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1: Viruses Affecting Tropical and Subtropical Crops: Biology, Diversity, Management

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

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Viruses Affecting Tropical and

Subtropical Crops: Biology,

Diversity, Management

Gustavo Fermin,1* Jeanmarie Verchot,2 Abdolbaset

Azizi3 and Paula Tennant4

Instituto Jardín Botánico de Mérida, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela; 2Department of Entomology and

Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma,

USA; 3Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat

Modares University, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Life Sciences,

The University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica

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1.1  Introduction

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities throughout marine and terrestrial ecosystems. They interact with all life forms, including archaea, bacteria and eukaryotic organisms and are present in natural or agricultural ecosystems, essentially wherever life forms can be found (Roossinck, 2010). The concept of a virus challenges the way we define life, especially since the recent discoveries of viruses that possess ribosomal genes.

These discoveries include the surprisingly large viruses of the Mimiviridae (Claverie and

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2: Banana Bunchy Top

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

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Banana Bunchy Top

Niyongere Célestin,1* Aman Bonaventure

Omondi2 and Guy Blomme3

ISABU, Bujumbura, Burundi; 2BIOVERSITY International,

Bujumbura, Burundi; 3BIOVERSITY International,

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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2.2  Importance of Banana as the

Main Host Plant of Banana Bunchy

Top Disease

2.1  Introduction

Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) is caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), which is transmitted by the aphid vector Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel and through infected planting materials. It is one of the most economically important diseases in many banana-producing areas of Africa, Asia and the South Pacific (­ Furuya et al., 2005; Hooks et al., 2009). Between 1913 and 1920, the banana-growing industry in Australia was almost completely destroyed by the disease

(Magee, 1927; Hooks et al., 2009). In the

1990s, the first severe outbreak of BBTD in Africa was estimated to have reduced banana production in the Nkhatabay and Nkhotakota districts of Malawi from 3500 ha to about 800 ha (Soko et al., 2009; Kumar et al., 2011). In the Great Lakes countries of Africa, about 90% yield loss has been reported in severely BBTD-infected banana plantations in the Rusizi valley in Burundi

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16: Sweet Potato Virus Disease

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

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Sweet Potato Virus Disease

Augustine Gubba* and Benice J. Sivparsad

Department of Plant Pathology, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal,

Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

16.1  Introduction

Sweet potato is ranked as the seventh most important food crop in the world (Woolfe,

1992; FAOSTAT, 2012). Among the major starch staples, it has the largest rates of biomass and nutrient production per unit area per unit time (Woolfe, 1992). Because of its good performance under adverse farming conditions and high carbohydrate and vitamin content, sweet potato has been identified as an ideal starch staple in subsistence economies (Mukasa et al., 2003; Wambugu, 2003;

Naylor et al., 2004; Loebenstein et al., 2009).

Virus infection is the main limiting factor in sweet potato production worldwide

(Allemann et al., 2004). Moreover, viral diseases rank second after sweet potato weevils as restraining biotic factors and can cause considerable yield reduction of up to

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8: Soybean Mosaic

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

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Soybean Mosaic

Masarapu Hema,1 Basavaprabhu L. Patil,2

V. Celia Chalam3 and P. Lava Kumar4*

Department of Virology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India;

National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, IARI

(ICAR-NRCPB), Pusa Campus, New Delhi, India; 3National Bureau of

Plant Genetic Resources (ICAR-NBPGR), Pusa, New Delhi, India;

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International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria

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8.1  Introduction

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important annual grain legume widely cultivated between 55°N and 55°S of the equator during warm moist periods for food, cooking oil, animal feed, biofuel and several other culinary and industrial uses (Graham and Vance,

2003; Pimentel and Patzek, 2008). Soybean seed contains more than 40% protein enriched with essential amino acids, about 20% oil, lecithin and vitamins A and D (Sakai and

Kogiso, 2008). The crop was first domesticated in China around the 11th century bc.

However, its cultivation outside the Asian continent was not recorded until the 18th century ad; first in Europe, followed by the

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6: Cucumber Mosaic

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

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Cucumber Mosaic

Masarapu Hema,1 Pothur Sreenivasulu2 and P. Lava Kumar3*

Department of Virology, Sri Venkateswara University,

Tirupati, India; 2Formerly Department of Virology,

Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India; 3International

Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria

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6.1  Introduction

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes significant economic losses in several agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide (Jacquemond, 2012). The virus was first reported as the causal agent of diseases inflicting cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and muskmelon

(Cucumis melo) in Michigan and cucumber in New York in 1916 (Palukaitis et al., 1992).

It has since been listed as a virus of greatest economic importance in cucurbits (Cucurbita spp.), pepper (Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), celery (Apium graveolens), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and banana

(Musa spp.). Forage legumes and ornamentals are also affected by CMV (Gallitelli, 2000,

2002). Economic losses in crops are highest in field-grown vegetables and ornamentals, and pasture legumes (García-Arenal and Palukaitis, 2008; Jacquemond, 2012; Makkouk et al., 2012; Moury and Verdin, 2012; Lecoq and Desbiez, 2012).

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