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9: Protein–Drug Conjugates: A New Class of Biotherapeutics

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Protein–Drug Conjugates: A New

Class of Biotherapeutics

Deepshikha Pande Katare1,*, Savita Mishra1, Harsha Kharkwal2 and S.K. Jain3

Centre for Medical Biotechnology, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University

Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and

Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University

Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and

Research, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India

1

Abstract

There is an increasing need for a novel drug delivery system in the current clinical scenario. Over the past few decades recombinant human proteins, enzymes, monoclonal antibodies and drug conjugates (ADCs) have changed the pharmaceutical industry. This chapter highlights current and emerging methods for the development of stable and effective antibody–drug conjugates that provide target-specific therapy for various life-threatening diseases such as cancer.

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7: Polymer Nanocomposite-based Biosensors for Drug Delivery Applications

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Polymer Nanocomposite-based

Biosensors for Drug Delivery Applications

Monika Joshi*

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

Abstract

Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) have received much attention in various disciplines due to their high specific surface area, good compatibility, low density, high flexibility and improved functional properties. Recently, they have been explored as an emerging class of material in the biosensors due to their excellent sensitivity, selectivity, portability and lower cost. This chapter explores the properties and application of PNC material as a novel carrier in a drug delivery system. In this respect, the integration of biosensor and drug delivery systems is discussed in order to assess the challenges and future prospects. Different biosensors for drug delivery applications are also discussed.

Introduction

A sensor is a device that converts and displays a physical quantity in the form of an electrical

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3: Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in Drug Delivery

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Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in

Drug Delivery

Neerupma Dhiman*

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, India

Abstract

The application of hydrocolloids in pharmaceutical formulations includes their use in the manufacture of

­implants, films, beads, microparticles, nanoparticles, and inhalable and injectable systems, as well as viscous

­liquid formulations. The biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of hydrocolloid-based hydrogels and their importance are the highlights of this chapter.

Introduction

The design and development of new drug molecules is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Later, they have to be transported in the human and/or animal body and in this regard the drug delivery is an important process.

It is the method of administering the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. The controlled delivery systems or controlled release technology (CRT) provide release at a predetermined, predictable and controlled rate to achieve high therapeutic efficiency with minimal toxicity (Pandey et al., 2012). Hence, the development of novel drug delivery vehicles is an essential step towards controlled and site-­ specific administration of therapeutics. The desirable characteristics are that these should be introduced into the body through minimally invasive means and that these vehicles should

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14: Polymers Targeting Habitual Diseases

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Polymers Targeting Habitual Diseases

Bhanu Malhotra1, Preeti Panthari2, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Madhav P. Yadav3

1

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research, Amity University Uttar

Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Sustainable Biofuels and Co-Products Research Unit,

USDA, Wyndmoor, Pennyslvania, USA

Abstract

The use of polymeric drug conjugates mainly as a cancer therapy treatment has been addressed, but these

­polymers also find their way into the treatment of various lifestyle disorders such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Focus is on the development of biodegradable, polymer-based drug conjugates which can be administered easily and pose no side effects. This chapter illustrates the role and applications of polymer− drug conjugates for the treatment of diabetes, atherosclerosis and colon-specific diseases, and their future prospects. Although cutting-edge research is yet to emerge, polymeric drugs stand out as an exciting example of how their horizon is expanding beyond cancer therapy to other therapeutic applications.

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15: Bioengineered Wound and Burn Healing Substitutes: Novel Design for Biomedical Applications and General Aspects

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

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Bioengineered Wound and Burn

Healing Substitutes: Novel Design for Biomedical Applications and General Aspects

Erdal Cevher1, Ali Demir Sezer2,* and Ayca Yıldız Peköz1

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul ­

University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology,

Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey

1

Abstract

Wound healing is the inherent ability of an organism to protect itself against injuries. Cumulative evidence

­indicates that the healing process patterns in part embryonic morphogenesis and may result in either organ regeneration or scarring, phenomena that are developmental stage- or age-dependent. Tissue regeneration by using biomaterials and skin grafting materials in periapical surgery is an example of tissue engineering technology. Significant progress has been made in the development of in vitro-engineered skin substitutes that mimic human skin, either to be used for the replacement of lost skin or for the establishment of in vitro skin research models. Full-thickness skin deficits are indications to autologic skin graft. In extensive skin injuries an employment of skin substitutes is sometimes necessary. This review presents the classification of skin substitutes (permanent, temporary, biological, synthetic). The different kinds of skin substitutes approved for commercial production are described (epidermal substitutes, dermal substitutes, composite dermo-epidermal substitutes).

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