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5

PROTEIN AND GENE

MANIPULATIONS

T

his part is all about proteins, genetic engineering, genomics and bioinformatics, and accordingly this part is divided into four chapters. The first chapter gives more information about proteins, their structure-function relationships, and the role of proteins in the biological systems and their commercial applications. It discusses the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins, the molecular forces involved in the structural stabilization of the protein molecules and their involvement in the functional properties of proteins. The altered-protein structure and its relationship with certain diseased states is also described. The commercial application of proteins in different areas such as medical and pharmaceutical, food and agriculture, and other industries, its commercial extraction and purification, etc., is also discussed. The last part of this chapter deals with the proteomics, an upcoming and very promising field, its applications, and various techniques involved in its studies and applications.

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PRINCIPLES

OF

BIOTECHNOLOGY

AND

GENETIC ENGINEERING

supports the natural process of cells by trying to maintain their environment to provide optimum growth conditions by providing appropriate temperature, pH, substrates, salts, vitamins, and oxygen. In most of the bioreaction processes the substrate of the biotransformation and the carbon source of the organisms will be the same. Table 2.6 gives some of the carbohydrates commonly used in the various fermentation processes as the carbon source and substrate for the reaction.

Bioreactors can be classified according to the type of biocatalysts and the type of bioreaction. The first classification is based on the type of biological agent used:

• microbial fermentors or

• enzyme (cell-free) reactors.

Further classification is possible based on biochemical reactions and process requirements.

Downstream processing: The recovery and purification of the required product from the growth medium through a set of separation and purification techniques is called downstream processing. Each stage in the overall separation procedure is strongly dependent on the history and quality of the biological production process.

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CONTENTS

2.16

2.17

2.18

2.19

2.20

2.21

2.22

2.23

2.24

2.25

2.26

Chapter 3

Goodness of FIT (Chi-Square Distribution)

Use of Graph Paper with Logarithmic Coordinates

Process Flow Diagram

Material and Energy Balances

Fluid Flow and Mixing

Mass Transfer

Heat Transfer

Bioreactor Designing

Unit Operations

Homogeneous Reactions

Reactor Engineering

Review Questions

54

54

55

58

60

60

61

61

62

63

67

69

Biotechnology and Society

70

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

70

73

73

76

77

79

79

81

Public Perception of Biotechnology

Patenting (Intellectual Property Rights—IPR)

Patents

International Patent Laws

Patenting in Biotechnology

Varietal Protection

Ethical Issues in Biotechnology—Agriculture and Health Care

Review Questions

Part 2

BIOMOLECULES

83

Chapter 4

Building Blocks of Biomolecules—Structure and Dynamics

85

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

4.10

4.11

4.12

4.13

Introduction

Functional Groups of Biomolecules

Building Blocks of Carbohydrates

Building Blocks of Proteins

Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids: Nucleotides

Building Blocks of Lipids: Fatty Acids, Glycerol

Optical Activity and Stereochemistry of Biomolecules

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BIOTECHNOLOGY

AND SOCIETY

In This Chapter

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.1

Public Perception of Biotechnology

Patenting (Intellectual Property Rights�IPR)

Patents

International Patent Laws

Patenting in Biotechnology

Varietal Protection

Ethical Issues in Biotechnology�Agriculture and Health Care

PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Science and Society

O

ur perceptions or attitudes toward things are not always rational and are often culturally influenced. They are a combination of thoughts or the cognitive dimension, feelings, or the affective dimension, and the way we react—the behavioral dimension. The cognitive dimension consists of things we know, the affective dimension comprises of things we feel, and the behavioral dimension is how we will act on the attitudes we build. Attitudes help us to become socially acceptable; belonging to a group is very important, and it gives meaning to things we experience.

Advancements in science and technology have made our life very simple and fast. At the same time some of this advancement has caused great concern regarding the long-term impacts on environment and life. In 1985, the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), also known as Brundtland Commission appointed by United Nations (UN), recommended sustainable development preserving the environment without any degradation. The Commission defined sustainable development as ‘the development that meets the needs of the present without

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PRINCIPLES

OF

BIOTECHNOLOGY

AND

GENETIC ENGINEERING

UV-Visible Spectrophotometry

The technique of spectrophotometry is generally used for the qualitative and quantitative estimation of biomolecules such as proteins, sugars, carbohydrates, amino acids, nucleic acids, vitamins, etc.

This technique is also based on the Beer-Lambert law and the instrument is known as a spectrophotometer.

A spectrophotometer is employed to measure the amount of light that a sample absorbs.

The instrument operates by passing a beam of light through a sample and measuring the intensity of light reaching a detector. The UV-visible spectrophotometer is used to measure the absorbance in the UV and visible regions of the spectrum. This instrument is an advanced form of colorimeter in which it can provide a monochromatic light. A prism or a grating will split the light into its component colors and can direct the monochromatic light of our choice to the sample solution to be analyzed.

The beam of light consists of a stream of photons. When a photon encounters an analyte molecule (the analyte is the molecule being studied), there is a chance the analyte will absorb the photon. This absorption reduces the number of photons in the beam of light, thereby reducing the intensity of the light beam.

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