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11: Bitemark Analysis

Bailey, D. CABI PDF

11 

Bitemark Analysis

David Bailey,1 Jennifer Hamilton-Ible,2* Lucy Leicester,3

Louise MacLeod4 and Adele Wharton5

1

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University, Stroke-on-Trent,

Staffordshire, UK; 2Highcroft Veterinary Group, Bristol, UK; 3School of Veterinary

­Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK; 4Hills

­Veterinary Surgery, ­London, UK; 5Saphinia Veterinary Forensics, Bottesford,

Nottinghamshire, UK

11.1  Introduction: Dog Bitemarks – Pathology and Outcomes�

11.2  Risks and Relative Incidence�

11.3 �Comparison between Human Bitemarks, Dog Bitemarks and Bitemarks from Other Species of Forensic Relevance�

11.4  Overview of Forensic Techniques and Methods Used�

11.5  Literature Review�

11.6  Strategies for Prevention and Risk Mitigation�

11.7 Conclusion�

11.1  Introduction: Dog Bitemarks –

Pathology and Outcomes

Dogs are often referred to as ‘man’s best friend’, but conflicts between the two species are common with potentially catastrophic consequences for both parties.

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1: Introduction – What is Veterinary Forensics?

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1 

Introduction – What is Veterinary

Forensics?

David Bailey*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University,

Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

1.1 Introduction�

1.2  Current Projects�

1.2.1 Anti-terrorism�

1.2.2  Forensic analysis of hair�

1.2.3  Bitemark analysis�

1.2.4  Teaching and examining�

1.2.5  Contract research�

1.2.6  Expert witness appearance�

1.2.7  Toxicology and chemical analysis�

1.2.8  Veterinary call-out services�

1.2.9  Television and media�

1.2.10  Report writing�

1.2.11  Documentary evidence�

1.2.12  Blood pattern analysis�

1.2.13 Bestiality�

1.2.14 Ballistics�

1.2.15  DNA analysis and laboratory competence�

1.3  Conceptual Views�

1.3.1  Comparison to human forensics�

1.3.2  A definition of veterinary forensics�

1.3.3  Breadth of field�

1.3.4  Getting caught�

1.4  Biological Concepts�

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5: Evidence Collection and Gathering:The Living Evidence

Bailey, D. CABI PDF

5 

Evidence Collection and Gathering:

The Living Evidence

David Bailey*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University,

Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

5.1 Introduction�

5.2  Animals as Property�

5.3  Living Evidence�

5.4 Necessity�

5.4.1  What is the necessity for this suffering?�

5.5  What Is a Crime Scene?�

5.5.1  Arrival on scene�

5.6  The Five Cardinal Rules for Examining a Crime Scene�

5.7 PREGS�

5.7.1 Protect�

5.7.2  Recording the crime scene – measuring and sketching�

5.7.2.1 Photography�

5.7.2.2 Sketching�

5.7.2.3  Evidence logs�

5.7.3  Evaluate physical evidence possibilities�

5.7.4  Gathering of evidence�

5.7.4.1  Final survey�

5.7.5 Storage�

5.7.5.1  Dead animals�

‘The cat had fleas.’

Prosection Expert

‘Prove it.’

Defence Expert

5.1  Introduction

There are many texts and much guidance relating to the successful gathering of evidence

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3: Law and Animals

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3 

Law and Animals

Deborah Rook1* and Pippa Swan2*

Northumbria Law School, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK;

2

Clare Veterinary Group, Ballyclare, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK

1

3.1 �Challenges to the Legal Status of Domestic and Captive Animals by Deborah Rook�

24

3.1.1  The property status of domestic and captive animals�

24

3.1.2  Pet custody cases�

25

3.1.3  Direct legal challenges to the property status of animals�

25

3.1.4 �The basis of a challenge to the legal status of animals – autonomy versus sentiency�27

3.1.5  Utilitarianism in practice�

27

3.1.6  The concept of unnecessary suffering�

28

3.1.6.1  Necessity as a balancing exercise�

28

3.1.6.2  Property status and proportionality�

30

3.1.7 Conclusion�

30

3.2  Unnecessary Suffering by Pippa Swan�

31

3.2.1 Introduction�

31

3.2.2  A legal definition�

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9: Understanding the Nature of Document Evidence

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9 

Understanding the Nature of

Document Evidence

Nikolaos Kalantzis*

Chartoularios Laboratory of Questioned Document Studies, Piraeus,

Greece and Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire

University, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

9.1 Introduction�

9.2  Handwriting Evidence�

9.2.1  Handwriting as evidence�

9.2.2  Feature examination�

9.2.3 Forgery�

9.2.4  Further comments�

9.3  Document Evidence�

9.3.1  Ink/writing instruments (sequence)�

9.3.2  Printed media�

9.3.3 Paper�

9.4  Additional Issues Regarding the Evidential Value of Documents�

9.4.1  Photocopies as evidence�

9.4.2  Age and dating of documents�

9.4.3  Stipulation of conclusions�

9.1  Introduction

The title of this chapter is very descriptive of both the positive and negative aspects of documents when treated as evidence. The term ‘document’ in a forensic aspect includes all aspects of a document, i.e. handwriting, signature, printing, the ink and the paper it­ self. As such we all have personal experience of some or all of these aspects. That personal experience, varying from one person to an­ other, can provide useful insight, but can also limit one’s view or perception of the evidence.

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