10 Chapters
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Chapter 4 The Backward Planning Approach to Unit Design: Pre- and Culminating Assessments and Criteria for Success

Kathy Tuchman Glass Solution Tree Press ePub

Once you articulate a unit’s learning outcomes by identifying what students should know, understand, and do (KUDs), it is time to determine how students will show evidence of learning—the second part of backward planning. The focus of this chapter is on the culminating assessment and the criteria against which it will be assessed. Additionally, I suggest ways you can preassess to gather useful information about students’ writing capabilities and genre knowledge. I feature tools and strategies for you to create or redesign writing prompts, checklists, and rubrics and discuss writing models, anchor papers, and grading. This culminating assessment and the accompanying criteria, together with the KUDs, will guide you in orchestrating learning experiences to teach key skills. During lesson planning—the last stage of backward planning—you’ll have the opportunity to incorporate appropriate resources, instructional strategies and methods, differentiation, and various assessments, implementing all of these with a clear focus on helping students achieve well on the culminating assessment. If needed, review figure 3.1 on page 40 for a visual representation of backward planning to guide your reading of this chapter.

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Chapter 2 The Stages of the Writing Process and Digital Environments

Kathy Tuchman Glass Solution Tree Press ePub

Although the writing process has evolved over time, D. Gordon Rohman (1965) is credited as the initial source of the three-stage model that comprised (1) prewriting, (2) writing, and (3) rewriting. The process is now more expansive and is often presented with the first five of the following stages. Some researchers include reflecting as an additional sixth stage, which I believe to be prudent.

1.Prewriting

2.Drafting

3.Revising

4.Editing

5.Publishing

6.Reflecting

Writing Next points to the benefits of teaching students the stages of the writing process so they can produce well-constructed products: “Teaching adolescents strategies for planning, revising, and editing their compositions has shown a dramatic effect on the quality of students’ writing” (Graham & Perin, 2007, p. 15). This process is meant to be instructive. Therefore, deliberately teach each step in a systematic way so students apply what they learn directly to their own work to maximize the likelihood of achieving optimal results. Ruie Pritchard and Ronald Honeycutt (2006) explain:

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Introduction

Kathy Tuchman Glass Solution Tree Press ePub

Writing is an integral part of students’ education. It is not just about the art of communicating and expressing oneself well for different audiences and purposes; writing also expands and embeds learning (Graham & Hebert, 2010). When we write about what we read, we grasp the content more fully. It is a powerful and effective means for learning in every subject area, and the possibilities for written discourse across disciplines are endless. For example, in social studies, students write historical journal entries from the point of view of an individual experiencing a past event; in science, students take detailed observational lab notes; in mathematics, students justify their solutions to a mathematics problem; and in physical education, students record the rules and instructions for how to play a game. Writing is a 21st century skill, and the benefits of learning to write well have far-reaching implications, as stated in Writing Next (Graham & Perin, 2007), a report commissioned by the Carnegie Corporation of New York that discusses research-based techniques to improve writing:

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Chapter 1 Writing Instruction Recommendations and an Introduction to Writing Types

Kathy Tuchman Glass Solution Tree Press ePub

We take for granted the fact that writing must be taught in school. After all, it’s part of the age-old trifecta of Rs: reading, writing, and arithmetic. In truth, there are logical reasons and benefits to mastering the art of written discourse, as mentioned in the introduction to this book and in this chapter. Plus, there are proven methods educators can employ to teach students this craft. Since our youth are unfortunately underperforming, learning to write proficiently is an imperative that needs critical attention. I’ll address these points at the beginning of this chapter with specific emphasis on research findings and instructional practice recommendations gleaned from two reports—Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High Schools (Graham & Perin, 2007) and Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading (Graham & Hebert, 2010). The latter document, which emphasizes the impact writing can have on reading comprehension, builds on the findings of the former report. Later in the chapter, I’ll delineate different types of writing and their associated genres and subgenres to give you an overview of the realm of writing opportunities for teaching and learning.

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Chapter 5 Effective Lesson Design: The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model and Differentiation

Kathy Tuchman Glass Solution Tree Press ePub

Most of us have experienced the situation of teaching the same skill over and over without managing to produce the desired student results. We feel disappointed because we’ve let our students down. There could be numerous reasons for this frustration, but one could be not systematically and explicitly teaching the skill, strategy, or process in a way that yields success. That’s where gradual release of responsibility can help—an instructional model for teaching new learning (Pearson & Gallagher, 1983). In this chapter, you will read about the aspects and benefits of this model along with a clear example, plus receive an inventory of generic ways and resources to differentiate instruction. When you create lessons for your unit, refer back to this text for support in finding appropriate lesson design and differentiation ideas.

The gradual release of responsibility model provides students with a continuum of support. It begins with teachers assuming control initially and moves to an eventual point where students take ownership of applying the new learning independently. David Pearson and Margaret Gallagher (1983) say this about the strategy:

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