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4.1. Leadership

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Chapter

4.1.

4

LEADERSHIP

LEADERSHIP

Leadership is a term that conjures up different images in different people. While to some it means charisma, to others, it means power and authority.

4.1.1. Definition

“Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives”.

—George K. Terry

“Leader as the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals”.

“Leadership is the quality of behaviour of individuals whereby they guide people or their activities in organizing efforts”.

—Koontz et. al.

After going through the above definitions of leadership, it can safely be defined as a process of influencing group activities towards the achievement of certain goals.

The person who guides or influences the behaviour of others called ‘leader’ and people guided or influenced are called the ‘followers’.

4.1.2. Characteristics of leadership

1. Leadership is a continuous process of influencing other’s behaviour.

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5.2. Definition

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Chapter

5.1.

5

CONTR

OLLING

ONTROLLING

INTRODUCTION

The managerial function of controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and the plans desired to attain them are accomplished.

Planning and controlling are closely related. In fact, some writers on management think that these functions cannot be separated. Planning and controlling may be viewed as the blades of a pair of scissors; the scissors cannot work unless there are two blades. Without objectives and planes, control is not possible, because performance has to be compared against some established criteria.

Controlling is the function of every manager from the president to supervisor. Some managers particularly at lower levels forget that the primary responsibility for the exercise of control rests in every manager charged with the execution of plans. Occasionally, because of the authority of upper level managers and their resultant responsibility, top and upper level control is so emphasized that people assume that little controlling is needed at lower levels. Although the scope of control varies among managers, those at all levels have responsibility for the execution of plans and control is therefore an essential managerial function at every level.

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2.3. Nature of Planning (Characteristics/Features of Planning)

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PLANNING

29

2.3. NATURE OF PL ANNING (CHARACTERISTICS/FEATURES OF

PLANNING)

1. Planning is goal-oriented. Planning involves setting the objectives of an organization for achieving the business targets well in time. Objectives can easily be achieved by a sound planning process.

2. Planning is a primacy. Planning precedes other functions in the management process. It is the primary requisite before other managerial functions step in. The other managerial functions, viz., organizing, staffing, directing & controlling can be performed only after the necessary planning has been done. So it gets primary everywhere.

3. Planning is all-pervasive. Planning is a pervasive activity covering the entire enterprise with all its segments and every levels of management. It is equally important for large and small firms.

4. Planning is an intellectual/rational process. Planning is a mental exercise involving imagination, foresight and sound judgement. It is not guesswork or wishful thinking. Managers take the necessary steps to fight against future events. So it is a process of looking ahead.

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2.5. Steps in Planning/Planning Process

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PRINCIPLES

OF

MANAGEMENT

helps the manager to cope with and prepare for the changing environment. Planning does not deal with future decisions, but with the futurity of present decisions. The manager has a feeling of being in control if he has anticipated some of the possible changes and has planned for them. It is like going out with an umbrella in cloudy weather. It is through planning that the manager relates the uncertainties and possibilities of tomorrow to the facts of today and yesterday.

(b) Leads to Success. Planning does not guarantee success, but studies have shown that, often things being equal, companies which plan not only outperform the non planners but also outperform their own past results. This may be because when a businessman’s actions are not random or ad hoc, arising as mere reaction to the market place, i.e., when his actions are planned, be definitely does better. Military historians attribute much of the success of the world’s greatest generals to effective battle plans.

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1.12. Management as a Science or an Art

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PRINCIPLES

OF

MANAGEMENT

1.11. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

Sl.No

Point of Distinction

Administration

Management

1

Definition

Administration means overall determination of policies, settings of major objectives, the laying out of broad programmes, major projects and so forth.(ie., Administration means determination of goals, formulation of plans and policies of the organization.)

Management means essentially an executive function, the active direction of human efforts getting things done.(i.e., Management is considered as an operative function of carrying out plans and policies for achieving objectives.)

2

Nature

Deterministic or thinking function

Executive or doing function

3

Scope

It is concerned with the determination of major objectives and policies

It is concerned with implementation of policies

4

Level

It is mainly a top-level function

It is largely a middle and lowerlevel function

5

Influence

Administrative decisions are influenced mainly by public opinion and other outside forces.

Managerial decisions are influenced mainly by objectives and policies of the organization

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