506 Chapters
Medium 9781475816365

The “Safe School”: A Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Model of Community Policing as an Expression of Democratic Processes

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Israel Kim and Rina Barkol

This article discusses the idea of the “safe school” juvenile delinquency prevention model as a paradigm of bringing together all of the community participants, in order to bring about ways and means through which community problems could be met and solved. It suggests that in free and democratic societies, the consent of all participant parties to a problem be reached so that they all take part in its solution.

Without this consent, there will be no legitimacy for the police to work in a community, especially in a minority community. This article suggests that community policing, through its community-policing partnership programs, does achieve this needed legitimacy.

Finally, considering all of the above, it seems that the “safe school” model is just this kind of a model and that it has a chance of succeeding in 21st-century democratic societies. This is especially so due to its achievement of a level of what could be defined as “a community school,” where all community influential parties, including the police, participate in eradicating a problematic behavior at school.

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Medium 9781475816112

Private and Decentralized Public Schools: Do They Speak the Same Language?

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


Assistant Professor of Education, Department of Administrative Leadership, School of Education, Enderis Hall, P.O. Box 413, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI53201-0413

School decentralization represents an attempt to dissolve the educational bureaucracy and to allow individual schools to compete in the marketplace. The charter school movement was designed to encourage innovation because these schools, like their private school counterparts, would have the freedom to develop their own missions and recruit students. Consider the following questions: Can these schools capture the essence of market focus as private schools have done? Can these schools respond to their clients as private schools have had to do? These are a few of the many issues we need to contend with as the privatization of public schools becomes more inevitable. This article presents the findings of a study examining the exchanges between private and decentralized public school leaders and their possible implications for school decentralization.

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Medium 9781475816389

Citizenship, Education, and Identity: A Comparative Study of Ethnic Chinese in Korea and Ethnic Koreans in China

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Sheena Choi

In general, discussion of the political theory of citizenship revolves around major contemporary processes such as democratization, consolidation and/or integration, welfare entitlements, and global migration. Those processes provide a framework for understanding individual rights and sociopolitical conflicts within a nation-state. Consequently, in nationalist perspectives, citizenship is the social glue that enables the liberation of a “portion of humanity from tribal loyalties and its fusion into a voluntary civic community” (Shafir, 1998, p. 3), thus forging a sense of common culture and shared destiny.

Citizenship, Marshall (1992) asserts, is a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess such status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the status is endowed. For Marshall, “The right of the citizen . . . is the right to equality of opportunity” (p. 65), and further, the “equality of status is more important than equality of income” (p. 56). According to Marshall, citizenship consists of three elements: civil, political, and social. The civil element is composed of the rights necessary for individual freedom, such as liberty of the person; freedom of speech, thought and faith; the right to own property and to conclude valid contracts; and the right to justice. Marshall characterizes that the “right to justice” more specifically as the right to due process through the courts of justice. The political element of citizenship is the right to participate in the exercise of political power, to vote or run for office such as parliament or the councils of local government. The social element, which ranges from the right to a modicum of economic welfare and security to the right to share to the fullest in social heritage, in essence defines the right to live the life of a civilized person according to the standards prevailing in the society. Therefore, by definition, social citizenship rights are most closely connected with the educational system and social service.

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Medium 9781475816525

From Risk to Resilience: Promoting School–Health Partnerships for Children

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Jeanita W. Richardson

ABSTRACT: Across the globe, educational and health practitioners wrestle daily with the paradoxes of risk and resilience. Though the causes of risk are generally outside the control of professionals, manifestations of disadvantage directly affect service delivery and the realizing of accountability benchmarks. This article proposes a shift in attention from risk to resilience as being empowering and proactive for students and those vested in maximizing their potential. Given that resilience has been deemed an ecological phenomenon, the ecology of human development framework posited by Uri Bronfenbrenner (1979) was applied to advance the rationale for resiliency partnerships between schools and school-based health clinics.

Poverty can create risk in every dimension of a child’s life. Impoverished youngsters around the world are more apt to be born underweight and to be malnourished, as well as susceptible to disease and environmental toxins. Furthermore, implications of these poverty markers do not disappear after birth or early childhood but rather persist into adulthood (Borman & Overman, 2004; Guo & Harris, 2000; Jenson, 2007; Richardson, 2006). Lest the focus on child poverty and the risk it creates target emerging nations alone, it is important to remember that citizen status in wealthy nations such as the United States does little to protect youngsters from economic disadvantage, particularly if they belong to racial and ethnic minorities. Whether residing in developed or emerging nations, babies and youth are subjected to a toxic risk cocktail if they are poor, by their nation’s definition. In and of itself, the term poor is relative and contextual. For purposes of this article, the word refers to family resources that are insufficient to ensure adequate housing, health, and educational opportunities undergirding optimal child development.

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Medium 9781475816006


International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

“Our actions are … attempts to critically understand our everyday practices in a search for a new form of praxis in which … social agents … have the possibility of collectively constructing … their learning by recreating and reanimating what has historically been systematized to death.”–Movimento Boneco

Peter McLaren

Peter: I am very impressed by what your group stands for and what it has managed to accomplish in a relatively short time. I remember meeting one member of your group, Behel O. Schaefer, in Santa Maria, several years ago, and admiring her political commitment to social change and social justice, and I am glad to see Bel again. That was the first time that I had heard about your organization and I must admit that I was very intrigued. Then I met with some of your other members –again, a very impressive moment-to discuss some issues that seemed not to be addressed in the conference itself. I was very honored by your invitation to come back to Brasil, and to the island of Santa Catarina, in order to work with you and to offer a short course in your university. First of all, I want to thank you for bringing me to Brasil and also for making it possible for me to visit and present my work in Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre. The term “movimento boneco(a)” is unusual – especially as a-term to designate an oppositional political group within the university. What does the term “movimento boneco(a)” mean and how did your movement begin?

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