557 Chapters
Medium 9781475816365

Brown v. Board of Education: A Beginning Lesson in Social Justice

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Margaret Engl, Steven B. Permuth, and Terri K. Wonder

The state can have no authoritative character . . . in expounding and applying the provisions of the Constitution.

—James Madison

Scholars would suggest that there are times when a clash of societal values and social justice come into a perspective of historic reality when, short of violence, the interceding nature of the judicial branch of America is called on to settle these conflicting issues. A number of these decisions balancing, under law, issues of social values and social justice have altered, clarified, or jolted the American dynamic. This is one of those cases.

In the fall of 1953, the Supreme Court of the United States received the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (347 U.S. 483, 1954) that raised essential questions, including whether separate but “equal” facilities in education can be provided for black students in the United States or whether the consideration of such societal construct violates, among other things, the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Further, the case is asked to address the historic tension as to the degree to which a state can establish a pattern of laws that might be construed to be inconsistent with federal legislation at a point in which both the state and federal governments cannot both have their way. Of import, central to the dialogue in what is arguably perceived as the case of the century, Justice Felix Frankfurter asks NAACP and petitioners Counsel Thurgood Marshall to “define equal.”

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Medium 9781475816587

The Changing Way of Leading

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Sandra Sytsma

ABSTRACT: This conceptual article explores the changing way of leading. It proposes that in contrast to the primarily outer actions that characterize educational change, the inner and outer dimensions of leaders are necessary to change what constitutes leading, thereby making it more appropriate to our times. The unfolding of leading actions and the enfolding making of meaning are seen as being immanent and together productive of a creative field of change for self and others. The article is intended as a provocateur for leaders to reflect on their leading, and it is dedicated to leaders in schools who have lost their way but courageously engaged the inner dimension of meaning making to shape a changing and growth-enhancing way of leading.

Leading has its etymological origins in guiding and enabling a journey (Online Etymology Dictionary, 2007). It was only toward the middle of the 2nd century AD that leading came to be associated with the directive activity of being first and at the front. Now well into the 3rd century, it is time to move beyond this conception to reconsider a meaning of leading for this age of change.

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Medium 9781475816723

U.S. Federal Discrimination Law and Language and Culture Restrictions in K–12 Private Schools

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Ralph Mawdsley Joy Cumming

ABSTRACT: Section 1981 prohibits discrimination concerning the right to contract, and Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of the basis of race and national origin. The two cases that form the basis for the discussion in this article—Silva v. St. Anne Catholic School and Doe v. Kamehameha Schools—address whether culture and language can affect the legality of policies that might otherwise appear to be discriminatory.

This article addresses the extent to which K–12 private schools in the United States violate a federal nondiscrimination statute when they impose language or cultural admissions restrictions. The focus of this article is two recent federal court decisions involving private schools: Silva v. St. Anne Catholic School (henceforth, Silva; 2009) where a private school created an English-only language policy for its students, and Doe v. Kamehameha Schools (henceforth, Kamehameha V; 2010),1 where admission to the private school is limited to only those students who are related by blood as Native Hawaiians. The legal theories at issue are Section 1981 of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which accords all persons the same rights to make contracts, sue, and present evidence as “are enjoyed by white citizens,” and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits restrictions and discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin. This article examines the facts and court opinion of Silva and the facts and court opinions of Kamehameha, followed by a discussion of the implications of the two cases on private schools in the United States.

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Medium 9781475816594

Effects of Teaching With Mosston’s Command, Practice, and Reciprocal Styles on Affective Reactions of Sixth-Grade Students Toward Physical Education Lessons

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Oğuzhan Yoncalik

A. Azmi Yetim

Ömer Şenel

ABSTRACT: This study deals with the effects of teaching based on Mosston and Ashtworth’s reciprocal style on primary school sixth-grade students’ attitudes toward physical education lessons. The study used a pretest–posttest control group design on 37 students from two sixth-grade classes at Demirlibahçe primary school, Ankara, Turkey. The study lasted 14 weeks, for which an attitude scale with three dimensions was developed that measured students’ attitudes toward physical education lessons before and after the experiment. The main findings of the research are as follows: There were meaningful differences between two groups regarding the interest in the lesson and the motivation during the lesson, although in regard to the gain dimension, there was no difference observed between groups. The reciprocal style is nonetheless an effective teaching method, especially for female students with low ability.

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Medium 9781475816112

The Instruction Department

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

John M. Jenkins

6211 NW 93 Terrace

Gainesville, FL 32653

It is almost tautological to speak of the value of personalizing the educational process. Parents and educators would likely champion the importance of treating each student personally. Parents might view personalized learning as an honest attempt to meet the individual needs of their children. Educators, especially teachers, might agree with the idea of personalized learning, but view it as an impractical theory, impossible to achieve given the current practice of assigning twenty-five-thirty-five students to each classroom.

Historically, models of personalized education can be traced to John Dewey’s project learning, Helen Parkhurst’s Dalton Laboratory Plan (1921), the Eight Year Study (1933-1941), the Model Schools Project (1969-1974) of the National Association of Secondary School Principals and Individually-Guided Instruction developed by I/D/E/A/ of the Kettering Foundation. Implicit or explicit in these models was a four-part process that included diagnosis, prescription, implementation, and evaluation (DPIE). J. Lloyd Trump, Director of the NASSP Model Schools Project, described the personalized model as “a progressive effort to help each individual develop the hobby and career interests that lead to an interesting and productive life” (Trump, 1977). Implied in this statement was the belief that careful monitoring of each student’s academic progress was important to his or her present and future success.

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