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13: Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

13 

Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

Bhanu Malhotra1,*, Harsha Kharkwal2 and Anupam Pradhan3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate

Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity

University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Global Health, College of Public Health

University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA and Queensborough Community

College, City University of New York, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

Topical eye drugs are the most convenient and conventional ways of drug administration to the eyes, especially in the cases of anterior segment ailments. Drug delivery is restricted due to the presence of various static barriers such as the presence of the corneal layer, sclera, retina, blood retina barriers, and certain dynamic barriers including lymphatic clearance, conjunctival blood flow and tear dilution. A major challenge of the ocular drug systems is the delivery of drugs to the posterior segments of the eye. In recent years certain influx transporters to the ocular tissues have been researched and discovered. Liposome-, nanoparticle- and nanomicelle-mediated drug transport can overcome static and dynamic barriers to drug delivery in the eye. The use of biodegradable polymer materials as novel drug carriers for sustained release of the drug at the target site is nowadays a thoroughly researched field. Non-invasive biopolymer-based ocular drug delivery systems, which overcome all the limitations of topical delivery, are attracting considerable interest. This chapter presents a detailed description of various biopolymers used in ocular delivery strategies, and discusses their promising future.

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15: Bioengineered Wound and Burn Healing Substitutes: Novel Design for Biomedical Applications and General Aspects

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

15 

Bioengineered Wound and Burn

Healing Substitutes: Novel Design for Biomedical Applications and General Aspects

Erdal Cevher1, Ali Demir Sezer2,* and Ayca Yıldız Peköz1

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul ­

University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology,

Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey

1

Abstract

Wound healing is the inherent ability of an organism to protect itself against injuries. Cumulative evidence

­indicates that the healing process patterns in part embryonic morphogenesis and may result in either organ regeneration or scarring, phenomena that are developmental stage- or age-dependent. Tissue regeneration by using biomaterials and skin grafting materials in periapical surgery is an example of tissue engineering technology. Significant progress has been made in the development of in vitro-engineered skin substitutes that mimic human skin, either to be used for the replacement of lost skin or for the establishment of in vitro skin research models. Full-thickness skin deficits are indications to autologic skin graft. In extensive skin injuries an employment of skin substitutes is sometimes necessary. This review presents the classification of skin substitutes (permanent, temporary, biological, synthetic). The different kinds of skin substitutes approved for commercial production are described (epidermal substitutes, dermal substitutes, composite dermo-epidermal substitutes).

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14: Polymers Targeting Habitual Diseases

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14 

Polymers Targeting Habitual Diseases

Bhanu Malhotra1, Preeti Panthari2, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Madhav P. Yadav3

1

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research, Amity University Uttar

Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Sustainable Biofuels and Co-Products Research Unit,

USDA, Wyndmoor, Pennyslvania, USA

Abstract

The use of polymeric drug conjugates mainly as a cancer therapy treatment has been addressed, but these

­polymers also find their way into the treatment of various lifestyle disorders such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Focus is on the development of biodegradable, polymer-based drug conjugates which can be administered easily and pose no side effects. This chapter illustrates the role and applications of polymer− drug conjugates for the treatment of diabetes, atherosclerosis and colon-specific diseases, and their future prospects. Although cutting-edge research is yet to emerge, polymeric drugs stand out as an exciting example of how their horizon is expanding beyond cancer therapy to other therapeutic applications.

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10: Microencapsulation for Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and Prebiotics

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

10 

Microencapsulation for Controlled

Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and

Prebiotics

Preeti Panthari1,* and Harsha Kharkwal2

Amity Institute of Phytochemistry and Phytomedicine, Amity University, Noida, India;

2

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

1

Abstract

Microencapsulation of bioactive compounds (such as antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, omega-3 lipids and probiotics) has been increasingly studied extensively due to interest in nutraceutical components and functional foods. The main objective of this technique is to protect the bioactive compounds from diminished functionality due to environmental conditions such as oxygen, pH, humidity, light or temperature. Among the different microencapsulation processes, spray drying produces a final powder product with good-quality properties for distribution, transportation and storage. In this regard, a wide variety of encapsulation agents have been studied for increasing the viability of the bioactive compounds and to promote an additional functionality in the final product as well, such as prebiotics. Prebiotics are soluble carbohydrates that humans are unable to digest, which selectively enhance Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus growth (microorganisms commonly present in the human gut). Some examples include inulin, fructans (fructo-oligosaccharides) and galacto-saccharides. In addition, several microorganisms (probiotics) have demonstrated beneficial effects in humans, and these have been attributed to lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid production, as well as to a reduction in the pH of the colon, which causes a decrease in the survival of pathogenic bacteria. This chapter considers the enhanced efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics through microencapsulation in addressing gastrointestinal diseases.

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6: Polymer-based Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Systems and Cancer Therapeutics

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

6 

Polymer-based Nanoparticles for Drug

Delivery Systems and Cancer Therapeutics

Ram Prasad1,3,*, Rishikesh Pandey2, Ajit Varma3 and Ishan Barman1,4

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore,

Maryland, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut Health,

Farmington, ­Connecticut, USA; 3Amity Institute of Microbial Technology, Amity

­University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 4Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins

University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

1

Abstract

Polymer-based nanoparticle-sustained drug delivery systems offer several advantages over conventional ­delivery systems such as maintenance of optimum therapeutic concentration of drug in the blood or cell, elimination of frequent dosing and better patient compliance. Therefore, they are good candidates for more efficient drug release devices. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles (formulated with biocompatible and biodegradable polymers) whose size and surface properties can be intelligently designed allows them not only to achieve long circulation times in the blood and site-specific drug delivery but also to exploit physiological or biochemical features of infectious diseases. The use of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery has shown significant therapeutic potential. Concurrently, targeted delivery technologies are gradually significant as a scientific area of investigation. They may contribute to the development of other useful polymeric nanoparticles to deliver a spectrum of chemotherapeutic, diagnostic, multi-model imaging agents and drug/gene delivery as part of the next generation of delivery systems. To date, therapeutics based on polymer assemblies have mainly been studied for tumour therapy. With continuous efforts by multidisciplinary teams, it is clear that nanotechnology will shed new light on diagnostics and therapeutics in cancer research.

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