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10: Sugarcane Mosaic

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

10

Sugarcane Mosaic

Laura Silva-Rosales,1* Ricardo I. Alcalá-Briseño2 and Fulgencio Espejel1

Plant-Virus Interaction Laboratory, Department of Genetic

Engineering at Cinvestav-Unidad Irapuato, Guanajuato,

Mexico; 2Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida,

Gainesville, Florida, USA

1

Monocot species, in particular grasses, are cultivated over large areas worldwide for human and animal consumption and lately for biomass energy production. However, viruses like

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), alone or in conjunction with other viruses or microorganisms, have emerged in some regions as devastating problems for their cultivation. Here we present the taxonomy, distribution, diversity and economic importance of this virus that infects maize and sugarcane as well as provide some insights into its evolution. Efforts to obtain resistance through classical breeding and transgenic approaches are also described.

10.1  Structure, Taxonomy and Diversity

SCMV, a member of the genus Potyvirus in the

Potyviridae family of plant viruses, belongs to the replication group IV. As such, its genome consists of a single-stranded (+) RNA molecule. Its length of 9.6 kb is encapsidated by approximately 2,000 monomers of the coat protein (CP) forming flexuous filaments of about 750 nm in length (Riechmann et al.,

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8: Soybean Mosaic

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

8

Soybean Mosaic

Masarapu Hema,1 Basavaprabhu L. Patil,2

V. Celia Chalam3 and P. Lava Kumar4*

Department of Virology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India;

National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, IARI

(ICAR-NRCPB), Pusa Campus, New Delhi, India; 3National Bureau of

Plant Genetic Resources (ICAR-NBPGR), Pusa, New Delhi, India;

4

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria

1

2

8.1  Introduction

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important annual grain legume widely cultivated between 55°N and 55°S of the equator during warm moist periods for food, cooking oil, animal feed, biofuel and several other culinary and industrial uses (Graham and Vance,

2003; Pimentel and Patzek, 2008). Soybean seed contains more than 40% protein enriched with essential amino acids, about 20% oil, lecithin and vitamins A and D (Sakai and

Kogiso, 2008). The crop was first domesticated in China around the 11th century bc.

However, its cultivation outside the Asian continent was not recorded until the 18th century ad; first in Europe, followed by the

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13: Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl

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13

Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl

Cindy-Leigh Hamilton,1 Sudeshna MazumdarLeighton,2 Icolyn Amarakoon3 and Marcia Roye1*

Biotechnology Centre, The University of the West Indies,

Mona Campus, Jamaica; 2Department of Botany, Delhi

University, Delhi, India; 3Department of Basic Medical

Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona

Campus, Jamaica

1

13.1  Introduction

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a geminivirus of the genus Begomovirus and the family Geminiviridae, has impacted

­tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivation world­ wide in tropical and subtropical regions for many years (Picó et al., 1996). The virus was first reported in the Jordan Valley,

Israel, in the 1940s. Years later, it was isolated

(Czosnek et al., 1988) and sequenced (Navot et al., 1991), and was among the first begomoviruses shown to consist of a single genomic

DNA molecule. TYLCV also infects several other economically important crop plants including pepper (Capsicum spp.), bean (Pha­ seolus vulgaris) and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), as well as numerous weed species (Roye et al.,

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17: Mealybug Wilt Disease

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17

Mealybug Wilt Disease

Cherie Gambley1* and John Thomas2

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Stanthorpe,

Queensland, Australia; 2Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, Brisbane,

Queensland, Australia

1

17.1  Introduction

Mealybug wilt disease (MWD) is a serious field disease of pineapples worldwide that was first described in Hawaii in 1910 (German et al.,

1992). Depending on the age of the plant at the onset of the disease, reductions in fruit yields range from 30% to 55% in Hawaii (Sether and

Hu, 2002a). The disease is often referred to as isolated wilt as it typically occurs in secluded patches within the crop or along the edges

(Sether et al., 2010) as shown in Fig. 17.1.

MWD is thought to be caused by a complex involving viruses, mealybugs and ants. The viruses are transmitted by mealybugs, which in turn are tended by ants. Although a number of distinct viruses have been associated with the disease, the identity of the causal agent(s) has not been determined unequivocally.

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9: Yam Mosaic

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9

Yam Mosaic

Angela O. Eni*

Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria

9.1 Introduction

Yam mosaic virus (YMV), genus Potyvirus, infects and causes mild to severe leaf symptoms both in domesticated edible yam species and their wild relatives (Thouvenel and Fauquet, 1979; Goudou-Urbino et al., 1996a) in all locations where yams are grown (Africa, the

Caribbean, Latin America and the South Pacific)

(Goudou-Urbino et al., 1996b; Hughes et al.,

1997; Eni et al., 2008, 2010; Odedara et al.,

2011). Several other potyviruses described in various yam-growing countries in the 1970s and

1980s including Dioscorea green-banding mosaic virus reported in Togo (Reckhaus and

Nienhaus, 1981), yam virus in Nigeria (Terry,

1976), and Dioscorea trifida virus reported in the Caribbean and in South America (Migliori and Cadilhac, 1976), are synonymous with YMV and were all found to be related to YMV both serologically and in host range (Porth et al.,

1987; Goudou-Urbino et al., 1996a). Japanese yam mosaic virus (JYMV), another Potyvirus isolated from D. japonica in Japan in 1974 was reported as a strain of YMV (Okuyama and Saka,

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