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8: Soybean Mosaic

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

8

Soybean Mosaic

Masarapu Hema,1 Basavaprabhu L. Patil,2

V. Celia Chalam3 and P. Lava Kumar4*

Department of Virology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India;

National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, IARI

(ICAR-NRCPB), Pusa Campus, New Delhi, India; 3National Bureau of

Plant Genetic Resources (ICAR-NBPGR), Pusa, New Delhi, India;

4

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria

1

2

8.1  Introduction

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important annual grain legume widely cultivated between 55°N and 55°S of the equator during warm moist periods for food, cooking oil, animal feed, biofuel and several other culinary and industrial uses (Graham and Vance,

2003; Pimentel and Patzek, 2008). Soybean seed contains more than 40% protein enriched with essential amino acids, about 20% oil, lecithin and vitamins A and D (Sakai and

Kogiso, 2008). The crop was first domesticated in China around the 11th century bc.

However, its cultivation outside the Asian continent was not recorded until the 18th century ad; first in Europe, followed by the

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5: Cassava Mosaic

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5

Cassava Mosaic

Olufemi J. Alabi,1* Rabson M. Mulenga2 and James P. Legg3

Department of Plant Pathology & Microbiology, Texas A&M

AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Weslaco,

Texas, USA; 2Zambia Agriculture Research Institute,

Mount Makulu Central Research Station, Lusaka, Zambia;

3

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture,

Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

1

5.1  General Introduction

The global cassava development strategy launched by the Food and Agriculture

Organization of the United Nations in Rome in 2000 concluded that:

. . . cassava could become the raw material base for an array of processed products that will effectively increase demand for the crop and contribute to agricultural transformation and economic growth in developing countries (http://www.fao.org/ ag/agp/agpc/gcds/).

Although cassava is currently consumed by over 800 million people in Africa and is the third most important source of calories in the tropics, the vision of the Food and Agriculture

Organization would nevertheless represent a major increase in the global significance of a crop that is still largely cultivated by resource-poor farmers utilizing traditional farming tools and practices. A native to South

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9: Yam Mosaic

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9

Yam Mosaic

Angela O. Eni*

Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria

9.1 Introduction

Yam mosaic virus (YMV), genus Potyvirus, infects and causes mild to severe leaf symptoms both in domesticated edible yam species and their wild relatives (Thouvenel and Fauquet, 1979; Goudou-Urbino et al., 1996a) in all locations where yams are grown (Africa, the

Caribbean, Latin America and the South Pacific)

(Goudou-Urbino et al., 1996b; Hughes et al.,

1997; Eni et al., 2008, 2010; Odedara et al.,

2011). Several other potyviruses described in various yam-growing countries in the 1970s and

1980s including Dioscorea green-banding mosaic virus reported in Togo (Reckhaus and

Nienhaus, 1981), yam virus in Nigeria (Terry,

1976), and Dioscorea trifida virus reported in the Caribbean and in South America (Migliori and Cadilhac, 1976), are synonymous with YMV and were all found to be related to YMV both serologically and in host range (Porth et al.,

1987; Goudou-Urbino et al., 1996a). Japanese yam mosaic virus (JYMV), another Potyvirus isolated from D. japonica in Japan in 1974 was reported as a strain of YMV (Okuyama and Saka,

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7: Potato Mosaic and Tuber Necrosis

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7

Potato Mosaic and Tuber Necrosis

 Mohamad Chikh-Ali and Alexander V. Karasev*

 Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences,

 University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA

7.1  Introduction: The Aetiologic

Agent, Disease Symptoms,

Distribution and Economic

Importance

Potato virus Y (PVY), the aetiological agent of potato mosaic or potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD), is the most economically important and devastating virus infecting potato crops worldwide (Singh et al., 2008;

Gray et al., 2010; Karasev and Gray, 2013b).

PVY is the type species of the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae, the second largest family of plant viruses after Geminiviridae.

The virus has a single-stranded positive-­sense

RNA genome of about 9.7 kb with a covalently linked VPg protein at the 5′ terminus and a poly-A tail at the 3′ terminus (Adams et al.,

2012). The genome RNA of PVY has two non-­ translated regions, 5′ and 3′, flanking a single open reading frame that encodes for a large polyprotein. Upon translation, the polyprotein is co- and/or post-translationally cleaved by three viral-specific proteases, P1, HC-Pro and

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11: Papaya Ringspot

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

11

Papaya Ringspot

Gustavo Fermin,1* Melaine Randle2 and Paula Tennant2,3

Instituto Jardín Botánico de Mérida, Faculty of Sciences,

Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela; 2Biotechnology

Centre, The University of the West Indies, Mona Campus,

Jamaica; 3Department of Life Sciences, The University of the

West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica

1

11.1  Introduction: Disease and

Symptoms

Papaya ringspot disease caused by Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is perhaps the most serious disease of papaya (Tennant et al.,

2007; Tripathi et al., 2008), a crop that is well adapted to intensive commercial orchards and backyard stands in tropical and subtropical regions (Purcifull et al., 1984). High prevalence of the disease has been noted in the

Caribbean islands, the USA (Florida, Texas and Hawaii), South America, the Philippines,

Taiwan, Thailand and the southern region of China (Gonsalves, 1998) as far back as the

1930s (Fermin et al., 2010). The aetiological agent exists as two serologically indistinguishable biotypes (Purcifull et al., 1984;

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