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20: Barriers and Bridges for Sustainable Forest Management: The Role of Landscape History in Swedish Bergslagen

Kirby, K.J. CABI PDF

20 

Barriers and Bridges for Sustainable Forest Management:

The Role of Landscape History in Swedish Bergslagen

Per Angelstam,1* Kjell Andersson,1 Robert Axelsson,1

Erik Degerman,2 Marine Elbakidze,1 Per Sjölander3 and Johan Törnblom1

1

School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,

Skinnskatteberg, Sweden; 2Institute of Freshwater Research, Swedish

University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Örebro, Sweden; 3Academy

North Development Unit, Storuman, Sweden

20.1  Introduction

In the first part of the chapter we discuss the

Pan-European context for sustainable forest management (SFM) policy, and how this translates into regional and local contexts. Next, we introduce Bergslagen in southern Sweden and review its forest landscape history of over the past 2000 years. We then summarize the present barriers resulting from this long forest landscape history for different dimensions of the sustainability of landscapes as social–­ ecological systems.

We also examine how local and regional actors and stakeholders in Bergslagen support the implementation of Pan-European, European Union (EU) and Swedish policies directed towards the different dimensions of sustainable forest management. Finally, we discuss the development of integrated landscape approaches as a bridge for policy implementation in terms of place- and evidence-based collaborative learning within and among European

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11: The Importance of Veteran Trees for Saproxylic Insects

Kirby, K.J. CABI PDF

11 

The Importance of Veteran Trees for Saproxylic Insects

Juha Siitonen1* and Thomas Ranius2

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Vantaa, Finland; 2Department of Ecology,

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden

1

11.1 Introduction

Old trees – often referred to as ancient or

­veteran – have always attracted attention, but recently there has been a revival of interest in them from an ecological and conservation perspective. Ancient trees are old individuals that have clearly passed beyond maturity and often show features such as cavities or hollow trunks, bark loss over sections of the trunk and a large quantity of dead wood in the canopy. The term

‘veteran tree’ includes younger individuals that have developed similar characteristics as a result of adverse growing conditions or injury (Woodland Trust, 2008; Lonsdale, 2013).

Veteran trees are defined as being of interest biologically, culturally or aesthetically because of their age, size or condition (Read, 2000).

A large old tree has been described as an arboreal megalopolis for saproxylic species

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14: Gains and Losses in the European Mammal Fauna

Kirby, K.J. CABI PDF

14 

Gains and Losses in the European

Mammal Fauna

Robert Hearn*

Laboratorio di Archeologia e Storia Ambientale, Università degli

Studi di Genova, Genoa, Italy

14.1  Introduction

Since 1970, global vertebrate populations have declined by around 30% (McRae et al., 2012), with mammals declining by 25% (Baillie et al.,

2010). In 2013, the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List (http:// www.iucnredlist.org/) categorized 25% of the assessed extant mammal species as threatened. Nevertheless, some species are reclaiming parts of their historic ranges across Europe

(Deinet et al., 2013).

We cannot track the gains and losses of most of the animals found in European woods and forests; for example, what changes in shrew distributions might there have been over the last 10,000 years? However, we have a considerable amount of information about such changes for the larger mammals. These larger mammals are important for the functioning of forests; and apart from the trees themselves, have been the species group most directly influenced by human activities, such as hunting.

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19: Forest Management and Species Composition: A Historical Approach in Lorraine, France

Kirby, K.J. CABI PDF

19 

Forest Management and Species

Composition: A Historical Approach in Lorraine, France

Xavier Rochel*

Département de Géographie, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France

19.1  Introduction

Almost all of France’s forest ecosystems bear the mark of centuries of human activities. Some human ‘disturbances’ are obvious in the landscape, such as many archaeological remains; others, including some kinds of forest stands, are recognizable only to

­forest specialists. In some very natural-­ looking woodland, many of the marks left by human activities are so discreet as  to be almost unnoticed, and history, geography and other disciplines rely on several types of archives to understand them. 

This contribution focuses on the early modern period to the present, and aims to show how the implementation of different silvicultural systems led to important,

­e ither intentional or unintentional, chan­ ges in forest composition. We concentrate on the better documented regions of northeast France, and specifically on the Lorraine region. Here, historical research has been carried out for more than a century and a  half thanks to the establishment of the School of Forestry at Nancy in ­L orraine in 1824.

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4: Evolution of Modern Landscapes

Kirby, K.J. CABI PDF

4 Evolution of Modern LandscapesKeith J. Kirby1* and Charles Watkins2Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK;2School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK14.1  IntroductionWildwood, whatever it was like, now exists in Europe perhaps only in the most remote mountainous and boreal areas; even here, it can be affected by long-range pollution and climate change and be under threat from­logging. Sites often described as ‘primeval’, such as the Białowiez·a Forest in Poland, or FibyUrskog in Sweden, turn out to have had a more active management history than at first appears(Bradshaw and Hannon, 1992; Latałowa et al.,Chapter 17). The diverse ways in which the­extent, structure and species composition ofEurope’s forest and woodland cover have been altered by humans over the last 6000 years(Table 4.1) has also had implications for a wide range of other (non-plant) species (Bengtsson et al., 2000).4.2  The Emergence of WoodlandManagementDifferent tree species have different properties, even as firewood, and were selectively collected from the Neolithic period onward (Out, 2010).

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