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7: Firearms and Ballistics

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Firearms and Ballistics

Rachel Bolton-King1* and Johan Schulze2*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent,

Staffordshire, UK; 2Veterinary Forensic and Wildlife Services, Germany and Norway


7.1  Crime Scene Evidence: Firearms and Ballistics by Rachel Bolton-King�

7.1.1 Introduction�

7.1.2 Firearms�  Types of firearm�  Modern firing mechanisms�

7.1.3 Ammunition� Composition�  Live cartridges�  Fired cartridge cases and projectiles�

7.1.4  Internal ballistics� Primer� Propellant� Projectile� Weapon�  Production of gunshot residue (GSR)�

7.1.5  Intermediate ballistics�  Propellant particles and gaseous combustion products� Projectile�  Muzzle attachments�

7.1.6  External ballistics�  Muzzle velocity and kinetic energy�

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12: Report Writing

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Report Writing

David Bailey*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire

University, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

12.1   Definition of an Expert�

12.2   Requirements of an Expert Report�

12.2.1  Admissibility versus reliability�

12.3   Rules of Reliability�

12.4  Elucidation�

12.5   Obligations of an Expert�

12.6   Report Bias�

12.6.1  Resilience in a report�

12.7   Report Structure and Lucidity�

12.7.1  Confidentiality and records�

12.8   Accepting Instructions�

12.8.1 Assistance�

12.8.2  Relevant expertise�

12.8.3 Impartiality�

12.8.4  Evidentiary reliability�

12.9   Comparison of Jurisdictions (USA, UK and Australia)�

12.9.1  American views of admissibility and reliability�

12.9.2  The UK view�

12.9.3  The Australian view�

12.10 Conclusion�









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5: Evidence Collection and Gathering:The Living Evidence

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Evidence Collection and Gathering:

The Living Evidence

David Bailey*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University,

Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

5.1 Introduction�

5.2  Animals as Property�

5.3  Living Evidence�

5.4 Necessity�

5.4.1  What is the necessity for this suffering?�

5.5  What Is a Crime Scene?�

5.5.1  Arrival on scene�

5.6  The Five Cardinal Rules for Examining a Crime Scene�

5.7 PREGS�

5.7.1 Protect�

5.7.2  Recording the crime scene – measuring and sketching� Photography� Sketching�  Evidence logs�

5.7.3  Evaluate physical evidence possibilities�

5.7.4  Gathering of evidence�  Final survey�

5.7.5 Storage�  Dead animals�

‘The cat had fleas.’

Prosection Expert

‘Prove it.’

Defence Expert

5.1  Introduction

There are many texts and much guidance relating to the successful gathering of evidence

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13: The Human–Animal Interaction

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The Human–Animal Interaction

Pippa Swan*

Clare Veterinary Group, Ballyclare, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK

13.1  Introduction�

13.2   A Historical Context�

13.3   Towards Enlightenment and Legislation�

13.4   The Status of Animals�

13.5   Moral Considerations�

13.6   Human Attitudes�

13.7   The Range of Relationships�

13.8   Positive Human–Animal Relationships�

13.9   Animal Cruelty�

13.10  Family Violence and the Link�

13.11  Hoarding and Bestiality�

13.12 Conclusion�













13.1 Introduction

13.2  A Historical Context

That animals and humans always were, and will continue to be, intricately and inextricably linked is borne out by the arts, from caveman drawings through painting and literature to photography; and by science, from Darwin to current studies of animal biology and behaviour. The relationship includes dependence, respect and affection, as well as power, exploitation and abuse.

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11: Bitemark Analysis

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Bitemark Analysis

David Bailey,1 Jennifer Hamilton-Ible,2* Lucy Leicester,3

Louise MacLeod4 and Adele Wharton5


Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University, Stroke-on-Trent,

Staffordshire, UK; 2Highcroft Veterinary Group, Bristol, UK; 3School of Veterinary

­Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK; 4Hills

­Veterinary Surgery, ­London, UK; 5Saphinia Veterinary Forensics, Bottesford,

Nottinghamshire, UK

11.1  Introduction: Dog Bitemarks – Pathology and Outcomes�

11.2  Risks and Relative Incidence�

11.3 �Comparison between Human Bitemarks, Dog Bitemarks and Bitemarks from Other Species of Forensic Relevance�

11.4  Overview of Forensic Techniques and Methods Used�

11.5  Literature Review�

11.6  Strategies for Prevention and Risk Mitigation�

11.7 Conclusion�

11.1  Introduction: Dog Bitemarks –

Pathology and Outcomes

Dogs are often referred to as ‘man’s best friend’, but conflicts between the two species are common with potentially catastrophic consequences for both parties.

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