99 Slices
Medium 9781475824490

IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Michael D. Mong, R. Anthony Doggett, Kristi W. Mong, and Carlen Henington

Once the appropriate instructional passage was identified, the primary author verbally and manually completed each math problem on the probe while the student followed along on a separate but identical math probe. This step was called probe previewing and served to model correct problem completion and fluency for the referred student.

The student then practiced completing each math problem on the math probe in a series of 1-minute trials until a criterion was obtained—namely, 20 digits correct with fewer than 2 errors. This goal was based on guidelines established by Deno and Mirkin (1977). Sessions were conducted until the student reached the established criterion, the student performed ten 1-minute repeated practice trials, or a total of 30 minutes elapsed. The last trial of the session was graphed during the intervention phase.

While the student was completing each problem, the interventionist followed along, marking digits in error and giving immediate corrective feedback for each incorrect digit. Each digit below the line for addition problems was evaluated and scored according to procedures outlined by Shapiro (2004).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475824490

IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES PLAYGROUND STRATEGIES: UNIVERSAL AND TARGETED INTERVENTIONS

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Michelle Marchant, K. Richard Young, Jana Lindberg Adam Fisher, and Brock Solano

The most frequent request for technical assistance by teachers and administrators involves management of student behavior (Algozzine & Kay, 2002; Furlong, Morrison, & Dear, 1994; Sugai & Horner, 1999). Unstructured time, such as inadequately monitored and supervised recess, when the students congregate en masse often leads to problem behaviors (Leff, Power, Costigan, & Manz, 2003; Pepler, Craig, & Roberts, 1998; Walker, Ramsey, & Gresham, 2004; Wolke, Woods, Stanford, & Schulz, 2001). Many school personnel nationwide lack training in methods for approaching behavior proactively and comprehensively, in both classroom and nonclassroom contexts. The purpose of this article is to present strategies that reduce problem behaviors frequently observed on the playground and that assist students in developing appropriate social behavior essential to playground interactions.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475824483

Using a Cell Phone to Prompt a Kindergarten Student to Self-Monitor Off-Task/Disruptive Behavior

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers PDF

Using a Cell Phone to Prompt a Kindergarten Student to

Self-Monitor Off-Task/

Disruptive Behavior

Colin C. Quillivan

Christopher H. Skinner

Meredith L. Hawthorn

Debbie Whited

Donny Ballard

ABSTRACT: A withdrawal design was used to evaluate the effects of a self-monitoring intervention using a cell phone to prompt a kindergarten student to self-record his on- or off-task behavior. The intervention was developed, implemented, and evaluated during a behavioral consultation case that included collaboration among the student, his teacher, and a school psychology doctoral student. Results showed a clear immediate decrease in off-task/disruptive behavior after the intervention was applied and a return to baseline levels after its withdrawal. These findings extend the self-monitoring research by demonstrating a kindergarten student’s ability to discriminate and record his on- and off-task behavior and the use of the ubiquitous cell phone to occasion self-monitoring.

THE PROBLEM

A

lthough educators may teach and assign work, little learning will occur unless students choose to engage by attending to instruction and working on assignments (Skinner, Pappas, & Davis, 2005). Thus, academic engagement is a critical component needed to enhance student

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475824414

Establishing an Evidence Base for a Classroom Management Procedure With a Series of Studies: Evaluating the Color Wheel

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Christopher H. Skinner
Amy L. Skinner

ABSTRACT: The relationships between applied experimental studies and empirical case studies (e.g., single-subject AB designs) are examined within the context of one experiment and four empirical case studies presented in this and the next issue of Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools. With these studies, we demonstrate how applied efficacy studies, even those with strong experimental designs and results, may fail to control for all threats to internal validity in classroom settings. Next, we discuss how a series of empirical case studies (effectiveness studies) can be used to provide additional evidence of effectiveness, enhance the external validity of experiments designed to evaluate interventions, and provide evidence of an intervention’s practical utility. Thus, we demonstrate how a series of applied studies can contribute to the process of establishing an evidence base for classroom interventions.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475824445

Classwide Effects of Positive Peer Reporting on the On-Task Behavior of Children With Emotional Disturbance

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Kristi L. Hofstadter
Kevin M. Jones
William J. Therrien

ABSTRACT: Positive peer reporting (PPR) has emerged as one method for increasing positive outcomes for at-risk students. The current study employed an increasing-intensity design to evaluate the impact of two levels of treatment—namely, targeted PPR and classwide PPR—on the on-task behavior of children with emotional disturbance in a restrictive placement: Targeted PPR consisted of classmates’ directing praise statements to the two children with lowest levels of on-task behavior; class-wide PPR consisted of peer praise statements being exchanged among all children. Results indicated that both strategies were moderately effective, although benchmark levels of task engagement were achieved during classwide PPR only. Implications of these findings toward a better understanding of PPR causal mechanisms are discussed.

THE PROBLEM

Classroom disruptive behavior may have deleterious effects on children’s educational and social outcomes. Disruptive behaviors compose the majority of school discipline referrals to the office (Sterling-Turner, Robinson, & Wilczynski, 2001), and the frequently used solution to the problem of educational disruption has been to remove highly disruptive students from the general education setting (Algozzine & Algozzine, 2007). Thus, students with high rates of distracting and potentially disruptive behavior are grouped in restrictive settings, such as self-contained classrooms for students with emotional disturbance, in which aggregated levels of disruption may considerably detract from time engaged in academic tasks. Furthermore, poor peer relations and the belief that norm-breaking behavior elicits peer acceptance have been shown to increase levels of off-task behavior, exacerbating educational difficulties for students classified with emotional disturbance (Bru, 2006). Positive peer relations, however, have been found to contribute to children’s optimal development (Brownell & Gifford-Smith, 2003).

See All Chapters

See All Slices