557 Slices
Medium 9781475816488

Teacher Teams, Teamwork, and Empowerment: Exploring Associations and the Nexus to Change

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Alan B. Henkin, Sungmin Park, and Carole A. Singleton

Research on team-based schools suggests the importance of teacher empowerment as a factor in the school revitalization and reform equation and as a critical element in redefining schools as collaborative work-places (Rinehart & Short, 1994; Short & Greer, 1997). Teams may serve as venues for collective involvement in the professional work of schools and as places where empowered teachers can develop positive and productive working relationships, devise adaptable configurations capable of directly addressing unique problems, assume collective responsibility and come to collective decisions, and achieve common goals consonant with reform agendas (Dee & Henkin, 2001; Mostert, 1998; Newman, 1993). Related research has asserted the case for improving student learning through collective action and teacher empowerment that enhances individual and collective authority to sensitively respond to the unpredictable needs of students (Darling-Hammond, 1988; Louis, Marks, & Kruse, 1996; Newman, 1993).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475820348

Redesign of EdD and PhD Educational Leadership Programs

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Redesign of EdD and PhD Educational Leadership Programs

Joan L. Buttram

Virginia Doolittle

ABSTRACT: Over the past three decades, numerous calls have been issued from professional associations, government entities, researchers, and university faculty and administrators to strengthen the preparation of U.S. educational leadership programs. Survey responses were compared for educational leadership doctoral programs that have been redesigned versus those that have not. The results suggest that in spite of substantial numbers of EdD and PhD programs reporting redesigns, few changes have been made to align with emerging research or best practice. The only substantive change is in the use of a cohort-based design. Implications for future redesign efforts are discussed.

Numerous authors have chronicled the history of the doctoral degree in education (Perry, 2011, 2012; Powell, 1980; Toma, 2002). The first school administration course was offered at the University of Michigan in 1879 (Murphy, 1992), and the first PhD in education was established in 1893 by James Russell at Teachers College (Perry, 2011). Almost three decades later in 1921, Henry Holmes—dean of the newly established Graduate School of Education at Harvard College—created the first doctorate of education, the EdD, “to train the [school] leaders” (Powell, 1980, p. 144). Powell (1980) reported that the design of the EdD was debated: Should it be a traditional research degree (PhD) or a professional degree (EdD)? Harvard College added research and statistical courses and dissertation requirements to make the new EdD comparable to other doctoral research programs.1 Roughly 10 years later, James Russell’s son, William Russell, also dean of Teachers College, introduced the EdD to offer coursework in educational administration, curriculum and instruction, and guidance because he believed that the PhD did not serve the continued education of teachers (Cremin, 1978, pp. 15–16). Unlike the Harvard College EdD, students’ final projects at Teachers College typically focused on administrative and institutional reform and curriculum development issues. Across the world, graduate programs in educational administration began in 1956 at the University of Alberta in Canada, in the 1960s at the Institute of Education at the University of London, and in 1967 at Victoria University in New Zealand.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475816167

The German School System after Reunification: A Descriptive Overview of Recent Trends

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

MANFRED WEISS*

Education Economist, German Institute for International Educational Research, Schloss-Strasse 29, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main, and Honorary Professor, College of Education, Erfurt

HORST WEISHAUPT

Professor, Educational Researcher, College of Education, Erfurt, P. 0. Box 307, D-99006 Erfurt

Restructuring the East German School System

In October 1990 Germany was legally reunified. Reunification was accomplished through the re-establishment of five federal states (Laender) in the territory of the fonner Gennan Democratic Republic (GDR), which were then incorporated into the Federal Republic of Gennany (FRG). This was the beginning of unprecedented exertions with no end in sight. Up to now one trillion Gennan Marks have been transferred from West to East Gennany. Its economy is, however, still lagging behind. In 1997, East Gennany’s contribution to the total national product was less than 12%, yet according to the size of its population, it should have been one fifth. Average productivity is about 60%, tax revenue per inhabitant just one third of the West German level. The focus of this article is not on these economic problems of reunification. Suffice it to say that the educational system feels their full force in the fonn of a fiscal austerity situation hitherto unknown in Gennany.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475816488

The Cooperative Learning Method in Teacher Training

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Mehmet Taşpınar

The modern education system aims at promoting the life quality of individuals, and it requires a philosophical perception and curriculum development approach in line with this aim. In this context, the basic philosophy is to teach people how to learn, have democratic attitudes, convene for teamwork, be able to use information, and think in a critical way. To achieve this goal, education programs should be developed on the basis of student-centered approaches. These programs require appropriate educational methods and techniques. The cooperative learning method is one of these methods.

In this research, the cooperative learning method was implemented within the teacher education system and compared with the traditional method. The research gives an opportunity for the implementation of the method in teacher training, and it helps teacher candidates to learn how to implement this method.

Instruction methods preferred and implemented by teachers in education processes are of paramount importance in terms of learning quality. The main feature of contemporary instruction methods is that they include student-centered practices.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475816228

Articles

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

DUNCAN WAITE

Professor, EAPS, Southwest Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666

Many in the field of instructional supervision (or whatever you might call it), are questioning supervision’s mission, relevance, and its place in schooling in the new millennium (e.g., Glanz & Behar-Horenstein, 2000). It would not be amiss to say that those in the supervision field are rethinking its identity (Alfonso, 1997; Glanz, 1997; Gordon, 1997; Starratt, 1997). The professional organizations concerned with instructional supervision—The Instructional Supervision Special Interest Group (SIG) of the American Educational Research Association and the Council of Professors of Instructional Supervision (COPIS)—have taken up the challenge of examining the identity of supervision. At its two most recent meetings, the Instructional Supervision SIG invited internationally renowned, prominent scholars to address the group (Hargreaves, 1998; Cochran-Smith, 1999) in an effort to explore developments in related fields for their relevance to supervision. Likewise, members of COPIS have begun discussion of that group’s relation to the field of practice of supervision and how it might stimulate or otherwise facilitate development of a professional organization for practitioners, and its relationship to such an organization, should one come into being. Throughout this time, dialogue and debate among supervision scholars have touched on the role supervision plays in what heretofore had been its major professional organization, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD), affiliation with which was once a defining element in the identity of supervision scholars and practitioners (see Krajewski, 1997). Efforts on the part of the leadership of ASCD to consider a name change for that organization—a reexamination of how well the present name fits the present organization—resulted in not a little anxiety for supervision theorists and scholars. It seems, with the coming of a new millennium, many entities, organizations, and individuals are taking stock and beginning to consider alternative futures.

See All Chapters

See All Slices