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LAX1-1

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Chapter

OVERVIEW

In This Chapter

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.10

1.11

1.12

1.1

Introduction and Definition

Historical Perspectives

Scope and Importance of Biotechnology

Commercial Potential

An Interdisciplinary Challenge

A Quantitative Approach

Classical vs Modern Concepts

Quality Control in Manufacturing

Product Safety

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)

Good Laboratory Practices (GLP)

Marketing

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION

T

he term ‘biotechnology’ was used before the twentieth century for traditional activities such as making dairy products such as cheese and curd, as well as bread, wine, beer, etc. But none of these could be considered biotechnology in the modern sense. Genetic alteration of organisms through selective breeding, plant cloning by grafting, etc. do not fall under biotechnology.

The process of fermentation for the preparation and manufacturing of products such as alcohol, beer, wine, dairy products, various types of organic acids such as vinegar, citric acid, amino acids, and vitamins can be called classical biotechnology or traditional biotechnology. Fermentation is the process by which living organisms such as yeast or bacteria are employed to produce useful compounds or products.

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LAX7-2

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$

PRINCIPLES

OF

BIOTECHNOLOGY

AND

GENETIC ENGINEERING

The cells with the same function and structure are arranged together to form tissues. Each tissue carries out a specific function for which the cells are specialized. Different types of tissues are organized together and form specific structures called organs, which cooperate with other similar organs to carry out specific functions of the body. In animals, different organs cooperate to form a system which carries out a specific function of the body. For example, the circulatory system, digestive system, nervous system, excretory system, etc.

Animal Tissues

In animals, there are four basic types of tissues: epithelial or linings, connective or supporting, muscular, and nervous. An organ of the body may have all the four types of tissues. For example, the stomach, an organ of the digestive system has all the four types of tissues. (See Appendix)

Epithelial Tissue

The cells are arranged in single or multilayered sheets. They basically form the covering on the external and internal surfaces of the organs and body parts. Epithelial cells are not supplied with blood vessels. They protect the internal tissues from physical injury and infection. The free surface of the epithelial tissue may be of different types depending on its special function such as secretory, absorption, or excretory functions. Epithelial cells are basically classified according to their shapes.

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LAX4-1

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Part

BIOMOLECULES

B

iomolecules are those compounds synthesized by living organisms. These groups of compounds have different sizes, shapes, chemical and physical properties, and biological functions. These biomolecules include different classes of compounds, which are broadly divided into two categories, depending on size and nature. Those molecules, which are polymers and bigger in size, are known as macromolecules and other molecules, which are simple and small in size, are biomolecules. There are four types of macromolecules in biological systems; namely, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Out of these four types three are polymers composed of monomers, or building blocks. Lipids are not polymers.

This part is divided into three chapters. In the first chapter we study the small molecules including the building blocks of macromolecules. This includes monosaccharides or sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, coenzymes, and fatty acids. Some of these molecules form the building blocks of macromolecules. For example, amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. In biological systems, all these molecules, both macro and micro, are in a state of flux or in a dynamic state. That is, they are always subjected to chemical transformations in order to maintain the state of life.

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LAX11-1

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Chapter

11

GENOME FUNCTION

In This Chapter

11.1 Genome Organization

11.2 Genome-sequencing Projects

11.3 DNA Replication

11.1 GENOME ORGANIZATION

T

he complete genetic or DNA complement of an organism is called the genome. It includes the genetic material of the nucleus and cytoplasm. All organisms have a genome made up of

DNA, containing genes. Genomes may vary in their size, number of genes, number of chromosomes, and how genes are organized within chromosome(s), and the DNA may be circular or linear. Generally, genome size increases with the complexity of the organism. There is considerable variation in the size of the genome among organisms. As the size of the genome increases the number of genes also increases correspondingly. But there are exceptions. Among the various groups of organisms, viral genomes are usually relatively small and come in sizes ranging from 5 kb (SV40) to about 250 kb (vaccinia-virus and cytomegalovirus). (1 kb = 1,000 base pairs). Bacterial genomes, on the other hand, range from 600 kb (mycoplasm) to more than 7,000 kb (streptomycetes), but smaller than eukaryotic genomes. Genome size and organization vary greatly even among eukaryotic organisms.

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LAX17-1

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Chapter

17

BIOINFORMATICS

In This Chapter

17.1 History of Bioinformatics

17.2 Sequence and Nomenclature

17.3 Information Sources

17.4 Analysis using Bioinformatics Tools

17.1 HISTORY OF BIOINFORMATICS

B

ioinformatics can be described as the science of collecting, modeling, storing, searching, annotating, and analyzing biological information. It involves a range of activities from data handling and publication to data mining and analysis. Bioinformatics is the field of science in which biology, computer science, and information technology merge to form a single discipline.

An essential part of bioinformatics is the creation of new algorithms for the analysis of complex and/or large data sets. Bioinformatics deals with the issues created by the massive amounts of new types of data obtained through novel biological experiments. The most well-known example is, of course, the determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the human genome, and other organisms. Actually, computational biology began as a part of bioinformatics to solve the problems

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