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14: Single Plant Trials of Potential Forage Legumes for Belizean Pastures on Clay Soils of the Upper Belize River and the Lowland Pine Ridge

Lazier, J.R. CABI PDF

14 Single Plant Trials of Potential Forage

Legumes for Belizean Pastures on Clay

Soils of the Upper Belize River and the

Lowland Pine Ridge

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa

Abstract

Fertilized replicated single plant trials were established on two major soil types in wet tropical conditions in

­central Belize, a heavy cracking clay and a waterlogged kaolinitic clay. Thirty-five accessions (32 species and

20 genera) were harvested by clipping at 6-week intervals. Survival was better on the wetter site, but yields were lower. Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro, Indigofera hirsute, Pueraria phaseoloides and Desmodium cinerium were the most productive on the cracking clay, while P. phaseoloides, Vigna caracalla, Desmodium ovalifolium, Stylosanthes guianensis and Siratro performed best on the kaolinitic clay. D. cinerium and D. ovalifolium in particular appeared to be worthy of further study for these soils.

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13; Botanical Composition and Nutritive Value of Selected Native Pastures in Belize

Lazier, J.R. CABI PDF

13 

Botanical Composition and Nutritive

Value of Selected Native Pastures in Belize

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa

Abstract

An initial assessment was undertaken of the productivity, nutrient value and botanical composition of eight representative native pastures on a range of clay soils, including three vertisols, in central Belize and the Belize River

Valley under wet tropical conditions. Regular harvests indicated that the productivity at all sites was very low, that palatable native legumes were present at low levels and that the native species, particularly Mesosetum angustifolium, the dominant grass at the more infertile sites, did not respond to fertilization either in yield or nutrient content. At all sites some of the nutrients essential for animal productivity were below minimal levels, particularly Cu, but also

P at all but one site. N, Ca, Mg and Zn also were limiting at some sites and harvests. The introduced legumes being tested in the trials at the sites also had lower than minimum levels of Cu but mainly higher than minimum levels of the other nutrients tested.

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19: A Summary of the Results of the IDRC-UWI/Belize Forage Legume Adaptation and Productivity Trials, 1973–1977

Lazier, J.R. CABI PDF

19 A Summary of the Results of the

IDRC-UWI/Belize Forage Legume Adaptation and Productivity Trials, 1973–1977

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa

Abstract

The results of 4.5 years of research of the IDRC-UWI/Belize legume adaptation and productivity trials over the years 1973–1977 are summarized. Numerous replicated and unreplicated trials were conducted on the terraces of the upper, mid and lower Belize River Valley and on the Mountain Pine Ridge on a wide range of clay soils. Data were acquired through both observation and harvesting; grazing was imposed on many of the trials. Adapted and persistent herbaceous and woody legume species were identified for all soil types and numerous companion grasses. For vigorous growth, fertility was required for most sites; grazing management was critical for legume persistence.

19.1  Introduction

19.3  Results and discussion

It is appropriate at this point to review the

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12: The Cattle Industry of Belize: A Brief History of Research and Development to the Mid-1970s

Lazier, J.R. CABI PDF

12 The Cattle Industry of Belize:

A Brief History of Research and

Development to the Mid-1970s

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa

Abstract

Belize, one of the sites of the collaborative IDRC/UWI–CSIRO research reported in this volume, is a small Central

American country whose economy is little known compared with that of Australia, thus background information on its livestock industry is presented here to set the scene for the chapters that follow. With a small population and extensive areas of grassland, it has been seen as having potential as a source of protein for the countries of CARICOM. Though cattle had long been used as draught animals in logging, a cattle industry for beef has been considered seriously only since the 1930s. Despite the industry having since been given high priority in

Government-development plans, research has been sporadic, mainly dependent on special programmes funded from abroad and on temporary personnel. Considerable progress was made in developing the industry, but by the mid-1970s there were major problems including lack of infrastructure, uncertain markets and lack of management skills. Some adapted, improved pasture species were identified, but more work was required, particularly on forage legumes. Cattle raising had been encouraged with some success as a step in the development of sedentary farming from shifting agriculture. In 1970 the cattle population was 38,000 head and 92% of the 1322 herds in the country had 50 animals or less.

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6: Searching for Pasture Legumes for Heavy Clay Soils in the Australian Dry Tropics and Subtropics: I. Initial Literature Reviews, Data Analysis and Choice of Material for Test

Lazier, J.R. CABI PDF

6 

Searching for Pasture Legumes for

Heavy Clay Soils in the Australian Dry

Tropics and Subtropics: I. Initial Literature

Reviews, Data Analysis and Choice of Material for Test

R.L. Burt† and J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa

Abstract

As a preliminary step in the selection of germplasm for heavy clay soils in the Australian tropics and subtropics a review was undertaken of known genera and species of leguminous plants with known and suspected potential.

Groupings were made of the genera based on the percentage of species occurring on clay soils. Assessments were then undertaken of their interest based on the environments in which they occur and their general forage characteristics. The report concludes with brief comments about the adequacy of genetic resource collections of the genera and species that have proven to be of value.

6.1  Introduction

Almost all Australian pasture legume cultivars are plants that have been introduced from elsewhere, and all crop varieties are ‘aliens’, with the sole exception of the Macadamia nut, which is native to Queensland but was developed for commercial use in the USA. This is not altogether surprising because Australian flora is unique since it has been long isolated from those regions in which the seed-bearing plants developed, and thus has relied on the evolution of endemic plants to cope with the ever-changing climate and decreasing levels of soil fertility. The dry areas of Australia illustrate the adaptations that have been necessary (White, 1994). There the soils are poor and sclerophyll–xerophyte grasslands

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