40 Chapters
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Chapter Six - Life Scripts: Unconscious Relational Patterns and Psychotherapeutic Involvement

Erskine, Richard G. Karnac Books ePub

Life scripts are a complex set of unconscious relational patterns based on physiological survival reactions, implicit experiential conclusions, explicit decisions, and/or self-regulating introjections, made under stress, at any developmental age, that inhibit spontaneity and limit flexibility in problem-solving, health maintenance, and in relationship with people (Erskine, 1980).

Scripts are often developed by infants, young children, adolescents, and even adults as a means of coping with disruptions in significant dependent relationships that repeatedly failed to satisfy crucial developmentally based needs. These unconscious script patterns most likely have been formulated, reinforced, and elaborated over a number of developmental ages as a result of repeated ruptures in relationships with significant others. Life scripts are a result of the cumulative failures in significant, dependent relationships. Such life scripts are unconscious systems of psychological organization and self-regulation primarily formed from implicit memories (Erskine, 2008; Fosshage, 2005) and expressed through physiological discomforts, escalations or minimizations of affect, and the transferences that occur in everyday life.

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Chapter Seven - The Script System: An Unconscious Organization of Experience

Erskine, Richard G. Karnac Books ePub

In early writings about life scripts, Berne (1958, 1961) describes the script as a complex set of transactions that determines the identity and destiny of the individual. He goes on to explain the script as similar to Freud's repetition compulsion and more like his destiny compulsion (Berne, 1966, p. 302). Most of the transactional analysis literature regarding scripts has focused on the historical perspective. The literature has addressed how scripts have been transmitted through parental messages and injunctions, and a child's reactions, such as unconscious conclusions and explicit decisions. Additionally, some contemporary transactional analysts have examined several processes such as early child–parent attachment, shared language acquisition, and the expression of narrative as central in the formation of scripts. Each of these historical perspectives has provided the clinician with theories and concepts that have guided a variety of clinical interventions.

The script system

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Chapter Eleven - A Gestalt Therapy Approach to Shame and Self-Righteousness: Theory and Methods

Erskine, Richard G. Karnac Books ePub

Several years ago a colleague telephoned and began the conversation by criticizing my behavior and defining my motivation as pathological. Although I apologized, attempted to explain the situation, and tried to rectify the problem in writing, the previously warm and respectful relationship ended in a lack of communication.

In each subsequent attempt to talk to that person I tripped over my own words, experienced myself as inept, and I avoided talking about both my feelings and our relationship. The experience of having been humiliated by the colleague whom I respected left me feeling a debilitating shame. I longed for a reconnection with the colleague. I wished that the person would inquire about my feelings and our lack of interpersonal contact, recognize my distress, and respond empathetically and reciprocally to the humiliating experience I had in the original phone conversation.

The sense of shame and longing for a renewed relationship compelled me to examine my own internal reactions to the humiliation. In my own psychotherapy sessions I reexperienced being a little boy of seven and eight years, filled with hurt and fear and adapting to a highly critical teacher. The personal benefit of the psychotherapy was a reclaiming of sensitivities to others and to myself and a personal sense of contentment.

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CAPÍTULO SEIS: Guiones de Vida: patrones relacionales inconscientes e implicación psicoterapéutica

Erskine, Richard G. Ediciones Karnac ePub

CAPÍTULO SEIS

Guiones de Vida: patrones relacionales inconscientes e implicación psicoterapéutica

Los Guiones de Vida son una compleja serie de patrones relacionales inconscientes basados en reacciones fisiológicas de supervivencia, conclusiones experienciales implícitas, decisiones explícitas y/o introyecciones autorreguladoras adoptadas bajo estrés, en cualquier etapa del desarrollo evolutivo, que inhiben la espontaneidad y limitan la flexibilidad en la resolución de problemas, en el mantenimiento de la salud y en la relación con otras personas (Erskine 1980).

Los guiones son desarrollados con frecuencia por infantes, niños pequeños, adolescentes e incluso adultos, como medio para afrontar las interrupciones en las relaciones de dependencia significativas que repetidamente no lograron satisfacer las necesidades básicas cruciales en el desarrollo. Estos patrones inconscientes del guión probablemente han sido formulados, reforzados y elaborados durante una serie de etapas evolutivas, como resultado de repetidas rupturas en las relaciones con las personas significativas. Los Guiones de Vida son el resultado de fallos acumulativos en las relaciones de dependencia relevantes. Tales Guiones de Vida son sistemas inconscientes de organización psicológica y de autorregulación formados principalmente por memoria implícita (Erskine 2008; Fosshage 2005) y expresados a través de malestares fisiológicos, de escaladas o minimizaciones del afecto y de las transferencias que se producen en la vida cotidiana.

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Chapter Three - Attunement and Involvement: Therapeutic Responses to Relational Needs

Erskine, Richard G. Karnac Books ePub

Standardized protocols or treatment manuals define the practice of psychotherapy from either a quantitative research-based behavioral model or symptom-focused medical model (Erskine, 1998b). The therapeutic relationship is not considered central in such practice manuals. In this era of industrialization of psychotherapy it is essential for psychotherapists to remain mindful of the unique interpersonal relationship between therapist and client as the central and significant factor in psychotherapy. This chapter outlines several dimensions of the therapeutic relationship that have emerged from a qualitative evaluation of the practice of psychotherapy conducted at the Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy in New York City.

A major premise of a relationship-oriented psychotherapy is that the need for relationship constitutes a primary motivation of human behavior (Fairbairn, 1952). Contact is the means by which the need for relationship is met. In colloquial language, “contact” refers to the quality of the transactions between two people: the awareness of both one's self and the other, a sensitive meeting of the other, and an authentic acknowledgement of one's self. In a more theoretically exact meaning, “contact” refers to the full awareness of sensations, feelings, needs, sensorimotor processes, thought, and memories that occur within the individual, and a shift to full awareness of external events as registered by each sensory organ. With the capacity to oscillate between internal and external contact, experiences are continually integrated into a sense of self (Perls, Hefferline, & Goodman, 1951).

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