researched field. Non-invasive biopolymer-based ocular drug delivery systems, which overcome all the limitations of topical delivery, are attracting considerable interest. This chapter presents a detailed description of various biopolymers used in ocular delivery strategies, and discusses their promising future.

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2: Cellulose-based Polymeric Systems in Drug Delivery

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Cellulose-based Polymeric Systems in Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Madhav P. Yadav3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for ­Carbohydrate

Research, Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar

Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Sustainable Biofuels and Co-Products Research Unit,

USDA, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, USA

1

Abstract

The pharmaceutical industry requires the development of biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, site-specific drug delivery polymers which can be easily coupled with drugs to be delivered orally, topically, locally or parenterally. The use of the most abundant biopolymer, cellulose, along with its derivatives, is intended to develop sustainable controlled release dosage forms by their easy fabrication into hydrophilic matrices. This amalgamation of the use of natural polymers and their derivatives with the drugs has proved to be one of the most effective means of delivering complex drugs without any side effects to the target sites in the body. Both cellulose esters and ethers are well researched and exploited as coatings in various tablet formulations. In this chapter we provide a detailed discussion of the use of cellulose as a powerful biopolymeric material in drug delivery to various sites in the body; we also discuss the intervention of nanotechnology to develop cellulose nanofibrils as powerful moieties for therapeutic drug delivery.

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3: Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in Drug Delivery

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3 

Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in

Drug Delivery

Neerupma Dhiman*

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, India

Abstract

The application of hydrocolloids in pharmaceutical formulations includes their use in the manufacture of

­implants, films, beads, microparticles, nanoparticles, and inhalable and injectable systems, as well as viscous

­liquid formulations. The biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of hydrocolloid-based hydrogels and their importance are the highlights of this chapter.

Introduction

The design and development of new drug molecules is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Later, they have to be transported in the human and/or animal body and in this regard the drug delivery is an important process.

It is the method of administering the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. The controlled delivery systems or controlled release technology (CRT) provide release at a predetermined, predictable and controlled rate to achieve high therapeutic efficiency with minimal toxicity (Pandey et al., 2012). Hence, the development of novel drug delivery vehicles is an essential step towards controlled and site-­ specific administration of therapeutics. The desirable characteristics are that these should be introduced into the body through minimally invasive means and that these vehicles should

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4: Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

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4 

Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Anuradha Srivastava3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and

Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar

­Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Biological Sciences and Geology, Queensborough

Community College, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

At the heart of polymer chemistry and biomedical applications lie water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for novel drug delivery systems. Designing multifunctional water-soluble polymer drug conjugates via copolymerization of bioactive compounds, and incorporating hydrophilic groups, makes them extremely water soluble and with improved biocompatibilities. Hydrophobic charged groups can be introduced into the polymers, which enable them to carry out specialized interactions and responses. Water-soluble polymer drug conjugates have the ability to store prodrugs (inactive drugs), facilitating the transfer of drugs passively or actively to the target site then activating them through cellular signalling cascades and bringing about the desired response. This chapter throws light on the advances made in natural and synthetic water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for various different biomedical applications.

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