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3: Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

3 

Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in

Drug Delivery

Neerupma Dhiman*

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, India

Abstract

The application of hydrocolloids in pharmaceutical formulations includes their use in the manufacture of

­implants, films, beads, microparticles, nanoparticles, and inhalable and injectable systems, as well as viscous

­liquid formulations. The biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of hydrocolloid-based hydrogels and their importance are the highlights of this chapter.

Introduction

The design and development of new drug molecules is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Later, they have to be transported in the human and/or animal body and in this regard the drug delivery is an important process.

It is the method of administering the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. The controlled delivery systems or controlled release technology (CRT) provide release at a predetermined, predictable and controlled rate to achieve high therapeutic efficiency with minimal toxicity (Pandey et al., 2012). Hence, the development of novel drug delivery vehicles is an essential step towards controlled and site-­ specific administration of therapeutics. The desirable characteristics are that these should be introduced into the body through minimally invasive means and that these vehicles should

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8: Polymer–Drug Conjugates: Targeted Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

8 Polymer–drug Conjugates: Targeted

Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Amit Kumar Tyagi3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity

Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh,

Noida, India; 3Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Division of Cancer

­Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA

1

Abstract

Polymer therapeutics is a promising area in medicine and has led to the recent development of enhanced, ­targeted drug delivery systems. The fast-growing field of polymeric drug conjugates, almost a dozen of which are close to the clinical trial stage, have demonstrated several advantages over the parent drugs. These include ease of drug administration with fewer side effects, improved patient compliance, enhanced therapeutic efficacy, concentration and absorption, improved pharmacokinetics and stability. This chapter considers the potential of polymer– drug conjugates, which are going beyond classical methodologies, and their utility for treating major human diseases and new targets.

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6: Polymer-based Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Systems and Cancer Therapeutics

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

6 

Polymer-based Nanoparticles for Drug

Delivery Systems and Cancer Therapeutics

Ram Prasad1,3,*, Rishikesh Pandey2, Ajit Varma3 and Ishan Barman1,4

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore,

Maryland, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut Health,

Farmington, ­Connecticut, USA; 3Amity Institute of Microbial Technology, Amity

­University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 4Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins

University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

1

Abstract

Polymer-based nanoparticle-sustained drug delivery systems offer several advantages over conventional ­delivery systems such as maintenance of optimum therapeutic concentration of drug in the blood or cell, elimination of frequent dosing and better patient compliance. Therefore, they are good candidates for more efficient drug release devices. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles (formulated with biocompatible and biodegradable polymers) whose size and surface properties can be intelligently designed allows them not only to achieve long circulation times in the blood and site-specific drug delivery but also to exploit physiological or biochemical features of infectious diseases. The use of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery has shown significant therapeutic potential. Concurrently, targeted delivery technologies are gradually significant as a scientific area of investigation. They may contribute to the development of other useful polymeric nanoparticles to deliver a spectrum of chemotherapeutic, diagnostic, multi-model imaging agents and drug/gene delivery as part of the next generation of delivery systems. To date, therapeutics based on polymer assemblies have mainly been studied for tumour therapy. With continuous efforts by multidisciplinary teams, it is clear that nanotechnology will shed new light on diagnostics and therapeutics in cancer research.

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10: Microencapsulation for Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and Prebiotics

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

10 

Microencapsulation for Controlled

Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and

Prebiotics

Preeti Panthari1,* and Harsha Kharkwal2

Amity Institute of Phytochemistry and Phytomedicine, Amity University, Noida, India;

2

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

1

Abstract

Microencapsulation of bioactive compounds (such as antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, omega-3 lipids and probiotics) has been increasingly studied extensively due to interest in nutraceutical components and functional foods. The main objective of this technique is to protect the bioactive compounds from diminished functionality due to environmental conditions such as oxygen, pH, humidity, light or temperature. Among the different microencapsulation processes, spray drying produces a final powder product with good-quality properties for distribution, transportation and storage. In this regard, a wide variety of encapsulation agents have been studied for increasing the viability of the bioactive compounds and to promote an additional functionality in the final product as well, such as prebiotics. Prebiotics are soluble carbohydrates that humans are unable to digest, which selectively enhance Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus growth (microorganisms commonly present in the human gut). Some examples include inulin, fructans (fructo-oligosaccharides) and galacto-saccharides. In addition, several microorganisms (probiotics) have demonstrated beneficial effects in humans, and these have been attributed to lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid production, as well as to a reduction in the pH of the colon, which causes a decrease in the survival of pathogenic bacteria. This chapter considers the enhanced efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics through microencapsulation in addressing gastrointestinal diseases.

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7: Polymer Nanocomposite-based Biosensors for Drug Delivery Applications

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

7 

Polymer Nanocomposite-based

Biosensors for Drug Delivery Applications

Monika Joshi*

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

Abstract

Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) have received much attention in various disciplines due to their high specific surface area, good compatibility, low density, high flexibility and improved functional properties. Recently, they have been explored as an emerging class of material in the biosensors due to their excellent sensitivity, selectivity, portability and lower cost. This chapter explores the properties and application of PNC material as a novel carrier in a drug delivery system. In this respect, the integration of biosensor and drug delivery systems is discussed in order to assess the challenges and future prospects. Different biosensors for drug delivery applications are also discussed.

Introduction

A sensor is a device that converts and displays a physical quantity in the form of an electrical

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