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4: Forensic Science and Applications to One Health

Bailey, D. CABI PDF

4 

Forensic Science and Applications to One Health

Lloyd Reeve-Johnson1* and David Bailey2*

Institute of Health and BioMedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology,

Brisbane, Australia and Principal Research Fellow, Translational Research Institute,

Brisbane, Australia; 2Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire

University, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

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4.1 Introduction�

4.2  The Need for Translational Research and One Health Collaborations�

4.3  Why Interest in One Health Now?�

4.4 �Macro-economic Issues of the 21st Century Where Animal Health-based

Innovation is Integral to Human Survival�

4.4.1  Food production and security�

4.4.2  Energy demands�

4.4.3 Poverty�

4.4.4  Zoonotic disease�

4.4.5  Environmental disaster relief�

4.4.5.1  Ethical use of animals�

4.4.6  Mental health�

4.4.7  Cloning, embryo research and genetic manipulation�

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12: Report Writing

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12 

Report Writing

David Bailey*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire

University, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

12.1   Definition of an Expert�

12.2   Requirements of an Expert Report�

12.2.1  Admissibility versus reliability�

12.3   Rules of Reliability�

12.4  Elucidation�

12.5   Obligations of an Expert�

12.6   Report Bias�

12.6.1  Resilience in a report�

12.7   Report Structure and Lucidity�

12.7.1  Confidentiality and records�

12.8   Accepting Instructions�

12.8.1 Assistance�

12.8.2  Relevant expertise�

12.8.3 Impartiality�

12.8.4  Evidentiary reliability�

12.9   Comparison of Jurisdictions (USA, UK and Australia)�

12.9.1  American views of admissibility and reliability�

12.9.2  The UK view�

12.9.3  The Australian view�

12.10 Conclusion�

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10: Forensic Toxicology

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10  Forensic Toxicology

Ernest Rogers*

American Board of Forensic Medicine, American College of Forensic

Examiners Institute, Springfield, Missouri, USA

10.1 Introduction�

10.2  Forensic Toxicology Scope of Practice�

10.3  Sample Collection�

10.4  Animal Athletes and Performance-enhancing Drugs�

10.5  Selection of a Forensic Laboratory�

10.6  Methods of Toxicological Analyses�

10.7  Principles of Toxicokinetics�

10.8 Conclusions�

10.1  Introduction

The practice of forensic toxicology differs from that of clinical toxicology. The difference resides in the fact that suspicion and confirmation of intoxication must be supported by analytical assessment and not necessarily the response to treatment. The analytical investigation starts and ends with:

1. the heightened suspicion of intoxication based on clinical or post-mortem signs.

2. the appropriate identification of the toxin or class of the intoxicating agent.

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13: The Human–Animal Interaction

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13 

The Human–Animal Interaction

Pippa Swan*

Clare Veterinary Group, Ballyclare, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK

13.1  Introduction�

13.2   A Historical Context�

13.3   Towards Enlightenment and Legislation�

13.4   The Status of Animals�

13.5   Moral Considerations�

13.6   Human Attitudes�

13.7   The Range of Relationships�

13.8   Positive Human–Animal Relationships�

13.9   Animal Cruelty�

13.10  Family Violence and the Link�

13.11  Hoarding and Bestiality�

13.12 Conclusion�

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13.1 Introduction

13.2  A Historical Context

That animals and humans always were, and will continue to be, intricately and inextricably linked is borne out by the arts, from caveman drawings through painting and literature to photography; and by science, from Darwin to current studies of animal biology and behaviour. The relationship includes dependence, respect and affection, as well as power, exploitation and abuse.

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6: Forensic Examination of Animal Hair

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6 

Forensic Examination of Animal Hair

Claire Gwinnett*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University,

Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

6.1 Introduction�

6.2  Hair as Evidence�

6.3  The Use of Animal Hair in Criminal Casework�

6.4 �Recovery, Documentation, Packaging and Storage Methods for Animal Hair Evidence�

6.4.1  Recovery of questioned aka target animal hairs�

6.4.2  Recovery of control aka known hair samples�

6.4.3  Packaging and storage�

6.4.4  Documentation of evidence�

6.5  General Structure of Hair�

6.5.1  Types of hair�

6.6  Forensic Animal Hair Analysis�

6.6.1  Stages of hair analysis�

6.6.2  Microscopy preparation of animal hairs�

6.6.2.1  Creating a whole mount�

6.6.2.2 �Scale casts and impressions of the animal hair surface�

6.6.2.3  Medulla slides�

6.6.3  Microscopical analysis of animal hairs�

6.7  Species Identification from Animal Hair�

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