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Part One: Methodological Introduction Philosophy, Factical Life Experience, and the Phenomenology of Religion

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub

PART ONE

Methodological Introduction
Philosophy, Factical Life Experience,
and the Phenomenology of Religion

Chapter One

The Formation of Philosophical Concepts
and Factical Life Experience

The Peculiarity of Philosophical Concepts

It is necessary to determine the meaning of words of the lecture's announcement preliminarily. This necessity is grounded in the peculiarity of philosophical concepts. In the specific scientific disciplines, concepts are determined through their integration into a material complex; and the more familiar this context is, the more exactly its concepts can be fixed. Philosophical concepts, on the contrary, are vacillating, vague, manifold, and fluctuating, as is shown in the alteration of philosophical standpoints. This uncertainty of philosophical concepts is not, however, exclusively founded upon this alteration of standpoints. It belongs, rather, to the sense of philosophical concepts themselves that they always remain uncertain. The possibility of access to philosophical concepts is fundamentally different from the possibility of access to scientific concepts. Philosophy does not have at its disposal an objectively and thoroughly formed material context into which concepts can be integrated in order to receive their determination. There is thus a difference in principle between science and philosophy. This provisional thesis will prove itself in the course of these observations. (It is due to the necessity of linguistic formulation alone that this is a thesis, a proposition, at all.)

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Appendix

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub

Appendix

Notes and Sketches on the Lecture

Letter to the Galatians

[on § 16]

Paul in struggle—not only for his mission, but for the Galatians themselves; against the “law” not only as law, but rather as belonging to the world era [Weltzeit]. A push away into the unredeemed, not a radical seizing of the spirit.

The conflict about circumcision: question of the conditions for the entry into Christian life; external sign of inner belonging to the “alliance” [Bundeswelt] after exile. Not law, with its works and morals, distinguishes, but rather, faith in Jesus Christ. Superfluousness, harmfulness […]* In law a “way to salvation” is embodied (view of existence!) (Way to salvation in upholding the commandment!) Meaning of the entire law: to refer man to his doings; the works of his doings [?], the reward will be of the law. For Paul: God alone acts in the sending of Christ! Thus: not the works of human beings, but rather grace!

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VI. The Future Ones

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub

 

Those strangers alike in heart, equally decided for the bestowal and refusal that have been assigned to them. The ones who bear the staff of the truth of beyng, the truth in which beings are built up to the dominance of the simple essence of every single thing and breath. The stillest witnesses to the stillest stillness in which an imperceptible impetus turns truth out of the confusion of all calculatively correct findings and back into its essence, such that there is kept concealed what is most concealed, viz., the trembling of the passing by of the decision about the gods, the essential occurrence of beyng.

The future ones: the slow, far-hearing ones who ground this essence of truth. Those who offer resistance to the thrust of beyng.

The ones to come2 are those future ones who receive—insofar as they expect on the way back and in sacrificial restraint—the intimation and intrusion of the absconding and nearing of the last god.

The task is to prepare for these future ones. Such preparation is served by inceptual thinking as bearing the silence of the event. But thinking is only one way the few venture the leap into beyng.

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Conclusion

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub

What con-frontation1 is not and what it is. Not a formal refutation, demonstration of mere incorrect points, but scission—and that only on the basis of decision. Decision only as engagement in Dasein; the decision for.

Engagement as steadfastly letting fate hold sway. Wisdom—knowing—knowing that we do not know—questioning. The innermost and broadest history is neither left to accident nor left to the placidity (our people will once again want science) of the customary.

Knowing that we do not know; not as an ascertained fact, but as insight into the necessity of having to act. This acting as questioning is not for the sake of questioning, but is an answer; the answer is engagement: seizing a necessary possibility, exposing oneself to the necessity of fate, complying with the freedom of a resolution. The engagement itself as the knowing questioning of willing to know; the engagement itself as teaching.

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Afterword of the Editor of the Lecture Course summer Semester 1921 and of the Outlines and Sketches 1918–19

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub

Afterword of the Editor of the Lecture Course Summer
Semester 1921 and of the Outlines and Sketches 1918–19

The bibliographical main title of volume 60 is taken from a school binder in which Heidegger had bound his 1918–19 studies of the phenomenology of religion. On the second page is found the original title: “Phenomenology of Religious Consciousness.” Later the word “consciousness” is crossed out by Heidegger and replaced with the word “life.” This earlier title is also found in his letter of May 1, 1919, to Elisabeth Blochmann: “My own work is very concentrated, basic and concrete: basic problems of the phenomenolog[ical] method, becoming free from the last shackles of acquired positions—constant new progress toward the real origins, preparations for the phenomenology of religious consciousness—firmly geared up for intensive, high-quality academic effectiveness, constant learning in the company of Husserl” (Martin Heidegger–Elisabeth Blochmann, Letters 1918–1969, edited by Joachim W. Storck, Marbach on the Neckar, 1989, p. 16). That Heidegger speaks of “preparations” in respect to his studies of the phenomenology of religion probably refers to the announcement of Heidegger's planned lecture course of Winter Semester 1919–1920, “The Philosophical Foundations of Medieval Mysticism.” But beyond that it seems to indicate in general a longer-standing project, for, next to the basic problems, the phenomenology of religion is the only concrete problem that Heidegger seems to “approach” at this time.

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