99 Slices
Medium 9781475824384

Increasing Prosocial Interactions Using Peers: Extension of Positive Peer-Reporting Methods

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Kathryn E. Hoff
Marla J. Ronk

ABSTRACT: Positive peer reporting (PPR) is a peer-mediated intervention that increases positive interactions and decreases negative interactions among peers. The current study investigated the effectiveness of a PPR intervention for seven 3rd- and 4th-grade special education students with cognitive impairments on both a classwide level and an individual level during unstructured classroom time. An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of PPR on the prosocial interactions among peers. Results support the use of PPR for increasing prosocial interactions between peers at a classwide and an individual level. Negative social interactions remained low throughout the project. Implications for use in schools, as well as limitations and future directions, are discussed.

Positive peer relations are vitally important for long-term adjustment and healthy development across the lifespan (Parker & Asher, 1987). Moreover, one's peers play a powerful role in the development and maintenance of prosocial behavior (Hartup & Stevens, 1997) and can be exceptional behavior change agents (Patterson & Anderson, 1964). Unfortunately, not all children experience positive peer relations. Children with disabilities, particularly those with cognitive impairment, represent a population with concurrent deficits in social competence (Gresham & McMillan, 1997). These youth may experience limited or negative social interactions and may be actively neglected or rejected by their peers (Kavale & Forness, 1996; Odom & Wolery, 2003; O'Reilly & Glynn, 1995). Still, others do not possess the skills necessary to interact successfully with their peers (Leffert, Siperstein, & Millikan, 2000; Prater, Bruhl, & Serna, 1998).

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Medium 9781475824483

Using a Cell Phone to Prompt a Kindergarten Student to Self-Monitor Off-Task/Disruptive Behavior

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers PDF

Using a Cell Phone to Prompt a Kindergarten Student to

Self-Monitor Off-Task/

Disruptive Behavior

Colin C. Quillivan

Christopher H. Skinner

Meredith L. Hawthorn

Debbie Whited

Donny Ballard

ABSTRACT: A withdrawal design was used to evaluate the effects of a self-monitoring intervention using a cell phone to prompt a kindergarten student to self-record his on- or off-task behavior. The intervention was developed, implemented, and evaluated during a behavioral consultation case that included collaboration among the student, his teacher, and a school psychology doctoral student. Results showed a clear immediate decrease in off-task/disruptive behavior after the intervention was applied and a return to baseline levels after its withdrawal. These findings extend the self-monitoring research by demonstrating a kindergarten student’s ability to discriminate and record his on- and off-task behavior and the use of the ubiquitous cell phone to occasion self-monitoring.

THE PROBLEM

A

lthough educators may teach and assign work, little learning will occur unless students choose to engage by attending to instruction and working on assignments (Skinner, Pappas, & Davis, 2005). Thus, academic engagement is a critical component needed to enhance student

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Medium 9781475824490

A Treatment Package for Reducing Aggression and Improving Playground Behavior

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Michelle Marchant, K. Richard Young, Jana Lindberg Adam Fisher, and Brock Solano

ABSTRACT: Referrals of elementary students who had engaged in aggressive behavior on the playground prompted the implementation of a nonclassroom treatment package as an extension of a schoolwide positive behavior support program. The package consisted of (1) teaching students new playground rules during physical education class and posting the rules in the gym and on the playground, (2) providing reminders of the rules, (3) modifying the playground to facilitate appropriate play, (4) encouraging playground monitors to take a more active supervisory role, and (5) conducting a self-management program for the students who consistently engaged in aggressive behavior. The effects of the program were evaluated by recording three students’ levels of physical and verbal aggression and appropriate play and by asking the playground supervisors to rate the recess behavior of all students during baseline and treatment.

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Medium 9781475824421

Decreasing Out-of-Seat Behavior in a Kindergarten Classroom: Supplementing the Color Wheel With Interdependent Group-Oriented Rewards

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Jaime L. Below
Amy L. Skinner
Christopher H. Skinner
Christy A. Sorrell
Ashley Irwin

ABSTRACT: An AB design was used to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel intervention with an interdependent group-oriented contingency on the outof-seat behavior of students in an intact kindergarten classroom. Data were collected for the class and for Mike, a student who exhibited high levels of out-of-seat behavior. Results show an immediate and dramatic reduction in out-of-seat behavior after the intervention was applied. Discussion focuses on the external validity and pragmatic characteristics of the Color Wheel and the need for additional efficacy studies to establish the causal mechanisms responsible for changes in behavior.

THE PROBLEM

Akindergarten teacher requested consultation services to address three problems. She noted that students were frequently touching one another (e.g., pushing), getting out of their seats during seatwork time (e.g., approaching the teacher with questions, talking to classmates), and gathering around her to ask questions or complain about classmate’s behavior (e.g., tattling). This teacher was particularly concerned with one student’s (“Mike’s”) high levels of out-ofseat behavior.

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Medium 9781475824407

Introduction to the Special Issue, From the Wing Institute Summit

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

T. Steuart Watson

This issue of JEBPS is special in many regards. First, it represents the first time that the journal has published three issues in one year. Second, it reflects the proceedings of the first Wing Institute Summit, in 2006. The Wing Institute is an independent, nonprofit organization whose primary purpose is to promote evidence-based education policies and practices. Given its purpose, it is only fitting that a journal that includes in its title evidence-based practices in schools would be an outlet to publicize the proceedings. Through its website, the Wing Institute has designed an interactive knowledge network; an information clearinghouse; and professional forums for those interested in obtaining information, sharing ideas, collaborating, and promoting evidence-based policies and practices within their educational system. The Wing Institute also disseminates a variety of publications to assist educators with implementing evidence-based practices, and it funds graduate student research on evidence-based education.

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