21 Slices
Medium 9781475824506


Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Combining Vocabulary Instruction With Cover, Copy, and Compare to Increase Vocabulary and Spelling Skills

Shobana Musti-Rao
Joanne Khaw
Renee O. Hawkins

The study took place in a fourth-grade general education classroom of a public school in the city-state of Singapore. Prior to the start of the study, all students received a list of spelling words each week with no explicit instruction on the words. The students were expected to learn the words on their own and complete a written spelling test each week. Despite evidence that writing is dependent on vocabulary knowledge (Brynildssen, 2000), current school practices continue to include traditional approaches to spelling instruction (Alber & Walshe, 2004; McAuley & McLaughlin, 1992) and de-emphasize vocabulary instruction (VI; Tam, Heward, & Heng, 2006). VI at the upper elementary level should focus on providing students with both definitional and conceptual knowledge of words by providing multiple exposures to word meanings within and outside of context (Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986).

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Medium 9781475824506

Investigation of a Parent-Directed Intervention Designed to Promote Early Literacy Skills in Preschool Children

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Ashley N. Sundman-Wheat
Kathy L. Bradley-Klug
Julia A. Ogg

ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of a parent-directed intervention on the development of early literacy skills in six children attending Head Start was investigated using a multiple-baseline, across-participants design. The intervention included activities focusing on phonological awareness and letter-naming fluency. Visual analysis and examination of nonoverlapping data points across phases revealed increases on measures of phonological awareness and letter-naming abilities for all participants. Data revealed variability in treatment integrity across participants and consistent positive ratings of intervention acceptability. Recommendations for future research and implications for practice are discussed.

I n a recent report by the National Center for Education Statistics (2009), only 33% of students in the United States were at or above a proficient level in reading. Even more troubling was that only two thirds (67%) of students attained a basic level of reading achievement (NCES, 2009). The National Reading Panel (2000) reported that over 17.5% of children will have reading problems within their first 3 years of school. Legislation addresses the literacy problem with both expectations for achievement and parent involvement (e.g., No Child Left Behind Act). Section 1118 of No Child Left Behind states that schools should encourage parents to assist in their child’s learning, be actively involved in education, and be included in making decisions about their child’s education.

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Medium 9781475824452

Evidence-Based Practice in the Broader Context: How Can We Really Use Evidence to Inform Decisions?

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Bruce F. Chorpita
Nicole K. Starace

ABSTRACT: In this article, we examine the evidence-based practice decision-making heuristic in the broader context of clinical decision making. We place emphasis on articulating a decision model that outlines a more complete set of decisions and considerations, beyond that of mere treatment selection, to include crisis monitoring, outcome measurement, service review, and fundamental practice integrity. We argue that the evidence base represented by the treatment outcome literature is ideal for some of these decisions (but not all), and we make recommendations for an information model—one that maps evidence and information sources to key decisions, draws on multiple objective and reliable sources of evidence, and prioritizes their use on the basis of their relevance to each decision being made.

Over the past two decades, a large number of advances have been made in the field of child and adolescent mental health, particularly in the realm of identifying and treating mental health disorders. Central to these innovations in clinical psychology has been the trend toward developing and evaluating psychosocial treatment protocols in experimental trials. Treatment testing and evaluation became greatly formalized partly as a result of the increased accountability demands of the managed health care environment in the late 1980s, particularly in light of early research that indicated that supportive evidence for psychosocial treatments was equivocal (Beutler, 1979; Eysenck, 1952; Levitt, 1957, 1963; Luborsky, Singer, & Luborsky, 1975). In the early 1990s, the American Psychological Association (APA) and its Clinical Division organized to identify psychosocial treatments with evidence for their efficacy. In 1993, the APA’s Task Force for Psychological Intervention Guidelines worked to develop a template by which treatments could be evaluated and ranked. The result was a framework that balanced considerations of efficacy (the evidence that a treatment worked in controlled trials) and effectiveness (the evidence that such a treatment would work in the real world).

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Medium 9781475824513

An Application of the Taped Spelling Intervention to Improve Spelling Skills

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Elizabeth McCallum
Ara J. Schmitt
Sarah N. Evans
Kristen F. Schaffner
Krista H. Long

ABSTRACT: The taped spelling intervention (TSI) is a procedure that was developed to improve the performance of students with spelling difficulties. The intervention requires students to listen to a collection of audio files that contain the pronunciation of a word, followed by a pause, and then the correct spelling of the word. Students are instructed to “beat the recording” by writing the correct spelling of each word before it is provided. Components of TSI include numerous opportunities to respond to spelling prompts, immediate feedback on the accuracy of responses, and error correction procedures. This study evaluated the effects of TSI with four middle school students recognized as having reading or writing difficulties. Results indicated immediately increased and sustained spelling performance in response to TSI. Discussion focuses on implications for practitioners and future academic intervention research.

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Medium 9781475824520

Additive Effects of Performance Feedback and Contingent Rewards on Reading Outcomes

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Erin E. C. Henze
Robert L. Williams
Briana H. von Mizener
Katherine Sager Brown

ABSTRACT : Two interventions were implemented with 22 third-grade students in four classrooms receiving intensive reading instruction: (1) performance feedback only and (2) performance feedback plus rewards contingent on reading performance. Researchers examined the effects of these interventions on students’ reading skill and interest in reading. Results indicate that students in both conditions improved their reading fluency and comprehension, with the greatest gains in fluency occurring during the treatment phase of the study. On measures of reading interest, findings were mixed, with treatment groups performing differently on measures of reading interest.

Undoubtedly, the ability to read is critical for success in life. Literacy contributes to all other academic areas and is valued for economic and social development (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Past research has shown that students with poor reading skills may exhibit such problems as aggression, hyperactivity, poor effort, poor self-concept, and school departures (Good, Simmons, & Smith, 1998; Stoddard, Valcante, Sindelar, O’Shea, & Algozzine, 1993).

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