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In This Chapter









Public Perception of Biotechnology

Patenting (Intellectual Property Rights�IPR)


International Patent Laws

Patenting in Biotechnology

Varietal Protection

Ethical Issues in Biotechnology�Agriculture and Health Care


Science and Society


ur perceptions or attitudes toward things are not always rational and are often culturally influenced. They are a combination of thoughts or the cognitive dimension, feelings, or the affective dimension, and the way we react—the behavioral dimension. The cognitive dimension consists of things we know, the affective dimension comprises of things we feel, and the behavioral dimension is how we will act on the attitudes we build. Attitudes help us to become socially acceptable; belonging to a group is very important, and it gives meaning to things we experience.

Advancements in science and technology have made our life very simple and fast. At the same time some of this advancement has caused great concern regarding the long-term impacts on environment and life. In 1985, the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), also known as Brundtland Commission appointed by United Nations (UN), recommended sustainable development preserving the environment without any degradation. The Commission defined sustainable development as ‘the development that meets the needs of the present without

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α D-Galactosidase 10

α-helix 165

Abiotic Stress 586

Absorption Spectra 202

Acquisition or Isolation 558

Active Defense 274

Adapter Molecules 368

Additive Gene Interaction 311

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) 120

Affinity Chromatography 441

Agitator 15

Agriculture and Forest Biotechnology 636

Agrobacterium 580

Airlift Fermentors 62

Alkaline Phosphatase 477

Allopatric Speciation 234

Amino Acid 157

Amoeboid Movement 251

Ampicillin 329

Amylases 10

Amylopectin 97, 152

Amylose 97, 152

Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) 248

Anchor-dependent Culture 610

Androecium 265

Aneuploids 331

Anilionothiazolinone (ATZ) 159

Animal and Plant Vectors (Shuttle Vectors) 486

Animal Development 270

Animal Tissues 226

Anion-exchange Chromatography 193

Anther and Microspore Culture 569

Anti-foams 547

Antifoam Monitor 16

Antisense Strand 363

Apoptosis 273

Arrhenius Theory 28

Asexual Reproduction 266, 267

Aspergillus Niger 10

Attenuation 379

Autonomously Replicating Sequences (ARS) 485

Autopolyploids 330

Autosomal Dominant Inheritance 405

Autosomal Recessive Pedigree 405

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create a new piece of DNA (recombinant DNA) that could be inserted into host bacterium such as e. coli. We have also observed that yeasts can be made to produce vaccines such as hepatitis B, plants having special properties such as resistance to certain diseases, pests, and herbicides and plants with superior nutritive qualities can be generated very efficiently. These excellent goals of genetic engineering were achieved because of the advent of recombinant DNA technology.

Recombinant DNA technology is one of the few techniques that made conventional biotechnology into “Modern Biotechnology.” Paul Berg, Herbert Boyer, Annie Change, and Stanley Cohen are the team of scientists that made the first recombinant DNA molecule in 1973.

Simply defined, it is the art of cutting and pasting genes. There are, however, many new applications of this technology invented each year, and it is impossible for any textbook to be completely up to date. This technique encompasses a number of methodologies or tools that enable us to construct new combinations of DNA (recombinant DNA or rDNA) in the laboratory for different purposes. The rDNA molecule thus constructed can be introduced into an appropriate host cell, where it can be multiplied and generate many copies. This forms the basic concept of the process known as gene cloning or DNA cloning. In this chapter we will examine the basic tools, methodologies, and applications of recombinant DNA techniques in various fields of biological research.

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Proteins and Enzymes Used in Analytical Applications

In addition to the use of antibodies and enzymes as therapeutic agents, they are also used in the diagnosis of diseases as the components of some confirmatory tests of certain diagnostic procedures.

Hexokinase and glucose oxidase are used in the quantification of glucose in the serum and urine.

Glucose-oxidase is used in glucose electrodes. Uricase is used for the estimation of uric acid present in urine. Alkaline phosphatase, horseradish peroxidase, and antibodies are used in ELISA (Enzyme

Linked Immunosorbent Assay).

Industrial Enzymes and Proteins

Among commercially useful proteins, industrial enzymes have the first place. Industrially useful enzymes include carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes such as amylases, cellulase, invertases, etc., proteolytic enzymes such as papain, trypsin, chymotrypsin, etc., and other bacterial and fungalderived proteolytic enzymes and lipases that can hydrolyze various types of lipids and fats. All these enzymes are important in the food and beverage industries, the textile industry, paper industry, and detergent industry. Proteases have a special use in the beverage industry, meat and leather industries, cheese production, detergent industry, bread and confectionary industry, etc. Various types of lipases are used for the modifications of various types of lipids and fats, production of various organic acids including fatty acids, in detergents, production of coco butter, etc. In addition to all these, enzymes are used in chemical industries as reagents in organic synthesis for carrying out stereospecific reactions.

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Genomic Library

A genomic library is a collection of cloned, restriction-enzyme-digested DNA fragments containing at least one copy of every DNA sequence in a genome. The entire genome of an organism is represented as a set of DNA fragments inserted into a vector molecule. These can be propagated or cloned in a suitable organism.

There are three ways to make a genomic library. The genomic DNA of the organism is extracted and is cut into fragments of suitable sizes by any of the following three methods. The genomic DNA is digested completely by a restriction enzyme that converts it into fragments of suitable sizes. The restriction enzyme cuts at all relevant restriction sites and produces a large number of short fragments with sticky ends. The disadvantage of this is that genes containing restriction sites within the reading frame may be cut into two or more fragments and may be cloned separately.

The genomic DNA can be fragmented un-enzymatically by means of mechanical shearing such as sonication, which produces longer DNA fragments. The disadvantage in this case is that the ends of the fragments produced are not uniform and need enzymatic modification for insertion into a cloning vector.

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