24 Chapters
Medium 9781780644325

24 Summary

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

24

Summary

P.K. Malik,* R. Bhatta, M. Saravanan and L.

Baruah

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,

India

Abstract

This chapter summarizes the full content of this book where contributors have addressed various aspects of livestock production visà-vis climate change. Improving livestock production and productivity is the need of the hour to accomplish the ever increasing demand of the populace. Climate change appears to be a major constraint in this endeavour as it severely affects livestock directly or indirectly. Further, livestock itself is accountable for the climatic variations and negative environmental complications of climate change by dispensing large quantities of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

The implications of climate change on livestock, the involvement of livestock in climate change, mitigation approaches and adaptation strategies for minimizing the adverse impact and reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions debated in the various chapters of this book are summarized here.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644325

6 Metagenomic Approaches in Harnessing Gut Microbial Diversity

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

6

Metagenomic Approaches in

Harnessing Gut Microbial Diversity

A. Thulasi,* Lyju Jose, M. Chandrasekharaiah, D.

Rajendran and C.S. Prasad

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,

India

Abstract

6.1 Introduction

The mechanisms involved in the digestive process of the rumen are complex, and are accomplished by a diverse and dynamic group of microbes. Microbial diversity in the rumen has been predicted to enhance the resistance of the network of metabolic pathways by increasing the number of genes encoding the pathway, enabling the ecosystem to stabilize more rapidly after change to a new equilibrium. The more resistant metabolic pathways, and the more diverse source of novel pathways, will make the microbial system more resilient. A variety of molecular methods based on direct isolation and analysis of nucleic acids, proteins and lipids from environmental samples have been discovered, and they reveal structural and functional information about microbial communities. Molecular approaches such as genetic fingerprinting, metagenomics, metaproteomics, metatranscriptomics and proteogenomics are vital for discovering and characterizing the vast diversity of microbes and understanding their interactions with biotic and abiotic environmental factors. In this chapter, efforts are made to discover the possible applications of metagenomic tools for exploring the complex microbial diversity of ruminal microbes. 

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644325

14 Indigenous Livestock Resources in a Changing Climate: Indian Perspective

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

14

Indigenous Livestock Resources in a Changing Climate: Indian

Perspective

S.P.S. Ahlawat, Pushpendra Kumar,* Kush

Shrivastava and N.R. Sahoo

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India

Abstract

14.1 Introduction

Biological diversity, the variability of life on earth, exists in the form of different species and breeds within the animal kingdom. This diversity is created in the process of molecular/biochemical/metabolic reactions, and acts as a critical measure of adaptation in changing climatic conditions. Indigenous breeds have adapted to climatic variations since time immemorial, and hence have acquired unique traits that make them suitable in given agroclimatic zones; for example, the Indian cattle breeds,

Tharparkar and Sahiwal, are heat and tick resistant. Similar cases have also been observed worldwide in Asia, Africa, Europe,

Latin America, North America and the south-west Pacific region, having a total of

1144, 1300, 345, 104 and 108 breeds of major livestock species, respectively. Native breeds, namely N’Dama cattle, Red Massai sheep, etc., have developed trypanosomiasis resistance and gastrointestinal nematode tolerance by continuous natural selection.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644325

9 Carbon Footprints of Food of Animal Origin

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

9

Carbon Footprints of Food of

Animal Origin

Gerhard Flachowsky*

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Braunschweig, Germany

Abstract

Animal production contributes substantially to global greenhouse gas emissions (about

14.5%). So-called carbon footprints (CFs) consider the greenhouse gas potential of climate-relevant gases (e.g. CO2 u 1; CH4 u

23; N2O u 296), which is given in carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent g–1 or kg–1 of product or unit of edible protein. CFs may help to assess the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of food of animal origin such as milk, meat, eggs or fish, and they may contribute to sensitizing producers and consumers to a more resource-efficient and environmentally friendly production and consumption of food of animal origin and to avoiding food wastage. The highest CFs per unit edible protein are calculated for products of growing ruminants (beef and lamb), followed by milk, pork, eggs and poultry meat, with the lowest values. Discrepancies in the results of various studies are explained mainly by different system boundaries, allocation methods and computation of emissions, especially with regard to land-use changes, enteric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. A more standardized approach for CF calculations would be a very useful tool to compare CFs between production systems, regions and countries, and as an indicator for food labelling. The production of food of animal origin is a very complex process, and a selective consideration, i.e. focusing on single factors,

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644325

20 Immunization and Tannins in Livestock Enteric Methane Amelioration

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

20

Immunization and Tannins in

Livestock Enteric Methane

Amelioration

Yutaka Uyeno*

Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan

Abstract

The complexity of the rumen microbial ecosystem supports the efficient conversion of various carbohydrates to volatile fatty acids for fulfilling host energy requirement via stepwise disposal of hydrogen (H2) through the reduction of carbon dioxide

(CO2) to methane (CH4). Although, this mechanism is indispensable for rumen homeostasis, CH4 production in ruminants has attracted a great deal of attention due to its contribution to the greenhouse gas effect and global warming. Various strategies have therefore been considered for its mitigation.

Rumen methanogen targeting vaccination is a promising means of reducing CH4 emissions by decreasing the number or activity of rumen methanogens. However, trials of this strategy have provided inconsistent results, and need for further consideration of the composition, function and microbial interactions within the ecosystem. Alternatively, to establish a more efficient way for the mitigation of CH4 emission, systematic intervention in rumen microbial populations by a combination of vaccination and other chemical means may also be feasible. Although some of the CH4 abatement strategies have shown efficacy in vivo, more research is needed to make any of these approaches applicable to animal production systems. This chapter provides the background to the diversity and plasticity of functions of the rumen bacterial

See All Chapters

See All Chapters